SICSA Publications: Studies in Antisemitism Series
Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Demonizing the Other
Studies in Antisemitism

Series Editor Dalia Ofer

Chair, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Studies in Antisemitism brings together in one series major worldwide research on this complex phenomenon from which the student and decision-maker as well as the general public may learn. The studies cover antisemitism, ancient and modern, from a broad range of perspectives: historical, religious, political, cultural, social, psychological, and economic.

Volume 1

The Catholic Church and Antisemitism

Poland, 1933–1939

Ronald Modras

Volume 2

Russian Antisemitism, Pamyat, and the Demonology of Zionism

William Korey

Volume 3

Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France

Richard H. Weisberg

Volume 4

Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia

Edited by Robert S. Wistrich

This book is part of a series. The publisher will accept continuation orders which may be cancelled at any time, and which provide for automatic billing and shipping of each title in the series upon publication. Please write for details.

Demonizing the Other

Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia

Edited by Robert S. Wistrich


Published for the Vidal Sassoon International Center 
for the Study of Antisemitism, 
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 90-5702-497-7

ISSN 1023-6163

COVER Frankfurt Judensau, broadsheet, early eighteenth century


Every effort has been made to contact the owners of the copyright of all the works reproduced in this book but if, for any reason, any acknowledgement has been omitted, the publishers ask those concerned to contact them.


List of Illustrations vii

Foreword ix

Introduction: The Devil, The Jews, and Hatred of the “Other” 1

Robert S. Wistrich

Part I

1. Demonizing the “Other”

Harumi Befu 17

2. Why Do Stereotypes Stick?

Yaacov Schul and Henri Zukier 31

3. The Demonization of the “Other” in the Visual Arts

Ziva Amishai-Maisels 44

4. Antisemitism and Other –isms in the Greco-Roman World

Daniel R. Schwartz 73

5. Jews and Christians in the Middle Ages: Shared Myths,

Common Language

Israel J. Yuval 88

6. Jews and Christians in Medieval Muslim Thought

Hava Lazarus-Yafeh 108

7. The Transformation of Hatred: Antisemitism as a

Struggle for Group Identity

Henri Zukier 118

8. The Borrowed Identity: Neo-Pagan Reactions to the

Jewish Roots of Christianity

Shmuel Almog 131

9. Exploring the Other: The Enlightenment’s Search

for the Boundaries of Humanity

Shulamit Volkov 148

10. Otherness and Difference: The Perspective

of Gender Theory

Yael S. Feldman 168

11. Recurrent Images in French Antisemitism

in the Third Republic

Richard I. Cohen 183

12. The Critique of Judaism in Modern European Thought:

Genuine Factors and Demonic Perceptions

Otto D. Kulka 196

Part II

13. “Europe’s Inner Demons”: The “Other” as Threat

in Early Twentieth-Century European Culture

Saul Friedländer 210

14. Nazi Antisemitism: Animalization and Demonization

Philippe Burrin 223

15. When the Demon Itself Complains of Being Demonized

Simon Epstein 236

16. “All Poets are Yids”: The Voice of the “Other”

in Paul Celan

John Felstiner 243

17. The Popular Image of the Jew in Modern Poland

Yisrael Gutman 256

18. Mass Death under Communist Rule

and the Limits of “Otherness”

Steven T. Katz 266

19. The Flourishing Demon: Japan in the Role of the Jews?

Ben-Ami Shillony 293

20. Anti-Jewish Imagery in the Contemporary

Arab-Muslim World

Rivka Yadlin 309

21. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion:

New Uses of an Old Myth

Dina Porat 322

22. The Motivations and Impact of Contemporary

Holocaust Denial in Germany

Wolfgang Benz 335

23. Xenophobia and Antisemitism in the New Europe:

The Case of Germany

Robert S. Wistrich 349

Index 364

List of Illustrations

Between pages 54 and 55

Figure 1 Deidameia and Eurytion, detail of the West Pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, c. 460 B.C.E. Courtesy of the Olympia Archaeological Museum.

Figure 2 Head of a Satyr, detail from a krater from Bari, fourth century B.C.E. Courtesy of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Antiquities, National Museum, Copenhagen.

Figure 3 Kantharos in the shape of a Negro head, Black-figure head vase, c. 530 B.C.E. H:0.177m., Henry Lillie Pierce Fund, Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Figure 4 Polygnotos Painter, Maenads in Orgiastic Dance, krater,
c. 440–430 B.C.E. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Spina, Ferrara.

Figure 5 Painter of the Vanth group, Charon and the dragon, amphora, end of the fourth century B.C.E. Museo Faina, Orvieto.

Figure 6 Head of the God Pan, detail of a mosaic pavement from Genezzano, third–fourth century C.E. Courtesy of the Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.

Figure 7 Sick and afflicted souls being rescued from the devil, detail of fol. 16v of the Stuttgart Psalter, early ninth century. Courtesy of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. Cod. bibl. fol. 23.

Figure 8 The Flagellation of Christ, from Psalms 34: 15, detail of fol. 34v of the Stuttgart Psalter, early 9th century. Courtesy of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart, Cod. bibl. fol. 23.

Figure 9 Christ rescuing souls from Hell, detail of fol. 63v of the Khludov Psalter, illustrating Psalm 67:7, mid-ninth century. Courtesy of the State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Figure 10 Arrest of Christ and Jews disputing with Christ, detail of fol. 54v from the Khludov Psalter, mid-ninth century. Courtesy of the State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Figure 11 Israelites sacrificing their children to Moloch, detail of fol. 109v from the Khludov Psalter, mid-ninth century. Courtesy of the State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Figure 12 Tympanum of the Puerta de las Platerias, c. 1103, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

Figure 13 Christ delivering the Apocalypse to St. John, detail of fol. 4v of the Beatus of St. Sever, 1028–1072, Ms. Lat 8878. Courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Figure 14 Betrayal and arrest of Christ, fol. 150v from the Chichester Psalter, c. 1250. John Rylands University Library Ms. Lat. 24. Reproduced by courtesy of the Director and University Librarian, the John Rylands University Library of Manchester.

Figure 15 The Beast grabs the Witnesses before the enthroned Antichrist, fol. 17r from an English Apocalypse, c. 1245–1255, Ms. fr. 403. Courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Figure 16 Pope Alexander VI as the Devil Unmasked, woodcut with trick fold, second position, sixteenth century. © The British Museum, reprinted by permission.

Figure 17 Child Sacrifice to Mohammed, detail of fol. 185r of the Duc de Berry's Livre des Merveilles du Monde, c. 1413. Courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Ms. fr. 2810.

Figure 18 The Frankfurt Judensau, broadsheet, Frankfurt, early eighteenth century.

Figure 19 Samuel anointing David, detail of fol. 79r of the Khludov Psalter, mid-ninth century. Courtesy of the State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Figure 20 The destruction of the horns of the wicked, detail of fol. 74r of the Khludov Psalter, mid-ninth century. Courtesy of the State Historical Museum, Moscow.

Figure 21 David being anointed by Samuel and crowned by Humility, detail of fol. 6v from a mid-thirteenth century manuscript, clm. 17403. Courtesy of the Bayerische St, Munich.

Figure 22 The Exod, Moses receiving the Law and the Worship of the Golden Calf, detail of fol. 16r of Cursus Sanctae Mariae, 1215. Courtesy of the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. M.739, f.16 (det.).

Figure 23. Wantons with devil lovers, part of the archivolts of a doorway, c. 1120, Ste. Croix, Bordeaux.

Figure 24. Salome’s Dance, detail of page from the Aachen Gospels of Otto III, 983–1002. Aachen, Cathedral Treasury.

Figure 25. Hans Baldung Grien, Witches Sabbath, 1510, woodcut. Private Collection.

Figure 26. Edvard Munch, The Vampire, 1900, lithograph.

Figure 27. The Monstrous Races, woodcut illustration from C. van Megenberg, Buch der Natur, Germany, 1475, fol. 284v.

Figure 28. Wild Man, detail of fol. 70 from the Luttrell Psalter 1335. MS ADD 42130. By permission of The British Library, London.


The original idea for this book came from Mr. Felix Posen — a longstanding supporter and friend of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He had encountered in Japan and Korea a mystifyingly positive response to the antisemitic stereotype of the Jew found in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which his Asian business colleagues perceived as praising the Jews. Their acquaintance with Jews was limited, and they knew little of Jewish history, including the difficult relationship between Jews and Christians in Medieval and modern Europe, or about antisemitism in general. It became apparent that in order to make antisemitism more comprehensible, it was necessary to suggest other types of demonization more familiar to their own societies, such as the attitude of the Japanese towards Koreans.

It was decided to hold an international conference in order to explore the comparative dimension of antisemitism. Professor Dov Kulka of the Hebrew University and Academic Advisor for the Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism of the Center served as chair of the organizing committee of the conference. Held at the Hebrew University in June 1995, the intention was to better understand the contexts in which the negative image of the outsider was developed, and how this could lead to demonization of the “other.” Antisemitism we believe to be the foremost example of this phenomenon which has acquired an all too tragic significance in this century.

The wealth of knowledge and insight in this book (meticulously and skilfully edited by Robert Wistrich) is a testimony to the importance of a comparative scientific endeavor, and this short foreword hardly does justice to it. This book truly provides an indispensable tool for understanding the dynamics of demonization — the first step before any change in attitudes can be intelligently implemented. Let us hope that the combined efforts of the scholars who have presented their findings here in this volume, will have the impact they deserve in future policy and action.

Yehuda Bauer

Dalia Ofer

The Vidal Sassoon International Center

for the Study of Antisemitism

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Copyright ©,2005 , The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All Rights Reserved.