Holocaust Remembrance

A Selected Bibliography

prepared by

The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

for

Remembering for the Future 2000
An International Conference
convened in Oxford and London
16-23 July 2000
 

Founded in 1982, The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA) is an interdisciplinary research center dedicated to an independent, nonpolitical approach to the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge necessary for understanding the phenomenon of antisemitism.

The Center engages in research on antisemitism through the ages, focusing on relations between Jews and non-Jews, particularly in situations of tension and crisis.
 

The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism

Academic Committee Chairman of the Bibliographic Project: Otto Dov Kulka

Editor-in-Chief: Susan S. Cohen
Editor, Retrospective Bibliography: Sylviane Stampfer

Abstractors:
Marian Assaf, Alexander Avram, Esther Benzimra, Leah Cohen, Yisrael (Elliot) Cohen, Ilana Dana, Ruth Engelberg, Louise Fischer, Lily Fogel, Mordechai Gess, Esther Green, Sophie R. Hankes, Robert E. Kaplan, Daniel Romanovsky, Miryam Ronn, Tamar Stern, Sara Toledano, Hanna Volovici, Leon Volovici, Renate Wolfson, Manuel Zkorenblut
 
 

Contents
 

Preface

Holocaust: commemoration and memorials

Holocaust: memory and meaning

Holocaust: study and teaching

Author Index
 

Preface
 

This selected list from the ongoing annotated database of the Felix Posen Bibliographic Project has been expressly prepared for the International Conference Remembering for the Future 2000, convened in Oxford and London, 16-23 July 2000.

The entries were retrieved by the keywords "Holocaust: commemoration and memorials," "Holocaust: memory and meaning," and "Holocaust: study and teaching" and a selection was made from 1150 items retrieved.

 database of publications from 1984 to the present, plus a retrospective database listing material from 1983 and back (currently to 1965). The goal of the project is to build a comprehensive database of all published writings about antisemitism and the Holocaust.

The databases list books, articles, dissertations and MA theses published in many countries and languages. At present there are listed ca. 22,000 items in the ongoing and ca. 8,840 items in the retrospective bibliography. Most of the material is gathered from the holdings of the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. The annotations, written in English by the project's staff of abstractors, reflect the views of the authors of the works and not of the abstractors.

The database is part of the Israel Universities Library Network (ALEPH) and can be accessed in Israel and abroad via Internet or Telnet.

Via Internet the URL (internet address) is

http://sicsa.huji.ac.il/

Via Telnet, the address is

har2.huji.ac.il
username: SICSA  (no password needed)

Some works published between 1996-2000 have not yet been edited and were therefore not included here. The section Holocaust: memory and meaning does not include post-Holocaust theology, which is a separate subject. Some of the items have been assigned two or all three of the subject categories in this booklet; however, they are listed here in only one subject division. Diacritical marks were not inserted here, and umlauts were transposed to ae, oe, ue.

Jerusalem, June 2000
Susan S. Cohen
Rosalind N. Arzt
 
 
 

Holocaust: Commemoration and Memorials
 

Bartov, Omer: Chambers of Horror: Holocaust Museums in Israel and the United States. Israel Studies 2, 2 (Fall 1997) 66-87.

Describes three Holocaust museums: Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC, and the Beit Hashoah ? Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles. Examines the location, conception, and representation of the Holocaust in each one. Yad Vashem has a clearly Zionist message; it leaves little room for non-Jewish victims of Nazism and avoids controversial issues. The USHMM could, but did not choose to universalize the Holocaust; the artifacts exposed in the museum fail to represent all the horror of the Nazi genocide, and the most powerful media used are the documentaries shown on video monitors. The message of Beit Hashoah calls for tolerance and elimination of prejudice, but it over-uses modern means of education and relies on emotions rather than the intellect of the visitors. Plans are underway to rebuild Yad Vashem as a modern museum and research center. DR

Baumann, Leonie et al., eds.: Der Wettbewerb fuer das "Denkmal fuer die ermordeten Juden Europas": Eine Streitschrift. Berlin: Verlag der Kunst; Neue Gesellschaft fuer Bildende Kunst, 1995. 196 pp.

A collection of 35 essays by artists, art historians, writers, journalists, historians of the Holocaust, and directors of other Holocaust memorials, criticizing the conception of the planned central Holocaust monument in Berlin. Many of the authors argue that the monument is, both in form and in function, a gigantic gravestone, under which German guilt for the Holocaust is securely buried; they demand instead a site that transmits knowledge and enters into dialogue with the beholder. Also traces the history of the controversy around the monument since it was first proposed in 1988, and reprints excerpts from the guidelines for the contestants. RW

Berenbaum, Michael: The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993. 240 pp.

Describes the historical facts of the Holocaust as they are displayed in the museum in Washington, including Nazi ideology and propaganda, discriminatory legislation and racism, immigration restrictions, pogroms (e. g. "Kristallnacht"), concentration and extermination camps, and Jewish resistance, as well as bystanders' reactions to the Holocaust. States that the museum is a memorial to all the victims of Nazism, Jews in the first place, but also Gypsies, "asocial" elements, political and religious dissidents, Soviet POWs, and slave laborers of all nationalities. AA

Berger, Alan L.: Domesticating the Holocaust. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 7, 1 (1993) 134-153.

Based on a lecture delivered at the Melbourne Jewish Holocaust Center in July 1992. Discusses commemoration of the Holocaust in the U.S. ? in the arts, in popular discourse, and in museums. Includes suggestions concerning appropriate ways for study and teaching of the Holocaust. Emphasizes the need for remembrance rituals (such as pilgrimage to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum), for asking questions concerning the Holocaust rather than accepting official explanations, and for taking part in the act of witnessing by telling and retelling what happened, both to the Jewish people and to the world. LFo

Berman, Judith: Australian Representation of the Holocaust: Jewish Holocaust Museums in Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney, 1984-1996. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 13, 2 (Fall 1999) 200-221.

Examines the exhibitions and accompanying narrative at the three Holocaust museums in Australia ? the Jewish Holocaust Museum in Melbourne (opened in 1984), the Holocaust Institute of Western Australia (1990), and the Sydney Jewish Museum (1992). These museums were established by Holocaust survivors and financed by private Jewish funds, thus they do not serve a goal of "Australianization" of the Holocaust, in contrast to the Holocaust museums in the USA and Israel. The museums in Australia present neither a humanist narrative, as does the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, nor a Zionist narrative, as does Yad Vashem. They were established primarily to educate the broader Australian public about the Holocaust, to show "how it really was." This task is all the more vital given the growing Holocaust denial in Australia. Criticizes, also, some shortcomings in the museums' narratives. DR
 

[Bishvil ha-Zikaron 12 (Mar 1996).] (in Hebrew)

[This issue is dedicated to memory of the Holocaust and its commemoration. Contents: [Ofer, Dalia: Israel and the Holocaust: The Shaping of the Memory in the First Decade (4-8); Tydor Baumel, Judith: Commemoration of Women in Holocaust Memorials in the State of Israel (9-13); Brog, Mooli: On the History of the Representation of the Holocaust and Heroism at Yad Vashem (14-17); Adler, Shimon: To Remember or to Know ? Holocaust Remembrance Day at Yad Vashem (18-21); Jacobs, Edward: The "Moriah" Memorial: A Link with Children in the Holocaust [On a project at the Moriah Jewish day school in Englewood-Teaneck, New Jersey.] (21-25).] LFo

Bradlow, Edna; Hoff, Penelope: The Hanover Monument: A Unique Memorial to a Centuries-Old Community that Virtually Disappeared. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 13 (1999) 117-130.

On 15 December 1991, exactly 50 years after the first deportation train left Hannover taking its Jews to ghettos and camps in the East, a group of Hannover citizens, mainly Christian, mooted the idea of erecting a memorial naming the victims. The memorial, designed by Michelangelo Pisteletto from Turin, was unveiled on 10 October 1994. Relates the history of the Hannover Jewish community, dwelling on the rise of racial antisemitism in pre-Nazi Germany, Nazi persecution of Jews in Hannover, and the "Kristallnacht" pogrom. In 1941-42 the last 1,882 Jews of Hannover were deported ? first to the ghetto of Riga, then to Poland. DR
 

[Brog, Mooli: Cherished in the Walls of Memory: The Warsaw Ghetto Monument as a Symbol of "the Holocaust and Heroism," in Poland and in Israel. Alpayim 14 (1997) 148-173.] (in Hebrew)

Relates the history of the Warsaw Ghetto Monument, sculptured by Natan Rapoport and unveiled in Warsaw in 1948, and its recasting in Israel in 1975 (at Yad Vashem). Describes differences in the two monuments, differences which were intended to evoke different ideas in different viewers and in different cultural contexts. The monument in Poland has become not just a memorial to the Jewish fighters; it is recognized as a national Polish memorial. The setting up of the monument in Israel was delayed by ideological disputes regarding the appropriate symbols for integration into the collective memory, which related sacrifice and heroism to the struggle for survival in Eretz Israel, and not to survival in the diaspora. Social and conceptual changes brought on by the wars of 1967 and 1973 generated appreciation of the ghetto fighters, thereby allowing their integration into the collective memory and the adoption of the monument as a cultural symbol. Includes a biographical sketch of Natan Rapoport. LFo

Brug, W.A.: Hun naam leeft voort...! Oorlogsslachtoffers verleenden hun naam aan straten en gebouwen [Their Name Lives on...! War Victims Grant Their Names to Streets and Buildings]. Alphen aan den Rijn: Repro Holland, 1989. 247 pp.

An alphabetical survey of streets and buildings in all the villages and towns in the Netherlands named after persons who were active in resistance during the German occupation of the Netherlands. Each name is accompanied by an account of the person's activities. Many refer to Jews who were active in the resistance, Jews who experienced hiding and deportation, or non-Jews who helped in rescue activities. SRH

Brumlik, Micha; Kunik, Petra, eds.: Reichspogromnacht: Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung aus juedischer Sicht. 2nd ed. Frankfurt a.M.: Brandes und Apsel, 1988. 123 pp.

A collection of articles, some published previously, by Jews now living in East and West Germany on the attitudes of Jews and Germans to commemoration of the Holocaust. Partial contents: Kugelmann, Cilly: Die gespaltene Erinnerung: Zur Genese von Gedenktagen an den Holocaust (11-17); Carlebach, Emil: "Reichskristallnacht" (21-26); Senger, Valentin: Der 9. November 1946 (34-36); Korn, Salomon: Der Boerneplatz in Frankfurt a.M.: Die Moral des Ortes (79-93); Kiesel, Doron: Geschichtsmuster: Zum Konflikt um den Boerneplatz (95-100); Kunik, Petra: Juedisches Leben in den Tagen der Boerneplatzbesetzung (101-107); Brumlik, Micha: Trauer und Solidaritaet: Zu einer Theorie oeffentlichen Gedenkens (111-119). RW

Bujak, Adam, photographer: Auschwitz Birkenau: "Eine Erinnerung die brennt, aber sich niemals verzehrt". Freiburg: Herder, 1989. 118 pp.

Consists mainly of photographs of the camp as the visitor sees it today, and of exhibits in the camp museum, interspersed with the following articles: Wiesel, Elie: Wiederbegegnung mit Auschwitz (5-8); Lustiger, Jean-Marie: Es ist unsere Pflicht, zu berichten (27-32); Suessmuth, Rita: An Auschwitz fuehrt kein Weg vorbei (57-64); Bartoszewski, Wladyslaw: Erlittene Geschichte und unsere Zukunft (69-84). RW

Bunzl, Matti: On the Politics and Semantics of Austrian Memory: Vienna's Monument against War and Fascism. History & Memory 7, 2 (Fall-Win 1996) 7-40.

Based on papers presented at the Anthropology of Europe Workshop at the University of Chicago and the Conference of the Council for European Studies held in Chicago in 1994. Relates the history of the erection of sculptor Alfred Hrdlicka's Monument against War and Fascism in the Albertinaplatz in Vienna in 1988. In 1983, Hrdlicka's project was approved unanimously by the city council. But after the Waldheim scandal in the mid-1980s, many parties opposed it because the conception of the monument challenged the Second Republic's foundation myth, that between 1938-45 Austria was a victim of Nazism. The monument consists of four sculptural pieces. One of them is the figure of a Jew washing the street, which reminds Austrians that the Holocaust began in Vienna, with the tacit approval of the population. The monument, however, also discomfited Austrian Jews: since it neglected postwar discrimination against Jews in Austria and immortalized the public humiliation of Viennese Jewry in 1938, it could intensify anti-Jewish sentiments. DR

Campanini-Fleer, C. Miriam: Holocaust Memorials: The Politics of Perception. Tradition 28, 2 (Win 1994) 19-33.

Reflects on how Holocaust memorials are perceived by the American public, both Jews and non-Jews (e.g. the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington), and by Jewish tradition. Holocaust memorials pose a series of questions: whether a memorial may be erected to commemorate not a victory, or heroism, but a defeat and the victims; what such a memorial can say to non-Jewish Americans and whether the Holocaust, in its exposition, may be "Americanized" or generalized; whether Jewish tradition allows for memorials with artifacts; and whether there is a danger in substituting the memory of the Holocaust for religion and in presenting the Jewish people as an abstract symbol of victimization. DR

Charlesworth, Andrew: Contesting Places of Memory: The Case of Auschwitz. Environment and Planning. D: Society and Space 12, 5 (Oct 1994) 579-593.

Shows how first the Polish communist authorities, and then the Catholic leadership, both in Poland and abroad, have attempted to de-Judaize Auschwitz. Before 1970 the authorities tried to Polonize the memorial site; after 1970 the Church, including Pope John Paul II, tried to Catholicize it ? to turn the commonly recognized symbol of the Holocaust into a symbol of Polish Catholic martyrdom. States that the Church and the Pope have long understood the importance of successful contestation over symbolic spaces, contestations that symbolize the very heart of spiritual struggle. A Catholicized Auschwitz would stand as a symbol for Poland's role in Catholicizing Europe. DR

Couture, Andrea M.: Terezin: Art, Propaganda and Memory. Dimensions 7, 1 (1993) 26-29.

Describes the recent establishment of the Terezin Ghetto Museum, and the exhibit "Seeing through `Paradise': Artists and the Terezin Concentration Camp" (1991) organized by the Massachusetts College of Art. Relates briefly the history of the ghetto-transit camp, and the role of interned artists put to use by the SS leaders to establish the myth of a "model camp." The quality of the art work is impressive, considering the circumstances under which they had to work. Most of the artists perished in the Holocaust. SSC

Da Silva, Teresien; Stam, Dineke: Sporen van de oorlog: Ooggetuigen over plaatsen in Nederland, 1940-1945 [Traces of the War: Eyewitnesses on Sites in the Netherlands, 1940-1945]. Amsterdam: SDU; Anne Frank Stichting, 1989. 205 pp.

Based on oral history, memoirs, correspondence, and archival research, presents a collection of personal accounts describing experiences related to houses, schools, public buildings, or railroad tracks in the provinces of the Netherlands during World War II. Focuses on the themes of persecution of the Jews, resistance activities (e.g. assistance to Jews), and daily life. Includes many references to houses and even woods where Jews were in hiding, Jewish refugees, the illegal press, raids, the camps Amersfoort, Vledder, Westerbork, Erika, the Jewish youth work village Wieringermeer, the Jewish psychiatric hospital Het Apeldoornsche Bosch, and the deportations. Includes pictures of these places and persons during the period 1940-45 and their present status as silent memorials. SRH

Dachauer Hefte 11 (1995).

This issue is entitled "Orte der Erinnerung, 1945 bis 1995." Partial contents: Benz, Wolfgang: Braucht Deutschland ein Holocaust Museum? Gedenkstaetten und oeffentliche Erinnerung (3-10); Langbein, Hermann: Zur Funktion der KZ-Gedenkstaetten: Plaedoyer eines Ueberlebenden (11-18); Endlich, Stefanie: Gelenkte Erinnerung? Mahnmale im Land Brandenburg (32-49); Krakowski, Shmuel: Geschichte und Bedeutung des Yad Vashem Archivs (56-65); Blodig, Vojtech: Die Gedenkstaette Theresienstadt gestern und heute (102-108); Lichtenstein, Heiner: Wie restauriert man Gaskammern? [On the German organization Wider das Vergessen.] (109-113); Distel, Barbara: Ueberleben: Erinnern nach halben Jahrhundert (160-166). RW

Directory of Holocaust-Related Activity in Britain. London: Holocaust Educational Trust, 1988. 14 pp.

The Holocaust Educational Trust was established in 1988 in order to perpetuate the memory of the Holocaust by educating Jews and non-Jews in Britain. Describes the Trust's activities and lists other Jewish organizations and groups engaged in Holocaust commemoration. SSC

Draper, Paula Jean: Holocaust Education and Memorial Centre. Willowdale, Ont.: Holocaust Education and Memorial Centre, [1985?]. [59] pp.

Consists of reproductions from 28 resource panels at the Centre (opened in September 1985) ? mainly photographs depicting aspects of the Holocaust, with accompanying text. Includes two panels on antisemitism from ancient times through the 19th century. SSC

Dratwa, Daniel: Le genocide et ses memoires en Belgique: Premiere approche. Le Monde Juif 150 (Jan-Apr 1994) 85-108.

Surveys the activities of Jewish organizations in Belgium from 1945 (e.g. L'Aide aux Israelites Victimes de la Guerre (AIVG), and le Conseil des Associations Juives de Belgique) in the reconstruction of the Jewish communities after the war. Organizations of former fighters ? the Federation Nationale des Anciens Combattants et Resistants Armes Juifs de Belgique, Union des Anciens Resistants Juifs de Belgique, and many others ? were and are active in commemorating the Holocaust. Describes some of their projects, like the construction of monuments (e.g. in the cemetery of Etterbeck, in Malines) and especially Le Memorial National aux Martyrs Juifs de Belgique, inaugurated in 1970, which became the main site for official commemorations of the genocide. HV

Eichmann, Bernd: Versteinert, verharmlost, vergessen: KZ-Gedenkstaetten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Frankfurt a.M.: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1985. 221 pp.

A survey of places in present-day West Germany where Nazi concentration and forced-labor camps were situated or where other Nazi atrocities occurred. Relates the history of each site, the postwar investigations of the atrocities, and the trials, if any, of those responsible. Notes that memorials were established on the initiative of survivors or of German civic `groups willing to take responsibility for the past, often in opposition to most of the local community; in some cases they were vandalized by neo-Nazis. Other sites have been converted to other uses without mention of the past. RW

Endlich, Stefanie, ed.: Brandenburgische Gedenkstaetten fuer die Verfolgten des NS-Regimes: Perspektiven, Kontroversen und internationale Vergleiche. Berlin: Hentrich, 1992. 270 pp.  On title-page also: Beitraege des internationalen Gedenkstaetten-Colloquiums in Potsdam am 8. und 9. Maerz 1992, und Empfehlungen der Expertenkommission zur Neukonzeption der brandenburgischen Gedenkstaetten vom Januar 1992.

Partial contents: Milton, Sybil H.: Eine angemessene Erinnerung? (121-125); Yaron, Michael: Ein Blick auf Brandenburg aus Israel (126-130); Kranz, Tomasz: Die Gedenkstaette Majdanek: Kontinuitaet im Wandel (131-134); Lutz, Thomas: Ueberlegungen zur Bildungsarbeit in Gedenkstaetten fuer die Opfer des NS-Regimes (141-147); Diner, Dan: Nach-Denken ueber Gedenkstaettenpolitik (151-155); Empfehlungen zur Neukonzeption der brandenburgischen Gedenkstaetten, Januar 1992 (215-265). RW

Farber, Gennadii; Frenkel, Aleksandr, eds.: Formula skorbi [The Formula of Mourning]. Sankt-Peterburg: Gruppa Issledovaniya Katastrofy, 1991. 36 pp.

A collection of materials on the dedication of the monument "The Formula of Mourning," by the sculptor Vadim Sidur, commemorating the Jews murdered by the Nazis in Pushkin, near St. Petersburg. Partial contents: Frenkel, Aleksandr; Kolton, Leonid: Muzhestvo pomnit [The Courage to Remember. On the policy of suppression of Holocaust commemoration in the USSR.] (3-11); Farber, Gennadii: Poyedem v Tsarskoye Selo [Let's Go to Tsarskoye Selo. On the Nazis' murder of Jews in Pushkin in 1941.] (14-17); Voyevodskii, Konstantin: Neskolko shtrikhov k Formule Skorbi [Some Lines on The Formula of Mourning] (19-23). DR

Farmer, Sarah: Symbols That Face Two Ways: Commemorating the Victims of Nazism and Stalinism at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen. Representations 49 (Win 1995) 97-119.

After the reunification of Germany in 1990, a new exposition was added to the museums on the sites of the Nazi concentration camps Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen ? the exhibition commemorating the victims of Stalinist terror, some of whom were prisoners of the Soviet "special camps" at these sites. Voices were raised against this initiative, which tends to equate the victims of Nazism (including Jews, Gypsies, the mentally handicapped, etc.) with the German victims of the communist regime, and blurs the distinction between victims and perpetrators. Another tendency which has emerged in former East Germany is to compare West German discrimination against East Germans, and especially former agents of the secret service (Stasi), with the victimization of Jews in Nazi Germany. A memorial, the "Neue Wache," is under reconstruction in Berlin, which tends to equally commemorate the "fallen, murdered, gassed, died, missing." DR
 

[Feldman, Jackie: "Above the Death Pits and beneath the Flag of the State of Israel Hoisted on High": The Israeli Youth Delegations to Poland in the Wake of the Holocaust and Their Significance. Yalkut Moreshet 66 (Oct 1998) 81-104.] (in Hebrew)

Discusses educational and sociological aspects of the organized visits of Israeli youth to Holocaust sites in Poland, sponsored by the Israeli Ministry of Education since 1988. The ministry is also involved in the organization and planning of the educational and ceremonial aspects of these visits. Views the state-organized programs as a Zionist response to the Holocaust, dedicated to commemoration of those who died and to the transmission of communal memory. Identification of the participants (high-school age Israelis) with the Holocaust survivors who accompany the groups turns the young people themselves into witnesses who then internalize the Holocaust memory. LFo

Fisher, Adam: An Everlasting Name: A Service for Remembering the Shoah. West Orange, NJ: Behrman House, 1991. 64 pp.

Contains three parts: a liberal evening and morning service, a selection of readings (including excerpts from memoirs, by Jews and Righteous Gentiles, and poems), and concluding prayers. SSC

Fisher, Eugene Joseph; Klenicki, Leon: From Desolation to Hope: An Interreligious Holocaust Memorial Service. Rev. ed. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications; New York: Stimulus Foundation, 1990. 26 pp.  First published in 1983.

The text of a liturgical service for joint Christian-Jewish commemoration of the Holocaust for use in a parish or synagogue setting. SSC

Freed, James Ingo: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: A Dialogue with Memory. Curator 38, 2 (June 1995) 95-110.

Based on a talk given at the Jerusalem Seminar in Architecture, November 1994. Freed, the architect of the Museum, relates his personal experiences in designing the building and describes the architecture, both external and internal, including the considerations that went into the final shape of the exhibition halls. Freed was born in 1930 in Essen, Germany, and fled the country in 1939. SSC

Freed, James Ingo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. London: Phaidon Press, 1995. 60 pp.

Contains a description, by the architect, of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ? its background (the Holocaust), its history, and architecture ? accompanied by photographs and technical drawings. SSC

Friedlaender, Saul: Die Shoah als Element in der Konstruktion israelischer Erinnerung. Babylon 2 (1987) 10-22.

Analyzes the making of the Israeli collective memory of the Holocaust from individual initiatives, their institutionalization, and the creation of symbolic structures convergent with traditional Jewish patterns. The commemoration of the Holocaust became part of a series of remembrance of historical catastrophes of the Jewish people, such as the 10th of Teveth and the 9th of Av, and was placed on the mythical plane of catastrophe and redemption. Gradually, the stress shifted from martyrdom to heroism and resurrection. The Holocaust, as it is evoked at the Yad Vashem memorial, came to be perceived as the fundamental component of the legitimacy of the State of Israel. Notes, in the political context, a mythical interpretation of the Holocaust by the nationalist Right in Israel, stressing the loneliness of the Jews facing the Arab danger and extermination, as opposed to a coherent interpretation by the liberal Left warning against genocide in general and against Israeli malpractices against Palestinians. AA

Friedman, Michelle A.: The Meaning of the Yellow Star: The Holocaust and Jewish Identity. Response 64 (Sum 1995) 24-31.

Discusses the 1994 Holocaust Memorial Week at the Bryn Mawr college campus in Pennsylvania, including activities of reenactment (wearing of the yellow star by students) and retelling (lectures and films). Suggests possible reasons for the American Jewish focus on the Holocaust and possible explanations of why the Jewish organizers of Bryn Mawr's Holocaust Week made the choices they did. Suggests that their purpose may have been concerned not so much with mourning and memorializing as with establishing a Jewish identity on a campus in which Jews constitute an almost invisible minority. REK

Gatti, Stephane; Seonnet, Michel: Un travail de memoire: A propos d'un travail theatral... "Sept villes. Un texte. Le chant d'amour des alphabets d'Auschwitz" d'Armand Gatti. Le Monde Juif 149 (Sept-Dec 1993) 39-48.

Describes preparations for the commemoration spectacle of the Vel d'Hiv roundup (1942) on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, based on the play by Armand Gatti, "Le chant d'amour des alphabets d'Auschwitz." Deals with the difficulties in preparing such a show, which took place in Drancy and involved many participants. HV

Geisert, Helmut et al., eds.: Gedenken und Denkmal: Entwuerfe zur Erinnerung an die Deportation und Vernichtung der juedischen Bevoelkerung Berlins. Berlin (West): Berlinische Galerie, 1988. 124 pp.

The catalogue of an exhibition held at the Berlinische Galerie, November 1988-January 1989. Pp. 65-113 contain photographs of entries to two competitions for monuments to commemorate the deportation of the Jews of Berlin, as well as existing monuments commemorating the Holocaust and the former Jewish community. The accompanying articles by Jochen Spielmann and Mario Offenberg (pp. 7-63) discuss the ambivalence of Germans to these memorials (which are repeatedly targets of vandalism) and in general to reminders of German crimes and their victims. RW

Hahne, Bernd, ed.: Die Rueckriem-Stelen: Zur Erinnerung an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus in Dueren. Dueren: Hahne & Schloemer, 1991. 80 pp.  At head of title-page: Duerener Geschichtswerkstatt.

Ten steles (monuments), designed by Ulrich Rueckriem, were erected in Dueren and its vicinity in 1988-90 to commemorate the victims of Nazism. Five of them are dedicated, wholly or partially, to Jewish victims. Pp. 7-14, on the stele at Schuetzenstrasse, contain a concise survey of Nazi measures against the Jews of Dueren, dwelling especially on the "Kristallnacht" pogrom. Pp. 25-32, on the stele at the Gerstenmuehle, relate that in 1938-42 the barley mill served as a transitional internment camp for the Jews. Pp. 33-38, on the stele at the Amtsgericht (district court), describe judicial cases against Jews who transgressed the Nazi racial laws. Pp. 68-70 describe the "Kristallnacht" pogrom in Guerzenich near Dueren, and pp. 71-76 discuss the Jews of Lendersdorf (a predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Dueren). DR

Hartmann, Erich: In the Camps. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. 111 pp.

An album of photographs of concentration camp sites taken by Hartmann during his trip to several European countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Netherlands, France) in winter 1993-94. Hartmann was born in Germany in 1922 and emigrated to the USA in 1938. Pp. 97-103 contain an afterword by Hartmann describing his life and the background to the production of this album. DR

Hoffmann-Curtius, Kathrin: Memorials for the Dachau Concentration Camp. Oxford Art Journal 21, 2 (1998) 21-44.

Discusses the images of Dachau since the beginning of the Nazi era and the memorials constructed there since the end of World War II. The early postwar memorials tended to employ terms and styles reminiscent of the Nazi era, and Christian themes and symbols with no reference to Jewish victimization. Observes a pattern of open and concealed contempt for Jewish victims in the postwar memorials. After 1960, Dachau's prisoners' barracks were torn down (thereby minimizing the camp's relics) to make way for the conversion of the camp into one large memorial. Describes the Jewish memorial monument (erected by the Jewish community of Bavaria) which is reminiscent of the "death ramp" leading to the gas chamber. REK

Hoffmann, Detlef, ed.: Das Gedaechtnis der Dinge: KZ-Relikte und KZ-Denkmaeler, 1945-1995. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1998. 351 pp. (Wissenschaftliche Reihe des Fritz-Bauer-Instituts, 4).

Deals with the relics of the German concentration and extermination camps in Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Neuengamme, and in southern France, where visitors can imagine the events which occurred in these places from the remaining gates, fences, ramps, and barracks. Claims, however, that only monuments can ensure the event's significance for the future. Contents: Hoffmann, Detlef: Das Gedaechtnis der Dinge (6-35); Id.: Dachau (36-91); Knigge, Volkhard: Buchenwald (92-173); Wrocklage, Ute: Neuengamme (174-205); Hoffmann, Detlef; Knigge, Volkhard: Die suedfranzoesischen Lager (206-223); Reuber, Werner: Bilder von den suedfranzoesischen Lagern (224-237); Rensinghoff, Ines: Auschwitz-Stammlager ? Das Tor "Arbeit macht frei" (240-265); Menzel, Katharina: Auschwitz-Birkenau ? Zaunpfaehle (266-277); Wrocklage, Ute: Auschwitz-Birkenau ? Die Rampe (278-309); Brink, Cornelia: Die Gedenkstaette Auschwitz in bundesdeutschen Medien zwischen 1989 und 1993 (310-323); Naumann, Klaus: Auschwitz im Gedaechtnisraum der Presse 1995 (324-329); Ruesen, Joern: Ueber den Umgang mit den Orten des Schreckens: Ueberlegungen zur Symbolisierung des Holocaust (330-343). ID

Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Day. Jerusalem: Israel Information Center, 1996. 45 pp.

A collection of materials for the commemoration of Yom Hashoah. Contains texts of prayers, verses, songs, excerpts of survivors' memoirs, eyewitnesses' recollections, excerpts from Anne Frank's diary and from Gideon Hausner's opening speech at the Eichmann trial. Pp. 38-45, "Milestones in Holocaust History," contain a brief sketch of the history of the Holocaust. Includes photographs. DR

Hyndrakova, Anna; Lorencova, Anna: Systematic Collection of Memories Organized by the Jewish Museum in Prague. Judaica Bohemiae 28, 1-2 (1992) 53-63; 29, 1-2 (1993) 67-75; 30-31 [1994-1995] (1996) 129-138; 33 [1997] (1998) 97-108.

Describes the Museum's project, established in 1990, to record interviews with Jewish survivors of the Holocaust as well as with eyewitnesses and Czechs who aided Jews. To date (1998), 500 recordings have been listed, giving the names of the interviewees and a short description (in English) of the contents of each interview. RW

Im Gedenken der Opfer der faschistischen Pogromnacht vom 9. November 1938: Begegnung Erich Honeckers mit juedischen Buergern im Staatsrat. Dresden: Staatsrat und Volkskammer der DDR, 1988. 40 pp.  Also published in English and French ("In Remembrance of the Victims..." and "En hommage aux victimes...").

Includes speeches by Erich Honecker and other officials of the DDR, and by the representatives of the Jewish communities, held at a special session of the People's Chamber on 9 November 1988. The speakers condemned the crimes committed by the Nazi regime and praised the DDR for having abolished fascism and antisemitism. MR

Industrie, Behoerden und Konzentrationslager 1938-1945: In Erinnerung an Neuengamme ? Reaktionen 1988-1989. 5th ed. Hamburg: Hamburger Stiftung zur Foerderung von Wissenschaft und Kultur, 1990. Not paginated (ca. 150 pp.).  On cover also: Informationsmaterial der Initiative "Ueber die Zukunft der Gedenkstaette Neuengamme." First published in 1989.

Presents the correspondence of Jan Philipp Reemtsma, on behalf of a committee for the establishment of a memorial and study center at the site of the Neuengamme concentration camp, with German firms (or their successors) who exploited slave labor from the camp and its satellites. For each firm, describes briefly the number and source of laborers employed, living and working conditions, and sometimes their subsequent fate; occasionally adds brief memoirs by survivors. In five cases, specifies that the workers were Jews; in others, mentions only the country of origin. RW

Jacobs, Edward: Moriah: A Link with Children of the Holocaust. Legacy 1, 2 (Sum 1997) 27-30.  Appeared in Hebrew in "Bishvil ha-Zikaron" 12 (1996).

Discusses the difficulties of commemorating the Holocaust, relating to a memorial project at the Moriah elementary school in Englewood, New Jersey, begun in 1992. The memorial, designed by Jacobs, attempts to connect past, present, and future. Jacobs concentrates on three ideas: to convey the fullness of Jewish life before the Holocaust as well as the loss, to relate to the children of the school on their level, and to link the children to those who were killed in the Holocaust. The memorial, situated in the school courtyard as well as at the main entrance, consists of over 50 sculptures of various sizes made from Jerusalem stone, each one hollowed out and containing a cast bronze chime. Relates the reaction of one child, who feels that the Jerusalem stone represents the future and the chimes represent the souls of the murdered children which are still alive. RE

Jankowski, Stanislaw M.: Memory: The New Monuments Commemorating the Struggle and Martyrdom of the Jews of Warsaw. Polin 5 (1990) 50-56.

Describes memorials constructed between 1985-88: the Memorial Route which begins at the Monument to the Heroes of the Ghetto and ends in the Wall Monument of the Umschlagplatz. Mentions the initiators and execution of the project, describing constructional details and quoting the inscriptions on the monuments. Twelve pages of photographs of the monuments are appended. HV

Kaufmann, Francine: Un rituel de la memoire: "Le jour de la Shoa" dans les medias israeliens: L'exemple de 1992. Pardes 18 (1993) 48-65.

Describes the ways in which Yom Hashoah (Holocaust Day) is commemorated in Israel. Mentions debates on the subject since the 1950s. Presents and analyzes radio and television programs broadcast on this day in 1992 as an example of coping with the issue of the memory of the Holocaust in present-day Israel. HV

Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938: A Resource Book and Program Guide. Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1988. 42 pp.

A guidebook for communities wishing to commemorate "Kristallnacht," the organized anti-Jewish pogrom in Germany and Austria which represented a major transition in Nazi policy. Includes a memorial program, a fact sheet, facsimiles of documents, eyewitness and newspaper reports, guidelines for discussion, and a bibliography (pp. 36-39). AA

Kuperstein, Isaiah, ed.: Directory of Holocaust Institutions. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council, 1988. 70 pp.  First published in 1985.

Lists 98 institutions and organizations in the USA and Canada which provide services, assemble resources, and conduct programs on the Holocaust ? museums, libraries, archives, research institutes, resource centers, and memorials. Information given includes: address, purpose, activities, staff, collections, days open, and publications. SSC

Lehrke, Gisela: Gedenkstaetten fuer Opfer des Nationalsozialismus: Historisch-politische Bildung an Orten des Widerstands und der Verfolgung. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1988. 357 pp.

A study of the didactic function of commemoration as part of historical-political education in Germany. Focuses on the importance for German youth of visits to memorials for the victims of Nazism ? e.g. concentration camps, synagogues, exhibitions on the persecution of Jews, and participation in "anti-fascist tours" of towns dealing with local history during 1933-45. Ch. 4 (pp. 78-212) describes the history of the concentration camps in Germany (Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Neuengamme, etc.), the history and persecution of the Jews of Essen, and some Holocaust memorials. SRH

Linenthal, Edward Tabor: Preserving Memory: The Struggle to Create America's Holocaust Museum. New York: Viking, 1995. xiv, 336 pp.

A history of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The decision to establish the Holocaust memorial was taken by the Carter administration, and the President's Commission on the Holocaust was created, succeeded by the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. The designers of the permanent exhibition in the Museum were determined to fix the Holocaust in the American memory. The main problem was to delineate the boundaries of the Holocaust. It was decided to include not only the six million Jewish victims, but also the five million non-Jews (e.g. Poles, Gypsies), and the victims of the Armenian massacre in World War I. For a better representation of the Holocaust, the Council decided to acquire artifacts of the Holocaust, and to use photographs, films, and model sites. Sensitive issues were not shunned, such as the Allies' decision not to bomb the extermination camps and the role of the Churches. Concludes with discussion of the question: who will use the memory of the Holocaust and in what way. DR

Lisus, Nicola A.; Ericson, Richard V.: Misplacing Memory: The Effect of Television Format on Holocaust Remembrance. British Journal of Sociology 46, 1 (Mar 1995) 1-19.

Discusses the psychological and emotional effects of use of television formats at the Los Angeles Museum of Tolerance, which includes a Beit Hashoah section based mostly on complex communication technology. The history of the Holocaust is presented in a docudrama format, the line between facts and fantasy being dissolved. The emphasis on emotion, spectacle, and "creeping surrealism" provokes neglect of the historical dimension and produces a trivialization of the Holocaust. Concludes that, as a whole, the Museum exhibition communicates a partial and faulty theory of the Holocaust: i.e. that prejudiced, intolerant people bear responsibility. The television format excludes information that fosters understanding of how society works. As such, it can only offer a "disarming" message. LV

Littell, Marcia Sachs: The Anne Frank Institute of Philadelphia, the First Interfaith Holocaust Education Center: A Critique of Its Educational Philosophy and History, 1975-1988.  Diss. ? Temple University, Philadelphia, 1990. 187 pp. Unseen.

Littell, Marcia Sachs; Gutman, Sharon Weissman, eds.: Liturgies on the Holocaust: An Interfaith Anthology. Rev. ed. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996. 199 pp.  The first edition was published in Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1986.

A collection of liturgical programs (including readings, prayers, and sermons) for Yom Hashoah, compiled for the purpose of providing members of the clergy, both Christian and Jewish, and laypersons with suggestions for observing the day in commemoration of the Holocaust. Partial contents: Littell, Franklin Hamlin: The Language of Liturgy (3-5); Eckardt, Alice Lyons: Creating Christian Yom HaShoah Liturgies [First published in "Shoah" 1 (1979).] (6-12); Harvest of Hate/Seeds of Love: Remembering the Voices That Were Silenced (Jewish-Christian Dialogue Group of Cedar Rapids) (13-20); Art amidst Death: The Cultural Life of Theresienstadt ? a Musical Remembrance (Madison Jewish Community Council) (21-24); An Interfaith Holocaust Remembrance Service (Houston Education Center and Holocaust Museum) (25-32); Fisher, Eugene Joseph; Klenicki, Leon: From Death to Hope: A Catholic/Jewish Service [First published in 1983.] (33-43); A Christian Service in Memory of the Holocaust (Bloor Street United Church, Toronto) (44-53); Cargas, Harry James: A Holocaust Commemoration for Days of Remembrance for Communities, Churches, Centers and for Home Use (54-60); Yom HaShoah v'Hagvurah: Fiftieth Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Jewish Community of Greater Toronto) (61-72); Yom HaShoah: Holocaust Remembrance Day (First United Methodist Church, Santa Monica) (73-84); Yom HaShoah: Community-wide Observance (Beth Shalom Synagogue, Pittsburgh) (85-93); Days of Remembrance: Yom HaShoah (United States Holocaust Memorial Council) (94-97); Days of Remembrance (United States Army Holocaust Commemoration Service) (98-100); Days of Remembrance (National Civic Holocaust Commemoration Ceremony) (101-112); Holocaust Commemoration (the State of Connecticut) (113-114); Civic Commemoration of the Holocaust (The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania) (115-118); An Evening of Commemoration (The State of North Carolina) (119-122); Yom HaShoah: Community-wide Memorial Service to Commemorate the Holocaust (Congregation Ner Tamid, Las Vegas) (126-134); Feinberg, Charles: Service for Yom HaShoah (Madison, Wisconsin) (135-144); Littell, Franklin Hamlin: A Yom HaShoah Liturgy for Christians [From his book "The Crucifixion of the Jews" (1975).] (145-155); A Christian Witness in Memory of the Holocaust of Six Million Jews: A Good Friday Statement (The Ministers of Claremont, California) (156-157); Ullman, Richard L.: The Meaning of "Good Friday" (160-162); Loder, Theodore W.: Your People, My People (163-170); Ryan, Michael D.: A Midrash on Job for Yom HaShoah (171-177); Littell, Franklin Hamlin: A Yom HaShoah Message (178-181); Hoffman, Lawrence A.: Holocaust as Holocaust, Holocaust as Symbol (182-188); What Did Pastor Niemoeller Really Say? (189-190). SSC

Loewy, Hanno, ed.: Holocaust: Die Grenzen des Verstehens: Eine Debatte ueber die Besetzung der Geschichte. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1992. 288 pp.

Lectures delivered at a symposium held in Frankfurt am Main, October 1991, to consider the establishment of a center for commemoration, teaching, and documentation of the Holocaust. Partial contents: Niethammer, Lutz: Erinnerungsgebot und Erfahrungsgeschichte: Institutionalisierungen mit kollektivem Gedaechtnis (21-34); Metz, Johann Baptist: Fuer eine anamnetische Kultur (35-41); Aly, Goetz: Wider das Bewaeltigungs-Kleinklein (42-51); Brocke, Edna: Im Tode sind alle gleich ? Sind im Tode alle gleich? (71-82); Mommsen, Hans: Erfahrung, Aufarbeitung und Erinnerung des Holocaust in Deutschland (93-100); Frei, Norbert: Auschwitz und Holocaust: Begriff und Historiographie (101-109); Groehler, Olaf: Erblasten: Der Umgang mit dem Holocaust in der DDR (110-127); Zimmermann, Michael: Negativer Fixpunkt und Suche nach positiver Identitaet: Der Nationalsozialismus im kollektiven Gedaechtnis der alten Bundesrepublik (128-143); Sandkuehler, Thomas: Aporetische Erinnerung und historisches Erzaehlen (144-159); Brumlik, Micha: Trauerrituale und politische Kultur nach der Shoah in der Bundesrepublik (191-212); Young, James Edward: Die Textur der Erinnerung: Holocaust-Gedenkstaetten [In Germany, Israel, Poland, and the USA. Appeared in English in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 4 (1989).] (213-232); Knigge, Volkhard: Abwehr ? Aneignen: Der Holocaust als Lerngegenstand (248-259); Garbe, Detlef: Gedenkstaetten: Orte der Erinnerung und die zunehmende Distanz zum Nationalsozialismus (260-284). RW

Loewy, Hanno, ed.: Internationales Hearing, 23.-25. Oktober 1991: Vortraege und Diskussionen. Frankfurt a.M.: Arbeitsstelle zur Vorbereitung des Frankfurter Lern- und Dokumentationszentrums des Holocaust, [1991]. ix, 269 pp.

The protocol of an international conference of historians on some directions and results of Holocaust research, on commemoration and forgetting of the Holocaust in Germany, and the function of an educational and documentation center such as that to be established in Frankfurt. Contents of the seven forum discussions: Eine Leerstelle im historischen Bewusstsein; "Zivilisationsbruch": Ueber Rationalitaet und Irrationalitaet des Voelkermords; Gehorsam oder Initiative? Zum Begriff des arbeitsteiligen Taeters; Alltag ? Erfahrung und Erinnerung: Die Nachkriegszeit als Schnittstelle von Verdraengung und historischem Gedaechtnis; Internationale Gedenkstaetten im Kontext: Erinnerung und Selbstverstaendigung der Ueberlebenden; Identitaeten: Ein Holocaust-Zentrum im "Land der Taeter"?; Gedenkstaetten oder Denkorte: Ueber Probleme und Arbeitsformen aktiven Gedenkens in Deutschland. RW

Lokin, Rutger; Ouwerling, Marc: De stille en de echo: Een fotoreportage van de overblijfselen van de Duitse vernietigingskampen in Polen [The Silence and the Echo: A Photographic Report of the Relics of the German Extermination Camps in Poland]. Breda, Netherlands: De Papieren Tijger, 1988. 73 pp.

A collection of photographs of the present condition of the concentration and extermination camps and their monuments in Poland, preceded by an introduction. Contains photographs of entrance-gates, barracks, watchtowers, crematoria, gas chambers, fences, shoes and prosthetic limbs, mausolea, monuments and museums at Chelmno, Treblinka, Sobibor, Majdanek, Belzec, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Plaszow, and Gross-Rosen. SRH

Lutz, Thomas; Brebeck, Wulff E.; Hepp, Nicolas, eds.: Ueber-Lebens-Mittel: Kunst aus Konzentrationslagern und in Gedenkstaetten fuer Opfer des Nationalsozialismus. Marburg: Jonas, 1992. 175 pp.

Partial contents: Milton, Sybil H.: Kunst als historisches Quellenmaterial in Gedenkstaetten und Museen (44-63); Brebeck, Wulff E.; Lutz, Thomas: Bildende Kunst in Gedenkstaetten fuer die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus: Versuch einer Bestandsaufnahme (64-102); Spielmann, Jochen: Denkmale in Bewegung: Der Wandel von Gestalt, Widmung und Funktion von Denkmalen in ehemaligen Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslagern 1945-1991: Ein Ueberblick (103-130); Hepp, Nicolas: Kunstausstellungen in der Gedenkstaette am Beispiel der "Alten Synagoge" Essen (131-147); Hoffmann, Detlef: Die Kunst der Erinnerung: Anmerkungen (148-159). RW

Mahnmal fuer alle Opfer des Nationalsozialismus in Oldenburg, 9. November 1990: Eine Dokumentation. Oldenburg: Holzberg, 1991. 60 pp.

The text of the inauguration ceremony of the memorial statue established in Oldenburg, Germany. Includes speeches delivered by the mayor, the rabbi of this region, and others. MR
 

[Maltzin, Matvei: A Memorial in Rudnya. Sovetish Heimland 2 (Feb 1991) 129-135.] (in Hebrew)

Based on documents, relates how the first memorial for Holocaust victims in the USSR was established in the town of Rudnya (Smolensk region) in October 1965 to commemorate the murder of 1,200 townspeople, mostly Jews. SSC

Marks, Stan, ed.: 10 Years: Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre, Melbourne, 1984-1994. Elsternwick, Victoria: Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre, 1994. 74, [12], 9 pp.

Issued to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre in Melbourne. Describes the activities of the Museum and its leading personalities. The last 9 pages are in Yiddish. DR

Matz, Reinhard: Die unsichtbaren Lager: Das Verschwinden der Vergangenheit im Gedenken. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1993. 206 pp.

A collection of photographs by Reinhard Matz, showing the exhibits and memorials on the sites of the former concentration camps. Hanno Loewy, "Erinnerungen an Sichtbares und Unsichtbares" (pp. 20-32), discusses the intention behind these memorials (as well as the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and Yad Vashem) and their impact on the visitor. Argues that most of them miss or falsify the realities of mass extermination, either because the experience of those who survived (most of them political prisoners) was different, or out of a desire to salve the historical conscience, or out of an ideological or religious need to give meaning to these meaningless deaths. Pp. 169-205 contain a directory of the camps photographed, with descriptions, addresses, and opening hours. RW

Memorial national du camp de Drancy [Drancy?]: Comite National du Memorial, [1992]. 23 pp.

Describes, through texts and photographs, the symbolism and meaning of the National Memorial established on the site of the Drancy internment camp near Paris, created by Jewish sculptor Shelomo Selinger in 1976. Stresses the importance of remembering the lessons of the Holocaust. AA

Milton, Sybil H.: In Fitting Memory: The Art and Politics of Holocaust Memorials. Photographs by Ira Nowinski. Detroit: Wayne State University Press; Berkeley: Judah L. Magnes Museum, 1991. 341 pp.

Consists chiefly of photographs showing Holocaust monuments of two types: concentration camps wholly or partly preserved, and memorial buildings or sculptures erected both on Holocaust sites and elsewhere, including in the United States and Israel. The introductory text (pp. 1-18) traces the history of memorialization of the Holocaust, noting that while in Eastern Europe this was undertaken by governments, in Western Europe (including West Germany) it was at first left to private initiatives. Many Holocaust sites were razed or turned to other uses. Not until the 1960s was a greater effort made to mark such sites and to erect monuments in public places. Many inscriptions commemorate victims without identifying them as Jews; few of them identify the perpetrators. Pp. 297-315 contain an annotated bibliography, and pp. 317-335 a selected list of Holocaust memorial sites. RW

Milton, Sybil H.: The Memorialization of the Holocaust: Museums, Memorials, and Centers. Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review 2 (1991) 299-320.

An annotated bibliography of books and articles in English (pp. 309-320), preceded by an essay which discusses monuments and memorials to the Holocaust in Europe since 1945. During the immediate postwar period, labor camp and concentration camp sites were often used for other purposes. There was a resurgence of interest in the Holocaust in the 1960s-70s, due to the Eichmann trial (1961) and depiction of the Holocaust in the theater, films, and literature, which resulted in several concentration camp memorials as well as the placing of historic markers at the sites of destroyed synagogues and local labor camps. In the 1980s there was a further development of local Holocaust centers, museums, and memorials. Discusses, also, memorialization in the U.S. in the 1980s. SSC

Mindlina, Klara: K istorii odnovo pamyatnika [On the History of a Monument]. Yevrei Belarusi 1 (1997) 134-139.

Relates the extermination of Jews in Sirotino (Vitebsk region) in 1941. Dwells on the fate of some Sirotino Jews during the war. After the war, a monument to the victims was erected in Sirotino by their relatives; its fate was no better than that of the town's Jews: the monument was destroyed in the early 1990s. DR

Monteath, Peter: The Politics of Memory: Germany and Its Concentration Camp Memorials. The European Legacy 1, 1 (Mar 1996) 14-19.

In the GDR of the 1960s-80s, the former concentration camps of Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen, and Ravensbrueck served not only as sites for remembrance of the Nazi past, but also to legitimate the East German communist regime. After Germany's reunification, it was decided that historical commissions would be convened to advise on the reorientation of the memorials. Recommendations have been made by the commissions, among them, to include Jews as a special group victimized by the Nazis; to portray not only the victims but also the perpetrators; and to memorialize the postwar histories of the camps (when some of them were used by the Soviets for penitentiary purposes) ? the last idea raised objections on the part of concentration camp survivors. Mentions other problems involved in restructuring the memorials. DR

Montmartre, Henri: Lituanie: La seconde mort des Juifs de Wilno. Combat pour la Diaspora 29 (1990) 53-55.

On a visit to Lithuania in 1990, the author observed that on the monument commemorating the Jewish victims of the Holocaust in Lithuania, in Ponary (Paniarai), it is stated that 100,000 Soviet citizens were murdered. In Vilna, as well, one can find no trace of the six centuries' presence of the Jews in Lithuania. Pleads for restoration of the Jewish memory there. HV

Het Nederlandse Monument in Mauthausen [The Dutch Monument in Mauthausen]. Amsterdam: Stichting Vriendenkring Mauthausen, 1986. 48 pp.

A photographic essay on the monument to more than 1600 Dutch civilians (mostly Jews) who perished in Mauthausen, dedicated in May 1986. Contains a list of names of the victims. SRH

Norden, Edward: Yes and No to the Holocaust Museums. Commentary 96, 2 (Aug 1993) 23-32.

Discusses two recently opened museums ? the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington and the Beit Hashoah ? Museum of Tolerance of the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles. Relates their history, similarities in their purpose, differences in the exhibits, and reactions amongst the American public. States that although such institutions cannot stop antisemitism and Holocaust denial, they can make the Jew-haters work harder. The existence of these museums will not prevent further genocides. The goal of educating the public can be achieved (gives suggestions for broadening this aspect of the museums' displays), but the hope of preventing recurrence must be judged forlorn. Queries why a dwindling American Jewish population would invest so much money and effort in Holocaust commemoration. One motive may be guilt over the previous generation's failure to save European Jewry. Another may be self-affirmation of American Diaspora Jewry as opposed to earlier Israel-centered Holocaust commemoration. SSC

Obenaus, Herbert: Gedenkstaetten in Niedersachsen. Menora 8 (1997) 342-368.

Surveys the history of memorials for victims of the Holocaust in Lower Saxony, where several concentration camps were situated during the war. The first two monuments in Bergen-Belsen were erected by survivors. In 1947 the government established a site for commemoration, but only in 1966 was the history of the camp written and documents testifying to the past made available. In the 1980s there was a change in the conception of commemoration, integrating activities such as workshops, lectures, films, etc. In the early 1990s, memorial sites of this sort were established in Moringen, Emsland, Salzgitter, and Sandbostel, while in Bergen-Belsen youth groups volunteered to excavate and restore remains of the former camp. ID

Ofer, Dalia: Israel and the Holocaust: The Shaping of Remembrance in the First Decade. Legacy 1, 2 (Sum 1997) 4-8.  Appeared in Hebrew in "Bishvil ha-Zikaron" 12 (1996).

In Palestine, as early as 1942, Mordechai Shenhavi proposed the construction of a memorial for the Jews who were being killed in Europe. In August 1945 Zionist movement delegates meeting in London proposed the establishment of Yad Vashem; in 1947 it was decided that all the destroyed Jewish communities would be represented there and that Jewish resistance would be stressed. Simultaneously, the Jewish National Fund began to plant the Martyrs' Forest, which was the first Holocaust memorial site. Discusses the debate over Yom Hashoah; the date of 27 Nissan, the last day of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, was finally chosen in 1951, and in 1959 the Knesset set the tone of the day by instituting two minutes of silence and closing all places of entertainment. In the 1950s remembrance of the Holocaust was politicized and the valor of resistance fighters was stressed. In the 1960s, partly as a result of the Eichmann trial, publications and educational activities began to stress the suffering of Holocaust victims. RE

Ofer, Dalia: Linguistic Conceptualization of the Holocaust in Palestine and Israel, 1942-53. Journal of Contemporary History 31, 3 (July 1996) 567-595.

Employing content analysis of texts that mainly address issues connected with commemorating the Holocaust, shows how the linguistic conceptualization of the Holocaust reveals the process of internalization of that event among the Jews of Eretz Israel and in the early years of the state. Focuses on the use of the terms "hurban" and "Shoah," and the evolution of the concepts "Shoah u-gevurah" (Holocaust and heroism) and "Shoah u-tekumah" (Holocaust and rebirth). The word most frequently used by Jews in Eretz Israel and in the Diaspora until 1947 was "hurban" (destruction), the traditional Hebrew term to describe the destruction of the Temple, extended to Jewish sufferings in exile in general. The use of "Shoah," from 1947 on, implies the search for a special vocabulary to describe the fate of Europe's Jews, unprecedented in the continuum of Jewish historical experience. The second stage of integration of the Shoah into emotional and cognitive awareness took place between 1948-53, from the Israeli War of Independence to the Knesset enactment of the Yad Vashem Law. The vocabulary used by most speakers in the Knesset debate on that law reveals that by then the perceptions of the Shoah had been substantially formed as part of the national legacy and placed within a solid set of national, social, and religious values. SSC

Paldiel, Mordecai: "To the Righteous among the Nations Who Risked Their Lives to Rescue Jews." Yad Vashem Studies 19 (1988) 403-425.  Published simultaneously in Hebrew.

Discusses the criteria established by the Israeli Holocaust memorial institution, Yad Vashem ? the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, to determine who is entitled to receive the distinction "Righteous among the Nations" given to those Gentiles who risked their lives to save Jews in the Holocaust. Gives examples of borderline cases and the considerations involved in reaching a decision, such as cases of people who protested against anti-Jewish measures while not personally saving Jews. LF

Petersdorff, Ulrich von: Das Berliner Holocaustdenkmal: Zur Namensnennung der NS-Opfer auf Denkmaelern. Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 49, 2 (1998) 115-118.

Deals with the argument concerning the construction of a Holocaust memorial monument in Berlin on which the names of all the victims are to be engraved. Discusses concepts of data protection rights, based on a report of a case in which a person was not willing to see the names of his murdered Jewish relatives on the controversial monument. Questions a possible decision concerning millions of victims whose relatives cannot complain because they are no longer alive. Claims that there is a common interest that the victims not be forgotten, especially in the face of revisionist statements, and that the personal dignity of relatives alive today is insignificant in comparison to the general purpose. ID

Pfuetze, Hermann: Unsichtbar ? versenkt ? im Traum: Mahnmale und oeffentliche Skulpturen von Jochen Gerz. Merkur 51, 2 (Feb 1997) 128-137.

Describes Gerz's concept of an invisible art which stimulates the passerby to form it in his own mind. Discusses three of his works, two of them memorials to the Holocaust. In the Harburg district of Hamburg he erected a metal column 12 meters high and invited members of the public to add their signatures. They did not only this but also scrawled hostile graffiti and defaced it with hammers and blowtorches. As soon as one segment was full it was sunk into the ground to put the next segment within reach, until by now the whole column is sunk. In Saarbruecken, Gerz paved part of a square with stones bearing on their underside the names of Jewish cemeteries; on the surface they are indistinguishable from the other paving stones. Argues that this invisible art is more effective than the usual monument or museum which forces a predetermined, external meaning on the viewer. Gerz's monuments leave him to find his own meaning and thus they remain in memory. RW

Prins, Ralph: Fotoimpressie ? Nationaal Monument Westerbork [Photo Impression ? National Monument Westerbork]. Hooghalen: Stichting Voormalig Kamp Westerbork, 1989. 16 pp.

A collection of photographs by a Dutch Jewish Holocaust survivor who was interned in Westerbork and was deported to Theresienstadt, describing remains of the former transit camp and the design of the monument. Accompanying texts sketch the function of this gateway to the concentration and extermination camps in Eastern Europe, focusing on the transports of more than 100,000 adults and children. SRH

Puvogel, Ulrike, ed.: Gedenkstaetten fuer die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus: Eine Dokumentation. Bonn: Bundeszentrale fuer politische Bildung, 1987. 831 pp.  A 2nd, rev. ed. appeared in 1995 (840 pp.).

A handbook listing the memorials to victims of Nazi Germany and to destroyed synagogues and buildings found in the various regions of Germany. Quotes the texts of many of the memorials in West Germany describing the tragic events which occurred (mainly to Jews) at the site. In East Germany the victims' Jewish identity is generally not mentioned. MR

Reichel, Peter: Politik mit der Erinnerung: Gedaechtnisorte im Streit um die nationalsozialistische Vergangenheit. Muenchen: Carl Hanser, 1995. 387 pp.

Discusses commemoration of the Nazi period, especially of racial and political persecution, in both Germanies. East Germany saw itself as the victorious successor of the anti-fascist resistance and played down the Jewish Holocaust, for which it disclaimed responsibility. West Germany assumed responsibility for the past, but for many years tried to erase it. Only since the 1970s has Germany gradually begun to cultivate memory, in memorial sites such as the concentration camps, in historical museums and documentation centers, and in ceremonies on anniversaries such as the 9th of November. All these commemorations are surrounded by ideological controversy ? on the need to remember or forget, on the proper form of remembrance (e.g. the danger of aestheticization), and on the inclusiveness of commemoration (one memorial to all the victims or a larger number). RW

[Rein, Esti: From General Commemoration to Individual Commemoration: Holocaust Memorials in Israel. Gesher 126 (Win 1992-1993) 70-81.] (in Hebrew)

Examines the Holocaust memorials (monuments and institutions) in regard to their design and the message they convey to their viewers. Most of the memorials are figurative and realistic, not abstract; the Holocaust was not an abstract event and cannot be described in abstract terms. In recent years, there has been a trend toward commemorating individuals or individual towns, whereas the early memorials were for the victims in general. This trend may have been influenced by the Israeli form of commemorating its fallen war heroes, which focuses on the individual and his life. Israeli Holocaust memorials almost always present the tragedy of the Holocaust along with heroism (resistance) or the rebirth of Israel, expressing the importance of resistance to oppression and Jewish independence. SSC

Reinartz, Dirk; Krockow, Christian von: Totenstill: Bilder aus den ehemaligen deutschen Konzentrationslagern. Goettingen: Steidl, 1994. 308 pp.

Photographs of the remains of the concentration camps taken between 1987-93. The introduction (pp. 17-47) discusses the organization of the camps and its dehumanizing effect on the prisoners, asking how human beings could perpetrate such crimes. Suggests that antisemitism was only a secondary cause; the main cause was German glorification of power, particularly its greatest manifestation, the power to kill. Pp. 289-304 give detailed information on each camp. RW

Remembering for the Future: Working Papers and Addenda. Vol. I-III. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. xxv, 3202 pp.

Papers presented at a conference held in Oxford, July 1988. Partial contents: Hartman, Geoffrey H.: Learning from Survivors: Notes on the Video Archive at Yale (1713-1717); Koelmel, Rainer: A Holocaust Memorial in Berlin? (1755-1767); Mais, Yitzchak: Institutionalizing the Holocaust: Issues Related to the Establishment of Holocaust Memorial Centers [Appeared in "Midstream" 34 (Dec 1988).] (1778-1789); Rubenstein, Betty Rogers: The Shape of Memory: Some Problems in Modern Memorial Art (1790-1798); Young, James Edward: The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning [Appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 4 (1989).] (1799-1812); Eliach, Yaffa Sonenson: Documenting the Landscape of Death: The Politics of Commemoration and Holocaust Studies (2851-2879); Friedlaender, Saul: On the Representation of the Shoah in Present-Day Western Culture (3092-3101). SSC

Remembering the Voices That Were Silenced: Planning Guide. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1990. xi, 174 pp.  At head of title-page: Days of Remembrance, April 22-29, 1990.

A guide for educational program coordinators dealing with commemoration of the Holocaust. Contains a chronology of events between September 1939-December 1940, excerpts from historical works dealing mainly with that period, planning aids and resources, a list of "Holocaust Resource Centers and Organizations in the USA," and a short filmography and bibliography. MG

Rosenfeld, Alvin H.: The Americanization of the Holocaust. Commentary 99, 6 (June 1995) 35-40.

Contends that when Americanized, the Holocaust undergoes universalization and loses its specific Jewish character. This tendency can be seen in the expositions of museums such as the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC, and the Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles, as well as in the art work "Holocaust Project" by Judy Chicago, where the Holocaust is equated with the sufferings of the Blacks in America and the abuse of women. Another tendency is the American reluctance to confront the brutal and horrific essence of the Holocaust. For instance, the play "The Diary of Anne Frank," by F. Goodrich and A. Hackett, and the film version both downplay Anne's Jewishness and the fact that all of the characters are doomed to death. The latter tendency led to the growing cult of survivors and rescuers as the bright side of the Holocaust, manifested in Spielberg's "Schindler's List" and the proliferation of books on Righteous Gentiles, as well as the founding of the Institute of the Righteous Acts and the Jewish Foundation of Christian Rescuers by R. Schulweis. Virtuous as they are, the Gentile rescuers cannot counterbalance the evil of the Nazi Holocaust. DR

Rosenfeld, Alvin L., ed.: Days of Remembrance, April 18-25, 1993 ? Fifty Years Ago: Revolt Amid the Darkness: Planning Guide for Commemorative Programs. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1993. xiii, 412 pp.

Contains an introduction, "The `Final Solution' and the War in 1943," by Gerhard L. Weinberg (pp. 1-15); a chronology of major events of the Holocaust in 1943 (pp. 19-53); eyewitness accounts, testimonies, documents, newspaper articles, and photographs (pp. 57-288); a planning guide for commemoration of the Holocaust (pp. 298-331); a selective annotated bibliography (pp. 335-386); and a list of selected films (pp. 387-395). RE

Rubinstein, Alvin Z.; Rubinstein, Frankie: Coping with the Holocaust: Germans and Jews. Midstream 45, 3 (Apr 1999) 21-25.

Contends that memorialization of the Holocaust in present-day Germany has taken a wrong direction. It perpetuates a sense of national guilt and shame among Germans and dooms Germany to a continued pariah status. This type of memorialization may cause a backlash, a kind of "Holocaust fatigue," and resentment among Germans. Suggests that commemoration of the Holocaust in Germany must shift its emphasis from victimization of the Jews to celebration of Jewish contributions to German culture and life. Believes that present-day Germany has become a thriving democratic country and has coped with the Nazi past. DR

Ruedenberg, Lucia Meta: "Remember 6,000,000": Civic Commemoration of the Holocaust in New York City.  Diss. ? New York University, 1994. 354 pp. Unseen.

Rybachuk, Ada; Melnychenko, Volodymyr: Koly ruinuyetsya svit: Knyha ? rekviyem ? knyha ? pamyatnyk [When the World Is Falling Apart: Book ? Requiem ? Book ? Monument]. Kyyiv: Yurinform, 1991. 80 pp.  In Russian, English, Yiddish, with a Ukrainian insert.

Presents the authors' project for a monument to the victims of the mass murder of Jews in Babii Yar, near Kiev, which was entered in a competition in 1965 but never realized. Gives a brief history of the project, and describes the attempt to commemorate the victims of Babii Yar in 1966 ? an attempt which was suppressed by the authorities. Contains photographs of the drafts and the model of the project, as well as views of old Kiev. DR

Saidel, Rochelle Genia: Never Too Late to Remember: The Politics behind New York City's Holocaust Museum. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1996. xiii, 290 pp.  Based on the author's diss. ? City University of New York, 1992.

Recounts the history of the New York Holocaust Museum from the initiation of the idea for it by New York City Mayor Edward I. Koch in 1981 to the start of its construction in 1996. Politicians supported the project, in part, as a means of winning the political support of Jews. REK

Schittenhelm, Karin: Mahnmal Putlitzbruecke: Ein antisemitischer Bildersturm und seine Folgen. Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung 3 (1994) 121-139.

Discusses repeated desecrations between 1987-92 of a memorial to the tens of thousands of Jews deported by the Nazis from the Putlitzstrasse rail terminal in Berlin. Several times the vandals placed pigs' heads on the memorial; pigs' heads or pictures of them were also affixed to other Jewish sites throughout Germany. Discusses the history of this anti-Jewish symbol (e.g. the "Judensau"). The vandals also left Nazi symbols and slogans against Jews, foreigners, and liberal politicians. In 1992 the memorial was partly destroyed by dynamite and had to be rebuilt. Suggests that it was the visibility of the memorial and its clear message that made it a target for neo-Nazi ideology. RW

Schoenberner, Gerhard: Der lange Weg nach Wannsee: Von der Gruenderzeitvilla zur Gedenkstaette. Dachauer Hefte 8 (Nov 1992) 150-163.

Describes the abortive attempt in 1965-72 by a Holocaust survivor, Joseph Wulf, to establish an international documentation center on National Socialism, for whose site he proposed the Wannsee villa in which Nazi leaders had consulted on implementing the Final Solution. Despite the backing of many prominent persons, the project was not realized, partly for practical reasons but also because Berliners were unwilling to turn the building, serving as a children's vacation home, into "another macabre cult site." In the 1980s, however, the Berlin Senate decided, without significant opposition, to establish in the villa a center for the commemoration of the victims of Nazi genocide, information on Nazi crimes, and education for democracy. It was opened on 20 January 1992. RW

Seferens, Horst: Ein deutscher Denkmalstreit: Die Kontroverse um die Spiegelwand in Berlin-Steglitz. Berlin: Hentrich, 1995. 102 pp.

Traces the controversy in the Steglitz district of Berlin over the erection of a memorial to the local Jews who were victims of the Holocaust. The memorial, selected in a competition, was to be a 9-meter-long wall bearing the names of all the deported Jews and data on the history of Jews in the district, while its surface of polished steel also reflected the faces of the onlookers. A coalition of right-wing parties in the district assembly, led by the Christian Democrats, defeated this plan, suggesting a modest plaque instead. This decision caused indignation in Berlin and internationally. The wall was finally erected in 1995 thanks to the intervention of the chairman of the building committee of the Berlin Senate. Comments that this incident is symptomatic of a general trend; many Germans would like to forget the past. RW

Shulman, William L., ed.: Directory: Association of Holocaust Organizations. Bayside, NY: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives, Queensborough Community College, CUNY, 1990. 71 pp.  On title-page: March 1990.

Lists ca. 60 institutions and organizations in the U.S. and Canada that provide services, assemble resources, and conduct programs related to the Holocaust. SSC

Smilovitsky, Leonid: Attempt to Erect Memorial to Holocaust Victims Blocked by Soviet Byelorussian Authorities. East European Jewish Affairs 27, 1 (Sum 1997) 71-80.

In 1946, Soviet authorities in Belorussia decided not to allow the erection of a memorial listing the names of Jewish victims of the Germans in the district of Cherven, a move which was organized by Vladimir Isaakovich Fundator (1903-1986), inventor of the Soviet T-34 tank which had been a key instrument in the Russian defeat of Germany. This refusal was indicative of the Soviet attitude toward the Holocaust which hushed up its reality, refused to acknowledge the contribution of Jews to the victory over Germany, and harassed Jews as "rootless cosmopolitans" and "bourgeois nationalists." The Belorussian authorities were acting on orders from Moscow. In 1970 a standard granite monument was erected where the Jews of Cherven had been slaughtered. Its inscription stated that 2,000 Soviet citizens were killed there by German fascist invaders. REK

Smilovitsky, Leonid: Eto bylo v Chervene [It Was in Cherven]. Yevrei Belarusi 3-4 (1998) 223-231.  An earlier version appeared in "East European Jewish Affairs" 27 (1997).

Steinbach, Peter: Modell Dachau: Das Konzentrationslager und die Stadt Dachau in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und ihre Bedeutung fuer die Gegenwart. Passau: Andreas-Haller-Verlag, 1987. 55 pp.

Discusses the efforts of a few Germans to make a reluctant public accept German responsibility for the past and keep alive the memory of the victims of Nazism. Visits to sites such as concentration camps can serve this purpose, but the memorials already established there are insufficient. Proposes the development of these sites as educational centers, describing attempts to do so at Dachau (discussed in detail), at Auschwitz, and at the Wannsee villa where the Final Solution was planned. On pp. 46-54 discusses the "historians' debate" and expresses outrage at the relativization of the Holocaust. RW

Stier, Oren Baruch: Virtual Memories: Mediating the Holocaust at the Simon Wiesenthal Center's Beit Hashoah ? Museum of Tolerance. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 64, 4 (Win 1996) 831-851.

The Wiesenthal Center's museum in Los Angeles proposes an alternative to traditional Holocaust museums. The exhibit of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington is based on artifacts of the Holocaust, its purpose being to establish a sense of the past, whereas the Wiesenthal Center's exhibit is almost devoid of such objects. Its permanent exhibit has two parts: the "Tolerancenter," which contains interactive displays and forces visitors to reflect on the nature of prejudice, and Beit Hashoah, which evokes visitors' empathy with the victims of the Holocaust. Critics admit that the classical, object-centered Holocaust museum is flawed in many respects. However, the Wiesenthal Center's museum fails to make visitors remember at all. It simulates the past instead of presenting it, and visitors tend to mediate their own experiences. The museum fails to render a deep or adequate moral-religious interpretation of the Holocaust. DR

Szurek, Jean-Charles: Le musee d'Auschwitz. Le Monde Juif 138 (April-June 1990) 63-83.  Appeared also in the collection "A l'Est, la memoire retrouvee," eds. Alain Brossat et al. (Paris: La Decouverte, 1990).

Describes in detail the Auschwitz museum (established in 1947 and repeatedly augmented) in order to discuss the basic conception of the organizers. Asserts that the museum, located on the site of the Auschwitz I concentration camp (neglecting the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau extermination camp), was conceived from a patriotic and propagandistic, anti-fascist perspective and was mostly dedicated to the martyrdom of the Polish and other nations. Every state represented in the national pavilions organized its own exposition, except for the Jewish one, which was done by the Polish state in 1968. Concludes that the present conception of the museum led to the occultation of the real image of the Holocaust, lacks a Jewish perspective, and avoids the delicate issue of Polish-Jewish relations by incorporating the Polish Jews among the Polish victims. Notes that in recent years a Catholic mark on the museum is perceptible. Mentions that Polish authorities recently expressed the intention to rethink the entire conception of the museum. LV

Treister, Kenneth; Fagin, Helen: A Sculpture of Love and Anguish: The Holocaust Memorial, Miami Beach, Florida. New York: S.p.i. Books, 1993. 168 pp.

An album with photographs and description of the Holocaust memorial site in Miami Beach. The sculptor, Treister, relates how he designed the site, which includes several components ? sculptures, a colonnade with black granite panels etched with a photographic history of the Holocaust, an area for contemplation, a stone tunnel with names of concentration camps carved into the walls, and a memorial wall with names of victims. In the center of the site is the Sculpture of Love and Anguish ? a giant outstretched arm, with life-size bronze figures positioned around the base of the arm. Pp. 61-167 contain photographs of the granite panels on one side of the page with texts by Helen Fagin on the facing page, describing the history of the Holocaust. SSC

Tydor Baumel, Judith: "In Everlasting Memory": Individual and Communal Holocaust Commemoration in Israel. Israel Affairs 1, 3 (Spr 1995) 146-170.  Appeared also in "The Shaping of Israeli Identity: Myth, Memory and Trauma" (London: Frank Cass, 1995). Appeared in Hebrew in "Iyyunim Bitkumat Israel" 5 (1995).

Apart from the national (municipal, institutional-political, etc.) commemoration of the Holocaust in Israel, discusses, also, communal and individual commemoration. Its forms and patterns were brought to the country by the European immigrants, and are part of a grassroots immigrant culture. The forms of commemoration include Yizkor books, monuments, memorial stones, and commemorative inscriptions, created by the "landsmanshaften," by kibbutzim and moshavim, or by individuals. Certain features distinguish these patterns of commemoration from the official ones: they usually do not stress physical heroism; they do not express the Zionist ethos and do not include words of consolation; they focus on ordinary victims, turning them into "holy martyrs" in accordance with Jewish tradition. There is a tendency in recent years to incorporate some of these forms and patterns in the national commemorations. DR

Tydor Baumel, Judith: "Rachel Laments Her Children": Representation of Women in Israeli Holocaust Memorials. Israel Studies 1, 1 (Spr 1996) 100-126.

Characterizes the Holocaust memorials in Israel, focusing on the images of women depicted in them and the role of these images in the memorialization of the Holocaust. Dwells upon three memorial sites: Yad Vashem, Beit Lohamei Haghetaot, and the memorial park at Carmiel. In contrast to Holocaust memorials outside of Israel, in Israel the women are highly visible, but the iconography of the woman is poorer than that of the man. The main female images are of the mother and of the woman-warrior. Contrary to men's images, the women's lack symbols of Judaism and factual allusions to the Holocaust ? they are more universal. The memorials do not represent the full scope of female experience in the Holocaust. Nevertheless, the common iconographic image of woman during the Holocaust (i.e. as mother) is accurate. DR

Uhl, Heidemarie: Erinnern und Vergessen: Denkmaeler zur Erinnerung an die Opfer der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft und an die Gefallenen des Zweiten Weltkriegs in Graz und in der Steiermark. Todeszeichen: Zeitgeschichtliche Denkmalkultur in Graz und in der Steiermark vom Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart, eds. Stefan Riesenfellner, Heidemarie Uhl. Wien: Boehlau, 1994. Pp. 111-195.

Discusses memorials to the dead of 1938-45: fallen soldiers, freedom fighters, and ? to a much lesser extent ? Jews. In the years immediately after the war, memorials were erected over mass graves at some labor camps, satellites of Mauthausen, and at sites of death marches (mainly of Hungarian Jews). Most of these were erected by Jewish organizations and often aroused the hostility of the local populace. Only in the 1980s, particularly in the anniversary year 1988, did the city of Graz and some other towns put up monuments and memorial tablets to the Jewish communities that were wiped out in the Holocaust. RW

Urban-Fahr, Susanne: Schweigen, Trauma und Erinnerung: Der Staat Israel und die Shoah. Tribuene 145 (1998) 176-194.  Appeared also in the Tribuene collection "Fuenfzig Jahre Israel" (1998), and in English in "From Vision to Reality" (1998).

Discusses different forms of commemoration of the Shoah in Israel today. Describes the situation of survivors who arrived in Israel after World War II, who stopped talking about their experiences when they became aware of the lack of concern of the local population. Deals with the Eichmann trial as the event which changed the private and collective repression of the Shoah, and enabled Israeli society to begin to cope with the past. Survivors were invited to relate personal testimonies. The population, following the trial proceedings on the radio, began to perceive the courage and dignity of survivors. Commemoration of the Shoah was now an inseparable part of the collective consciousness. Zionism and the foundation of the State of Israel were the only justified consequence of the Shoah. Sketches the role of Yad Vashem in remembrance activities, and deals also with teaching programs on the Holocaust. ID

Weiler, N. Sue: Keeping Their Memory Alive: 50+ Years of Effort, Chicago, Illinois, 1944-Present. Western States Jewish History 32, 1 (Fall 1999) 62-81.

Presents a history of Chicago's commemoration of the Warsaw ghetto uprising and the Holocaust. Shows how handing on the legacy of Jewish memory to younger generations has been combined with concern to prevent racism and to encourage justice and peace in the USA and the world. The Chicago tradition of uninterrupted commemoration precedes that of New York by 20 years. Discord among Jewish groups in the community (including about communism) sometimes prevented a unified ceremony from being held. After 50 years individual synagogues began holding their own commemorations. Provides information about organizers, speakers, and contents of programs (dramatic works, songs, personal accounts of survivors) and exhortations to honor the memory of the 6 million Jews and the millions of non-Jewish victims of World War II by involvement in fighting antisemitism and racism and improving society. YC

Wiener Jahrbuch fuer juedische Geschichte, Kultur & Museumswesen 3 (1997-1998).

This issue of the yearbook of the Juedische Museum Wien, entitled "Ueber Erinnerung," includes articles dealing with different forms of commemoration of the Holocaust, such as collective or private commemoration, or different types of monuments and memorial places. Partial contents: Grabherr, Eva: "Wenn Rosch Chodesch auf einen Sonntag faellt...": Szenarien lokaler Erinnerungskultur (29-36); Bendt, Vera: Erinnerung und Leben (37-57) Young, James Edward: Die Biographie einer Gedenk-Ikone: Nathan Rapoports Warschauer Getto-Monument [Appeared in English in "Representations" 26 (1989) and in French in Pardes 13 (1991).] (75-95); Hoffmann, Detlef: Menschen im Stacheldraht: Das Denkmal auf dem Gelaende des Schutzhaftlagers Dachau (97-126); Charim, Isolde: Stein des Anstosses (127-133); Sulzenbacher, Hannes: Der Parameter: Eine Chronik der Wiener Schoa-Mahnmalsdiskussion (135-141). ID

Wieviorka, Annette: La construction de la memoire du genocide en France. Le Monde Juif 149 (Sept-Dec 1993) 23-38.

Surveys the evolution of the memory of the Holocaust in France from 1945 up to now. In the first years after the war, there were commemorations for the anti-fascist fighters, but not for the Jewish victims. Even the Jewish community did not give prominence to its fate during the war because of the need to reintegrate into French society. Holocaust literature appeared in France in the 1950s-60s, and contributed to the raising of consciousness about the genocide. Deals with commemorations of the Holocaust in the 1990s, and asserts that they help young French secular Jews born after the war to maintain their Jewish identity. HV

Young, James Edward: The Biography of a Memorial Icon: Nathan Rapoport's Warsaw Ghetto Monument. Representations 26 (Spr 1989) 69-106.

Gives a biographical sketch of the Jewish sculptor Natan Rapoport, who was born in 1911 in Warsaw and fled to the USSR in 1939. Outlines events of the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943. Repatriated to Poland in 1946, Rapoport's proposal for a monument to honor the ghetto uprising was accepted by the Warsaw Jewish Committee and Warsaw City Arts Committee and unveiled in April 1948. Since there is no separate memorial to the Polish uprising of 1944, the Warsaw Ghetto Monument has become the focus for Polish memorial ceremonies as well. Describes the content and meaning of the Monument's figures. Emphasizes that the memories and the symbolism evoked mean different things to different viewers. Points to the essentially public dimension of monuments and the historical understanding generated by them. The Monument was recast in Israel following the Six-Day  War when, as Polish Jews were purged from the party and unions, it was feared that the Monument's Jewish significance and character would be lost. EG

Young, James Edward: Germany's Memorial Question: Memory, Counter-Memory, and the End of the Monument. South Atlantic Quarterly 96, 4 (Fall l997) 853-880.

Only an unfinished memorial process can guarantee the life of memory; the finished monument completes memory itself. Unlike most monuments, a Holocaust memorial in Germany represents the persecutor remembering his victims. Today's German memorial artists are heirs of the Nazi regime which itself heavily exploited monuments. The best German memorial of the fascist era may simply be the never-to-be-resolved debate over what memory to preserve and how to preserve it. Describes several German monuments of "self-abnegation" by Jochen Gerz and Horst Hoheisel which were constructed to be out of sight yet kept in mind, a monument in Austria by Rachel Whiteread, Shimon Attie's photographs of Jewish Berlin projected on the walls of contemporary Berlin, and proposals by Daniel Libeskind for a Jewish wing of the Berlin Museum and Horst Hoheisel for a German Holocaust memorial. REK

Young, James Edward: Holocaust Memorials in America: The Politics of Identity. Survey of Jewish Affairs (1991) 161-173.

Discusses the changing significance and the meaning of the Holocaust for American Jewry, as reflected in the conception of the Holocaust memorials in major American cities. Recalls the circumstances and the motivations of the erected or projected memorials in New York, Denver, and Washington. Notes the "Americanization" of the Holocaust in the memorials by mixing American and Jewish concepts, and the role of the memorials in strengthening Jewish identity. LV

Young, James Edward: The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 4, 1 (1989) 63-76.  Appeared previously in "Dimensions" 3, 2 (1987).

A revised version of a paper presented at the "Remembering for the Future" conference, Oxford, July 1988. Using Holocaust memorials established in Poland, West Germany, Israel, and the USA as examples, examines the ways the Holocaust has been memorialized, interpreted, and built into the national mythology of each country. Thus, Polish authorities (at the Auschwitz and Majdanek memorials, for example) tended to equate Jewish victims with Polish and other ones; some Israeli memorials, such as at Yad Mordechai and Kibbutz Lochamei Haghetaot, stress Jewish resistance and try to link the Holocaust with the State of Israel; the founders of the memorials in the USA emphasize the role of Americans in the liberation of the concentration camps, or present the Holocaust as an ultimate example of intolerance. DR

Young, James Edward: The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. xvii, 398 pp.

Some chapters of this book appeared previously as articles. Contents: Introduction: The Texture of Memory [Appeared in "Dimensions" 3 (1987), and in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 4 (1989).] (1-15). Part I: "Germany: The Ambiguity of Memory": The Countermonument: Memory against Itself in Germany [On monuments in Hamburg, Berlin, and Kassel.] (27-48); The Sites of Destruction [On Dachau and Buchenwald.] (49-79); The Gestapo-Gelaende: Topography of Unfinished Memory (81-90); Austria's Ambivalent Memory [On memorials at Mauthausen, in Graz, and in Vienna.] (91-112). Part II: "Poland: The Ruins of Memory": The Rhetoric of Ruins: The Memorial Camps at Majdanek and Auschwitz (119-154); The Biography of a Memorial Icon: Nathan Rapoport's Warsaw Ghetto Monument [Appeared in "Representations" 26 (1989).] (155-184); Broken Tablets and Jewish Memory in Poland (185-208). Part III: "Israel: Holocaust, Heroism, and National Redemption": Israel's Memorial Landscape: Forests, Monuments, and Kibbutzim [Appeared in "Lessons and Legacies" (1991).] (219-241); Yad Vashem: Israel's Memorial Authority (243-261); When a Day Remembers: A Performative History of Yom Hashoah [Appeared in "History & Memory" 2 (1990).] (263-281). Part IV: "America: Memory and the Politics of Identity": The Plural Faces of Holocaust Memory in America (287-322); Memory and the Politics of Identity: Boston and Washington, D.C. [Appeared in "Survey of Jewish Affairs" (1991).] (323-349). Pp. 373-390 contain an extensive bibliography on the subject. SSC

Young, James Edward: When a Day Remembers: A Performative History of "Yom ha-Shoah". History & Memory 2, 2 (Win 1990) 54-75.

Discusses the position and significance of "Yom Hashoah" (Holocaust Remembrance Day) in the Jewish calendar. Relates some of the official debates and discussions which took place in Israel on how to commemorate the Holocaust, from the parliamentary resolution in 1951 to establish the day on the 27th of Nissan to the law finally passed by the Knesset on 7 April 1959. Describes in detail how Holocaust remembrance is performed on that day in Israel, fostering a unity of memory between victims and the new generations. But despite unified forms of commemoration, the memories vary from person to person. Warns against a tendency to unify both the memory and the responses to it. The life of memory and its commemorative day depend on their capacity to adapt to new times ? on the evolution of their meanings in new historical contexts. SSC

Young, James Edward, ed.: The Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History. Munich: Prestel, 1994. 194 pp.  Published to accompany an exhibition held at the Jewish Museum, New York, March-July 1994.

Partial contents: Huyssen, Andreas: Monument and Memory in a Postmodern Age [Appeared in the "Yale Journal of Criticism" 6 (1993).] (9-17); Young, James Edward: The Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (19-38); Plates (39-65); Baigell, Matthew; Segal, George: George Segal's Holocaust Memorial: An Interview with the Artist [On his sculpture "The Holocaust" (1984, installed in San Francisco's Lincoln Park, shown at the Jewish Museum.] (83-87); Freed, James Ingo: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (89-101); Rapoport, Nathan: Memoir of the Warsaw Ghetto Monument (103-107); Gebert, Konstanty: The Dialectics of Memory in Poland: Holocaust Memorials in Warsaw (121-129); Young, James Edward: The Anne Frank House: Holland's Memorial "Shrine of the Book" (131-137); Gitelman, Zvi: The Soviet Politics of the Holocaust (139-147); Friedlaender, Saul: Memory of the Shoah in Israel: Symbols, Rituals, and Ideological Polarization (149-157); Novick, Peter: Holocaust Memory in America (159-165); Spielmann, Jochen: Auschwitz is Debated in Oswiecim: The Topography of Remembrance (169-173); Kugelmass, Jack: Why We Go to Poland: Holocaust Tourism as Secular Ritual (175-183); Levi, Primo: Revisiting the Camps [Originally published in Italian in the catalogue "Rivisitando i lager" which accompanied an exhibition in Milano in 1986.] (185). DR

Zweig, Ronald W.: Politics of Commemoration. Jewish Social Studies 49, 2 (Spr 1987) 155-166.

Describes the first Holocaust documentation and commemoration projects, stressing that the initiative arose from among the survivors. States that German reparations received by the Claims Conference served as a major source of funding for the documentation and commemoration projects of the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine in Paris, YIVO in New York, and Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. Discusses Yad Vashem's initial aims, and the various stances adopted by Claims Conference leaders on the allocation of their funds. ST
 

Holocaust: Memory and Meaning
 
 

[Appelfeld, Aharon: The Survivors, Memory and Artistic Creation. Bishvil ha-Zikaron 24 (June-July 1997) 4-7.]

A speech delivered at Yad Vashem in 1997 on Yom Hashoah. Reflects on individual, historical, historiographical, and sociological characteristics of the preservation of the memory of the Holocaust and its meaning at a time when the survivors are still living. Since the arts are the more appropriate domain to convey individual and universal features of the Holocaust memory, which could not be faced thoroughly by the survivors and their generation, expects the creative arts to convey the missing aspects, to go beyond the chronological and factual aspects of the Holocaust experiences. LFo

Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 3-4 (17 Jan 1997).

The articles in this issue deal with Holocaust commemoration, memory and meaning in Germany. Contents: Steinbach, Peter: Die Vergegenwaertigung von Vergangenem: Zum Spannungsverhaeltnis zwischen individueller Erinnerung und oeffentlichem Gedenken (3-13); Wolffsohn, Michael: Von der aeusserlichen zur verinnerlichten "Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung": Gedanken und Fakten zu Erinnerungen [Based on opinion polls.] (14-22); Korn, Salomon: Holocaust-Gedenken: Ein deutsches Dilemma (23-30). RW

Baccarini, Emilio: The Holocaust Forces Us to Think. SIDIC 22, 3 (1989) 20-24.  Published simultaneously in French.

Philosophical reflections on the meaning of the Holocaust and what it means "to think after Auschwitz." Surveys statements on the subject by Andre Neher, Theodor Adorno, Emil Fackenheim, and Emmanuel Levinas. Auschwitz symbolizes extreme, desperate dereliction ? the negation of the individual as creature of God. Calls for affirmation of the ethical imperative of the individual in the image of God. EB

Bar-On, Dan: Israeli and German Students Encounter the Holocaust through a Group Process: "Working through" and "Partial Relevance". International Journal of Group Tensions 22, 2 (Sum 1992) 81-118.  Appeared in German in "Spuren der Verfolgung" (Gerlingen: Bleicher, 1992).

Results of a study (conducted between 1988-91) of attitudes of the third generation in Germany (mainly the FRG, with a few interviews from the former GDR) and in Israel regarding the relevance of the Holocaust to their present views. In each country, more than 1,100 young people were given questionnaires, were interviewed, and participated in group intervention. The questionnaires showed that the German respondents tended to undermine the relevance of the Holocaust to their current political and social perspective, while in Israel they tended to overestimate this relevance, both groups doing so in a simplified way. The goal of the interviews and group meetings was to identify and enhance a more refined approach of "partial relevance," associating the past with the present in more differentiated ways. SSC

Barnea, Naomy: Apres la Shoah: Deuil et memoire, un "travail" sans precedent. Revue d'Histoire de la Shoah 167 (Sept-Dec 1999) 132-160.

Discusses the efforts made by survivors and the general Jewish population to deal with the horrors of the Shoah as a paradigm of trauma in apocalyptic dimensions. Compares the calculated cruelty of the perpetrators with the incredible will to live of the victims. Describes the complex process by which the trauma and its after-effects have been transformed into living memory as an appeal to the consciences of humanity. Concentrates on the testimonies of 50 French-speaking families in Belgium, France, and Israel ? including first, second, and third generations of survivors ? collected between 1988-92. Background information was assembled from three sources: historians' documentation found after the fall of the Reich, evidence provided during the trials of war criminals, and studies of places of memory such as museums, memorials, symposia, and ceremonies held on Yom Hashoah. Four major issues are treated: Jewish identity, the State of Israel, universalistic themes, and the search for meaning after the Shoah. Finally, the role of the Jewish people among the nations is discussed. TS

Bartov, Omer: Intellectuals on Auschwitz: Memory, History and Truth. History and Memory 5, 1 (Spr-Sum 1993) 87-129.

Discusses moral, philosophical, and historical issues concerning the difficult relationship between survivors' thoughts on the experience and phenomenon of Auschwitz (e.g. Primo Levi, Jean Amery, Celan's poetry) and those of the intellectual and academic community, especially the representation and meaning of the Holocaust in Germany, the USA, and Israel. Considers that the German "historians' debate" had a major impact on the discourse on history, memory, and identity in Germany, as well as on the historical reevaluation of Nazism. New German studies on the Third Reich consistently ignore the industrialized mass murder. Examines the present tendencies and changes in commemoration and perception of the Holocaust in Israeli society. Emphasizes the importance of confronting Holocaust denial. Concludes that the Holocaust is part of a general, not only Jewish, European history. LV

[Bauer, Yehuda: The Wannsee "Conference" and /6the Significance of the "Final Solution". Yalkut Moreshet 55 (Oct 1993) 119-126.]  Appeared in English in "The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation" (London: Routledge, 1994). (in Hebrew)

A lecture presented at an international conference held in London, January 1992. Dwells on the terms "meaning," "explanation," "significance," "understanding," and "lessons to be learned" in relation to the Holocaust. Contends that since the Holocaust is a historical event to which no intrinsic meaning may be attributed, much of the significance of the Holocaust is "post factum." For example, 1) it demonstrates various possibilities of human behavior; 2) one may learn some lessons from the Holocaust ? e.g. that it may be repeated; 3) the Holocaust has become a ruling cultural symbol in Western culture. Historically, the Wannsee meeting has contributed to our knowledge about the processes involved in the design for mass murder. It shows how a murderous elite and the ruling party, together with large segments of society which identified with the regime, coalesced to execute a total mass murder. LFo

Bauer, Yehuda: On the Place of the Holocaust in History. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, 2 (1987) 209-220.

Discusses the problem of the objectivity of the historian, denying the possibility of an "objective" stance. States his own biases: that the planned total murder of a people was an unheard-of catastrophe in human civilization, and because it has happened it can be repeated; and that the Nazi regime was the worst that ever existed. Relating to recent historiography, contends that the Holocaust was neither inevitable nor inexplicable ? the murder was committed by humans for irrational reasons that can be rationally analyzed. Examines the Holocaust in relation to similar mass murders, taking issue with Lemkin's definition of genocide. The Holocaust is unique because of the motivation of the murderers. Shows that the racist element in Nazi ideology was derived from antisemitism, and not the other way around. The Nazis believed it was their mission to free Germany, then Europe, and then the world, of the Jews. Mass murder has become a common phenomenon; the importance of the Holocaust lies in its being an extreme example from which one can draw conclusions about the lesser stages of a possible pathology which may be prevented from developing. SSC

Bensoussan, Georges: Histoire, memoire et commemoration: Vers une religion civile. Le Debat 82 (Nov-Dec 1994) 90-97.

Reflects on the memory of the Holocaust. Warns that in a non-religious society, this memory becomes a substitute for religion and that there is a tendency to attribute to the Holocaust a "sense" which did not exist (e.g. as a "redemption" which led to the establishment of the State of Israel). HV

Benz, Wolfgang: Auschwitz and the Germans: The Remembrance of the Genocide. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 8, 1 (Spr 1994) 94-106.  Appeared in German in "Verdraengung und Vernichtung der Juden unter dem Nationalsozialismus" (Hamburg: Hans Christians Verlag, 1992).

Auschwitz, used as a synonym for the German genocide, is one of the most talked-about taboos in the political culture of postwar Germany. West Germany, as well as reunited Germany, has always been ready to pay reparations, to "compensate" for damages, but resists being reminded of the past. The Federal Republic did not admit responsibility for the Holocaust as did East Germany in 1990. States that the public consciousness in Germany confuses the notion of responsibility with that of guilt; the Germans perceive the discourse on responsibility as an attempt to accuse the whole nation of collective guilt. Focuses on reactions of the public to the broadcast "Auschwitz in Decay," presented on the television program "Panorama" in March 1992. The reactions (phone calls, letters) included statements that the time has come to dismantle the Auschwitz Museum and to direct German material generosity to other aims, and attempts to relativize (even deny) the Holocaust and to share the guilt with others (e.g. the Poles). DR

Berenbaum, Michael: After Tragedy and Triumph: Essays in Modern Jewish Thought and the American Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xxi, 196 pp.

A collection of essays, all published previously. Partial contents: "Part I: The Holocaust in Contemporary American Culture": The Nativization of the Holocaust [Appeared in "Judaism" 35 (1986).] (3-16); The Uniqueness and Universality of the Holocaust [Appeared in "A Mosaic of Victims" (1990).] (17-32); Public Commemoration of the Holocaust (33-42); Is the Centrality of the Holocaust Overemphasized? Two Dialogues [With Arnold Jacob Wolf and David W. Weiss.] (43-60); Issues in Teaching the Holocaust (61-67); What We Should Teach Our Children (68-71); The Shadows of the Holocaust (72-86). "Part II: Jewish Thought and Modern History": From Auschwitz to Oslo: The Journey of Elie Wiesel (117-125). DR

Berg, Nicolas; Jochimsen, Jess; Stiegler, Bernd, eds.: Shoah, Formen der Erinnerung: Geschichte, Philosophie, Literatur, Kunst. Muenchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996. 307 pp.

Based on papers delivered at a conference in Freiburg, summer 1995, supplemented by additional papers. Partial contents: Diner, Dan: Ereignis und Erinnerung: Ueber Variationen historischen Gedaechtnisses (13-30); Berg, Nicolas: "Auschwitz" und die Geschichtswissenschaft: Ueberlegungen zu Kontroversen der letzten Jahre (31-52); Young, James Edward: Jom Hashoah: Die Gestaltung eines Gedenktages [An English version appeared in "History & Memory" 2 (1990).] (53-76); Claussen, Detlev: Veraenderte Vergangenheit: Ueber das Verschwinden von Auschwitz (77-92); Kimmich, Dorothee: Kalte Fuesse: Von Erzaehlprozessen und Sprachverdikten bei Hannah Arendt, Harry Mulisch, Theodor W. Adorno, Jean-Francois Lyotard und Robert Schindel (93-106); Bialas, Wolfgang: Die Shoah in der Geschichtsphilosophie der Postmoderne (107-121); Nancy, Jean-Luc: Un souffle = Ein Hauch [In French and German on facing pages.] (122-129); Essbach, Wolfgang: Gedenken oder Erforschen: Zur sozialen Funktion von Vergangenheitsrepraesentation (131-144); Werner, Uta: Das Grab im Text: Paul Celans Lyrik im Imaginationsraum der Geologie [Focuses on his poem "Niedrigwasser."] (159-182); Orlich, Wolfgang: Buchstaeblichkeit als Schutz und Moeglichkeit vor/von Erinnerung: Anmerkungen zu Georges Perecs "W ou le souvenir d'enfance" (183-200); Koerte, Mona: Der Krieg der Woerter: Der autobiographische Text als kuenstliches Gedaechtnis (201-214); Jochimsen, Jess: "Nur was nicht aufhoert, weh zu thun, bleibt im Gedaechtniss": Die Shoah im Dokumentarfilm (215-231); Kaiser, Katharina: "In der Sprache sitzt das Vergangene unausrottbar": Konzeption und Rezeption der Ausstellungs-Installation "Formen des Erinnerns" im "Haus am Kleistpark" in Berlin (233-252); Hoheisel, Horst: Aschrottbrunnen ? Denk-Stein-Sammlung ? Brandenburger Tor ? Buchenwald: Vier Erinnerungsversuche [Discusses his own art works.] (253-265); Meier, Cordula: Anselm Kiefer, Christian Boltanski, On Kawara, Rebecca Horn: Zur kuenstlerischen Konstruktion von Erinnerung (267-284). RW

Berger, Alan L.: The Holocaust Forty Years after: Too Much or Not Enough Attention? Holocaust Studies Annual 3 [1985] (1987) 1-20.

Traces views of scholars, writers, and theologians on the problematic of Holocaust response and societal dimensions of Holocaust remembrance, expressing concern regarding trends which trivialize or universalize the specifically Jewish tragedy. Argues against the position of some Jewish authorities that the Holocaust has been given too much attention. Contends that, despite public attention, there is little corresponding public knowledge. Survivors testify by telling and writing of their experiences; nonwitnesses testify by reading, studying, and writing about the Holocaust. But this knowledge must be translated into deeds so that the future may be meaningful. Notes that it is important to remember that one bears witness in a culture that has, to a large extent, forgotten how to listen. SSC

Bergman, Jay: Soviet Dissidents on the Holocaust, Hitler and Nazism: A Study of the Preservation of Historical Memory. Slavonic and East European Review 70, 3 (July 1992) 477-504.

While official Soviet literature of the 1960s-80s was silent on the Holocaust, and when dealing with fascism limited itself to the well-known Marxist formula, the dissidents were the first who attempted to analyze the phenomenon of Nazism. However, because their motives were polemical rather than analytical, they were inclined to identify the Soviet regime with Nazism and to use the Holocaust as a metaphor for Stalin's Terror. Some of them, driven by the discrimination against the Jews in the USSR, tried to draw public attention to the Nazi Holocaust because they feared that the Soviet policies in this area would lead to a new Holocaust. The majority, however, used Jews emblematically, as a symbol of every group oppressed by totalitarian society. DR

Bernstein, Michael Andre: Hommage a l'extreme: La Shoah et l'hyperbole de la catastrophe. Le Debat 101 (Sept-Oct 1998) 183-192.  Appeared in English in the "Times Literary Supplement" (6 March 1998).

A critique of the current direction of historiographical search for meaningful language proportionate to the enormity of the Shoah. Whether drawn from theological or psychoanalytic sources, this terminology reduces language to cliches. Focuses on the motif of 19th-century predictions of an apocalypse, culminating at Auschwitz. Attributes the delay of 50 years in confronting the Shoah to a desire to view it as unique rather than a need to reflect on its effects. Warns against the temptation to see this event as the only model of barbarity in Jewish and world history. Refers to certain contradictions, such as the emphasis on its indescribability and the exploitation of the Shoah by opposing political forces to further justify their ideals. Concludes with an appeal for meditation on the Shoah and its significance for Jewry and humanity. TS

Borowitz, Eugene B.: Rethinking Our Holocaust Consciousness. Judaism 40, 4 (Fall 1991) 389-406.

Discusses trends in the Jewish theological response to the Holocaust, especially Richard Rubenstein's "death of God" theory, and Emil Fackenheim's and Elie Wiesel's ideas on the uniqueness and centrality of the Holocaust in contemporary Jewish spiritual life. Referring to the moral problem of evil posed by the Holocaust, states that for Jews it implies a categorical distinction between Nazi torturers and their victims, and an absolute opposition to evil. LV

Brumlik, Micha: Erinnern und Erklaeren: Unsystematische Ueberlegungen eines Beteiligten zum Boerneplatz-Konflikt. Babylon 3 (Apr 1988) 9-17.  Appeared also in "Der Frankfurter Boerneplatz" (1988).

The conflict over the remains of the Frankfurt Jewish ghetto represents a struggle among Germans and Jews over their historical identity in the light of Auschwitz. Germans would like to suppress evidence of antisemitism such as that of the ghetto. Some Jews believe that the Holocaust makes all history meaningless, while others believe there can be no Jewish existence in Germany without links to the past. States that while morally we are speechless in the face of the Holocaust, scientifically we must search for explanations and investigate a possible connection between medieval pogroms and Auschwitz. The postwar Germans have no right to determine for the Jews which material relics should serve them as links to their history. RW

Campen, M. van: Gedenken in het licht van de Holocaust [Commemoration in the Light of the Holocaust]. Israel tussen gedenken en verwachten [Israel between Commemoration and Expectation], eds. C. den Boer et al. Amersfoort: Echo; Evangelische Omroep, 1988. Pp. 98-114.

Examines the meaning of the Holocaust for Judaism and Christianity. Deals with the wartime experiences of Elie Wiesel, his literary works, and his appeal not to forget the sufferings of the past nor of the present. Discusses various Jewish theological views on the meaning of Auschwitz, including those of Richard Rubenstein who claims that God died in Auschwitz and that man can never conquer his inclination to evil. Orthodox Jewry views Auschwitz as a punishment for the Jews' sins, and their sufferings as a forerunner of the messianic age. Eliezer Berkovits argues that God hid his face and retreated from influencing human actions. Records the change of attitude of the Dutch Reformed Church, which rejected supersessionism in 1949, and in 1951 opted for dialogue instead of missionizing. Deals with Christian theological texts and their influence on antisemitism. SRH

Cargas, Harry James: Voices from the Holocaust. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1993. xix, 164 pp.

Contains twelve interviews, conducted by the author in the 1980s, with major figures connected with the Holocaust, both Jews and non-Jews. They discuss events of the Holocaust, as well as the meaning of the Holocaust today. The following persons were interviewed: Arnost Lustig, Simon Wiesenthal, Yitzhak Arad, Mordechai Paldiel, Jan Karski, Marion Pritchard, Leon Wells [first published in "Bridges" 1 (1989)], Whitney Harris, Leo Eitinger [first published in "Martyrdom and Resistance" (Nov-Dec 1983)], Dorothee Soelle [first published in "Encounter" 49 (Spr 1988)], Emil Fackenheim, Elie Wiesel. SSC

Cargas, Harry James, ed.: Telling the Tale: A Tribute to Elie Wiesel on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday: Essays, Reflections, and Poems. Saint Louis, MO: Time Being Books, 1993. 174 pp.

A collection of articles (including articles by Wiesel), interviews with Wiesel, and literature inspired by Wiesel's work and personality. The authors discuss the memory and meaning of the Holocaust and its representation, as well as philosophical and psychological aspects of the Holocaust as reflected in Wiesel's works and biography. Partial contents: Cargas, Harry James: An Interview with Elie Wiesel (15-18); Gendler, Gail M.: Elie Wiesel: A Biographical Overview (19-32); Cargas, Harry James: Can We Bring the Messiah? An Interview with Elie Wiesel [Appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 1 (1986).] (36-44); Littell, Franklin Hamlin: Proclaiming the Silence (62-66); Soelle, Dorothee: Re-Membering: In Honor of Elie Wiesel (67-72); Roth, John King: From "Night" to "Twilight": A Philosopher's Reading of Elie Wiesel [A revised version appeared in "Religion & Literature" 24 (1992).] (73-87); Cargas, Harry James: "Night" as Autobiography (100-108); Fackenheim, Emil Ludwig: Jew of Fidelity (113-116); Berger, Alan L.: Elie Wiesel's Second-Generation Witness: Passing the Torch of Remembrance (119-136); Costas, Bob: A Wound That Will Never Be Healed: An Interview with Elie Wiesel (137-163). LFo

Chamla, Mino: La Shoah ? memoria, perdono, responsabilita: Una voce ebraica. Studi, Fatti, Ricerche 54 (Apr-June 1991) 3-6.

A paper delivered at a conference in Milano, April 1991. Discusses the functions of memory in the Jewish tradition and the difficulty of dealing with the memory of the Holocaust as a singular historical event with neither meaning nor explication. Calls for historicization of the memory of the Holocaust, without emotional aspects which could harm Jewish-Christian relations. Refers to the rejection by non-Jews of personal and collective responsibility for the extermination, as expressed by historical revisionism, and recent attempts to over-emphasize aid given to Jews as opposed to responsibility for the crimes committed. Outlines the responsibility of the Church: the "teaching of contempt" and recent positions concerning the Carmelite convent at Auschwitz, the beatification of Edith Stein and support for Kurt Waldheim. See also the article by Piero Stefani. AA

Le Debat 96 (Sept-Oct 1997).

The section of this issue entitled "Se souvenir, enseigner, transmettre" contains articles discussing memory, and the necessity to teach and ways of teaching about the Holocaust. Contents: Shnur, Emma: Pedagogiser la Shoah? (122-140); Brauman, Rony: Memoire, savoir, pensee (141-144); Forges, Jean-Francois: Pedagogie et morale (145-151); Joutard, Philippe: Une tache possible (152-158); Shnur, Emma: La morale et l'histoire (159-165); Thibaud, Paul: Un temps de memoire? (166-183). HV

Don-Yehiya, Eliezer: Memory and Political Culture: Israeli Society and the Holocaust. Studies in Contemporary Jewry 9 (1993) 139-162.

Traces the evolution of the interpretation of the Holocaust in Israeli society. In the early stage (1948-59) the Holocaust was mainly neglected; the establishment avoided mentioning it ? it was seen as a shameful event in Jewish history. The principle of state expediency ("mamlakhtiyut") was prevalent. In 1953, after lengthy debates in the Knesset, the Yad Vashem memorial was established. In the 1960s another reaction became dominant ? to emphasize Jewish resistance and to ignore Jewish sufferings. After the Six-Day War (1967), the Holocaust began to be interpreted as an expression of the Gentiles' hatred of the Jews; thus, it gave some additional legitimation to the State of Israel. After 1973, the tendency was to compare the Holocaust to Arab terror and to stress the extermination of Diaspora culture by the Nazis. In the 1980s new understandings of the legacy of the Holocaust evolved. Holocaust-related ceremonies show a marked increase in government involvement and in political motivation. DR

Ellis, Marc H.: Ending Auschwitz and 1492: Reflections on the Future of Jewish and Christian Life. European Judaism 27, 1 (Spr 1994) 36-51.

Reflects on the meaning of the Auschwitz memory in the post-1967 Jewish mind. Regrets that many Jews use the Holocaust not as a key to understand and sympathize with other persecuted and suffering peoples, but in order to claim Jewish uniqueness and the right to establish the Jewish state at the expense of the Palestinians. Compares Jewish sufferings in the Christian world to the sufferings inflicted by the European empires on the non-European (Christian and pagan) peoples in the epoch after Columbus's voyages. Contends that the Jews must abandon their sense of innocence and of redemption through Israel; similarly, the Christians must abandon their theological triumphalism of the post-1492 era. Pp. 49-51 contain an afterword, written a year later, following the Israeli-Palestinian agreement. DR

Engel, Vincent: Pourquoi parler d'Auschwitz? Bruxelles: Les Eperonniers, 1992. 93 pp.

Deals with the necessity of remembering the Shoah. Discusses the use of terms related to this event (e.g. Holocaust, Hurban, Shoah). Relates to the uniqueness of the Shoah as a Jewish experience but underlines, as well, its universal aspects in that it was an event which concerns the whole of humanity. HV

Engelking, Barbara: Zaglada i pamiec: Doswiadczenie Holocaustu i jego konsekwencje opisane na podstawie relacji autobiograficznych [Annihilation and Memory: Experience of the Holocaust and Its Consequences Described on the Basis of Autobiographical Reports]. Warszawa: IFiS PAN [Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk], 1994. 318 pp.

A psychological analysis of the memory of the Holocaust, based on interviews with 22 Polish Jews who survived the war and remained in Poland. Reconstructs, quoting largely from the interviews, everyday life in the ghettos ? learning, teaching, social and cultural life ? and problems of adaptation, hunger, illness, death, feelings, moods, hopes, and other psychological aspects. Discusses differences in the war experiences of Poles and Jews, interpretations of the Holocaust as seen by the interviewees, and the psychological consequences of the war for their lives. Reflects on the heritage of the Holocaust in a social and cultural sense, especially the lack of awareness in Polish society that it is also a Polish problem. HV

Ferrarotti, Franco: The Temptation to Forget: Racism, Anti-Semitism, Neo-Nazism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. viii, 190 pp.  Originally published in Italian (1993).

Ferrarotti, Franco: La tentazione dell'oblio: Razzismo, antisemitismo e neonazismo. Bari: Laterza, 1993. 202 pp.

Essays discussing present-day racism in the context of the "assault upon memory," the convenient forgetting of the lessons of the past. Deals with ethnocentric prejudices widespread in the Western world today. Eurocentrism, the belief in the superiority of European culture, is the basis of these prejudices. The tradition of Eurocentrism is rather old; racism and antisemitism are two expressions of it. Dwells on hatred toward Jews as the enemy par excellence in the eyes of ethnocentrics, including Nazis and fascists, and on the Holocaust as exemplary genocide. The Holocaust points to an inherent flaw in European civilization, expressed in its xenophobia and its ability to murder Others. It  critique of Arno Mayer's conception). Calls for the openness of cultures, for intercultural dialogue and exchange of ideas. Shows the psychological roots of racial prejudice and differentiates between race and culture, calling for a multicultural, tolerant society. AA/DR

Finkielkraut, Alain: L'ebreo immaginario. Trans.: Emanuela Fubini. Genova: Marietti, 1990. xi, 172 pp.  Originally published as "Le Juif imaginaire" (Paris: Seuil, 1980).

Describes himself and his generation in the Diaspora as "imaginary Jews" who did not receive a Jewish education but who have a Jewish obsession, who experienced no oppression or pain but are imbued with the memory of past persecution and suffering. Their roots were obliterated by the Nazis who succeeded in wiping out the culture of "Yiddishkeit." These Jews are conscious of their singularity, and feel the latent anxiety of another destruction pending. Antisemitism is not violent today only because of the violence at the time of the Holocaust. Assimilation leads to antisemitism amongst Jews: recalls the French Israelites rejecting the "Ostjuden," to no avail in the face of the Nazi threat. Jews are not allowed to become like the Gentiles: when they cease to be different they face racism. After Hitler, antisemitism was supplanted by Soviet and Arab anti-Zionism, the latter being a mix of political adversity, traditional contempt for Jews (e.g. dhimmi-status, discrimination, pogroms) and, more recently, influences of European antisemitism (accusation of international conspiracy, etc.). AA

Finkielkraut, Alain: The Imaginary Jew. Trans.: Kevin O'Neill, David Suchoff. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. 201 pp.  Originally published as "Le Juif imaginaire" (Paris: Seuil, 1980). See the abstract for the Italian edition (Genova: Marietti, 1990).

Friedlaender, Saul: Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1993. 142 pp.

A collection of essays written between 1985-92. Contents: German Struggles with Memory [Appeared in "Bitburg in Moral and Political Perspective" (1986).] (1-21); A Conflict of Memories? The New German Debates about the "Final Solution" [Appeared as the "Leo Baeck Memorial Lecture" 31 (1987).] (22-41); The Shoah in Present Historical Consciousness [Appeared as the "Daniel E. Koshland Memorial Lecture" (1990).] (42-63); Reflections on the Historicization of National Socialism [Appeared in the  "Tel Aviver Jahrbuch fuer Deutsche Geschichte" 16 (1987).] (64-84); Martin Broszat and the Historicization of National Socialism [Appeared in German in "Mit dem Pathos der Nuechternheit" (1991).] (85-101); The "Final Solution": On the Unease in Historical Interpretation [Appeared in "History & Memory" 1 (1989), and in "Lessons and Legacies" (1991).] (102-116); Trauma and Transference [Appeared in "History & Memory" 4 (1992).] (117-137). SSC

Friedlaender, Saul: Trauma, Transference and "Working through" in Writing the History of the Shoah. History & Memory 4, 1 (Spr-Sum 1992) 39-59.

Examines representations of the Holocaust in Jewish and German historiography, historical consciousness in the face of the Holocaust, and collective and individual memory. Summarizes interpretations of previous catastrophes and of the Holocaust in Jewish historical consciousness, referring also to the Israeli perception of the Holocaust and its tendency toward a multi-faceted image and lack of a consensual interpretation. Examines, also, the burden of the Nazi past for the Germans and German historiography, forms of defense and repression, and forms of avoiding the challenge of Auschwitz by a growing fragmentation in the representation of the Nazi period. Emphasizes the difficulty for historians of the Holocaust to maintain a balance between the intellectual approach and the emotional impact of the testimonies ? the integration of the "mythic memory" of the victims within the overall representation of the period. "Working through" means "confronting the individual voice in a field dominated by political decisions and administrative decrees which neutralize the concreteness of despair and death." LV

Friedlander, Albert Hoschander: Riders towards the Dawn: From Ultimate Suffering to Tempered Hope. London: Constable, 1993. 328 pp.  Published also in New York: Continuum, 1994.

Discusses post-Holocaust thought, both religious and secular, which realizes that neither religion nor philosophy can be the same after Auschwitz, and which tries to understand the Holocaust. Examines the views of Jewish religious thinkers, both Orthodox and progressive (including Hutner, Wyschogrod, Jakobovits, Berkovits, Marmur, Borowitz, Baeck), Christian thinkers (Bonhoeffer, Niemoeller), secular authors (Bettelheim, Frankl, Heimler), and poets (Celan, Sachs, Fried). Surveys, also, specific intellectual responses to the Holocaust in the USA, Germany, France, Britain, Italy, and Israel. Friedlander does not adhere completely to any one viewpoint. DR

Gaita, Raimond: Remembering the Holocaust: Absolute Value and the Nature of Evil. Quadrant 39, 12 (Dec 1995) 7-15.

The text of the 1995 John Henry Newman lecture delivered at Mannix College, Monash University. Reflects on the uniqueness of the Holocaust and the obligation on all humankind to remember it solemnly and truthfully, and what sense we can make of that obligation in a culture deeply skeptical of value and truth. Discusses the meaning of the term "crimes against humanity" perpetrated by the Nazis ? i.e. crimes against the human status of the Jews (and the Gypsies). The Jews were killed because they were judged unfit to inhabit the earth with the Master Race. But beyond the criminal acts lies the evil of the Holocaust. Both victims and perpetrators have difficulty in understanding the evil that was done. Some of those difficulties have to do with the very nature of evil as a distinctive moral phenomenon. The evil of the Holocaust was accompanied by a suspension of human feeling and of moral judgment. Skepticism of truth and objectivity is corrosive of moral and spiritual values. SSC
 

[Goldberg, Amos: The Holocaust in the Ultra-Orthodox Press ? between Memory and Rejection. Yahadut Zemanenu 11-12 (1998) 155-206.] (in Hebrew)

Examines the Jewish ultra-Orthodox collective memory of the Holocaust as reflected during the 1960s-70s in the monthly journal "Beit Yaakov," published by the Agudath Israel, and in the periodical "Diglenu" of its youth movement Zeirei Agudath Israel (both published in Israel). States that rather than emphasizing the guilt of the Zionists in regard to rescue attempts during the Holocaust ? as many scholars have claimed ? the items in these periodicals focus on depicting the Holocaust events according to traditional ultra-Orthodox concepts, thereby infusing the events with religious significance. Problematic aspects of Rabbi Kalonymus Klemish Shapira's exemplary leadership are presented in a non-challenging way as part of the attempt to reinforce the status of other leading rabbinical figures, who unlike Rabbi Shapira (who stayed with his congregation and perished in 1944) saved themselves by escaping. Concludes that the emphasis on episodes that vindicate the ultra-Orthodox system of values, even in the midst of the greatest horrors, actually represses the authentic voices of the Holocaust victims. LFo

Gorny, Yosef: The Jewish People at the End of the Twentieth Century between Two Existential Experiences. Journal of Israeli History 15, 2 (1994) 193-212.

An expanded version of a lecture presented at the 9th International Scientific Congress of Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, June 1993. Examines the Holocaust and the founding of the State of Israel as the two main components of Jewish collective identity today, apart from the Jewish religion. The State of Israel and the memory of the Holocaust form a kind of "civil religion." The role of the Holocaust has grown during the last decade, overshadowing Israel. Discusses a dialectic tension which is expressed publicly in two areas, the ideological and the political. A dialectic of two opposing forces forms the image of the Jew: the centrifugal, leading to a condition accepted as normal, and the centripetal, viewing the Jewish experience as abnormal. The dual tension between the mythic ethoi of the Holocaust and the State is expressed in a feeling of impotence of the Jewish collective will as opposed to the power of this proven will. The Jewish experience at the end of the 20th century can be characterized as a pluralism with many contradictions. DR

Gottlieb, Roger S.: Remembrance and Resistance: Philosophical and Personal Reflections on the Holocaust. Social Theory and Practice 14, 1 (Spr 1988) 25-40.

Suggests that remembrance include pride and joy at Jewish resistance, not only sadness and sorrow for the victims, and points out some meanings of the Holocaust, especially resistance, for modern-day life. SSC

Gottlieb, Roger S., ed.: Thinking the Unthinkable: Meanings of the Holocaust. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. xii, 446 pp.

A collection of articles, most of them published previously, and excerpts from books. Partial contents: "The Holocaust and Spiritual Life": Wiesel, Elie: "The Death of My Father" and "Yom Kippur" (199-208); Berkovits, Eliezer: Authenticity of Being (209-223); Fackenheim, Emil Ludwig: Jewish Existence after the Holocaust (224-239); Pawlikowski, John T.: The Challenge of the Holocaust for Christian Theology (240-270); Heschel, Abraham Joshua: The Meaning of This Hour (271-274). "Present and Future Questions: Hope, Survivors, and Memory": Kren, George M.; Rappoport, Leon H.: The Holocaust and the Human Condition (347-372); Bettelheim, Bruno: The Holocaust ? One Generation after (373-389); Greenspan, Miriam: Responses to the Holocaust (390-399); Levi, Primo: The Memory of the Offense (400-406); Samet, Jerry: The Holocaust and the Imperative to Remember (407-433); Gottlieb, Roger S.: Remembrance and Resistance [Appeared in "Social Theory and Practice" 14 (1988).] (434-446). SSC

Grosser, Alfred: Le crime et la memoire. Paris: Flammarion, 1989. 268 pp.

Discusses the importance of remembrance of crimes committed throughout history, both for descendants of the victims and for the nations which committed the crimes. The memory of the crimes can prevent other crimes. Ch. 2 (pp. 39-86), "Auschwitz par comparaison," protests against banalization of the Holocaust, but asserts that this crime should be compared with others committed throughout history. Brings examples of other ethnocides, such as that of the Armenians and the Indians, and finds that the specificity and singularity of Auschwitz can be discussed only by comparison with other crimes. HV
 
 

[Gutwein, Daniel: The Privatization of the Holocaust: Politics, Memory and Historiography. Dappim le-Heker Tekufat ha-Shoah 15 (1998) 7-52.] (in Hebrew)

Distinguishes three main periods in the shaping of the collective memory of the Holocaust in Israel, which is continuously affected by changes in the Israelis' collective identity as well as by formative economic, political, and sociological processes: 1) The period of the "split memory," which began after World War II, characterized by identification with the sufferings of Holocaust victims, along with criticism of their reactions during the Holocaust, and by the instrumentalization of the Holocaust memory by the Zionist establishment in the struggle for a Jewish state; 2) The period of "nationalized memory," beginning with Eichmann's trial (1961), in which identification with the sufferings of the Holocaust victims dims the Zionist rejection of the Diaspora and its experiences; 3) The period of "privatized memory," beginning in the 1980s, which highlights personal Holocaust experiences, rejects the Holocaust memory imposed by the Zionist establishment, and is part of the post-Zionist and privatization ideologies prevalent in Israel. Discusses historical works by Israelis who have influenced the discourse on the Holocaust and its memory in Israel, including those of Yehuda Bauer, Shabtai B. Beit Zvi, Yehuda Elkana, Yosef Grodzinsky, Dina Porat, and Henry Wassermann. LFo

Hardtmann, Gertrud, ed.: Spuren der Verfolgung: Seelische Auswirkungen des Holocaust auf die Opfer und ihre Kinder. Gerlingen: Bleicher, 1992. 286 pp.

Partial contents: Bar-On, Dan: Begegnung mit dem Holocaust: Israelische und deutsche Studenten im Prozess des Durcharbeitens [Appeared in English in the "International Journal of Group Tensions" 22 (1992).] (167-196); Regler, Gustav: Journal d'Europe 1956 (198-202); Richter, Horst-Eberhard: Erinnerungsarbeit und Zukunftserwartung der Deutschen (222-234); Mitscherlich-Nielsen, Margarete: Gesamtdeutsche Erinnerungs- und Trauerarbeit (235-250); Hardtmann, Gertrud: Ein Volk ohne Schatten? (251-260). RW

Hartman, Geoffrey H., ed.: Holocaust Remembrance: The Shapes of Memory. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994. xi, 306 pp.

Partial contents: Hartman, Geoffrey H.: Introduction: Darkness Visible [Appeared in Hebrew in "Alpayim" 10 (1994).] (1-22); Wieviorka, Annette: On Testimony (23-32); Rosenfeld, Alvin H.: Jean Amery as Witness (59-69); Langer, Lawrence L.: Remembering Survival (70-80); Tracy, David: Christian Witness and the Shoah (81-89); Felman, Shoshana: Film as Witness: Claude Lanzmann's "Shoah" (90-120); Ezrahi, Sidra DeKoven: Conversation in the Cemetery: Dan Pagis and the Prosaics of Memory [In Hebrew: "Alpayim" 10 (1994).] (121-133); Schwarcz, Vera: Chinese History and Jewish Memory [On editing her father's Holocaust memoirs.] (134-148); Appelfeld, Aharon: The Awakening (149-152); Gouri, Haim: Facing the Glass Booth [On Israeli reactions to the Eichmann trial and research for Gouri's film "The Eighty-First Blow."] (153-160); Geyer, Michael; Hansen, Miriam Bratu: German-Jewish Memory and National Consciousness (175-190); Fresco, Nadine: Negating the Dead [On Holocaust denial amongst the French Left.] (191-203); Leoni, Giovanni: "The First Blow": Projects for the Camp at Fossoli (204-214); Young, James Edward: Jewish Memory in Poland (215-231); Dwork, Deborah; Van Pelt, Robert Jan: Reclaiming Auschwitz (232-251); Friedlaender, Saul: Trauma, Memory, and Transference [An English version appeared in "History & Memory" 4 (1992); in German in "Die Juden in der europaeischen Geschichte" (1992).] (252-263). RW

Hassoun, Jacques; Nathan-Murat, Mireille; Radzynski, Annie: Non lieu de la memoire: La cassure d'Auschwitz. Paris: Bibliophane, 1990. 263 pp.

The book is divided into three sections, each written by one of the authors, all of whom are psychoanalysts. They analyze the Holocaust as a "rupture of civilization" whose horror and trauma irremediably marked the collective conscience and still haunt the memory of the second generation. AA

Herf, Jeffrey: Old Arguments and New Problems. Partisan Review 66, 3 (1999) 375-391.

Public memory of the Holocaust existed in both German states as early as in the first postwar years. It emerged not under pressure from foreign forces; it was German anti-Nazi political leaders who came to power who first challenged the public amnesia. The Cold War led to suppression of the Holocaust memory in East Germany and to some shifts in accents in West Germany. Thus, the history of the public memory of the Holocaust in postwar Germany has also been a history of efforts to drive it out of public life. Two recent episodes demonstrate this: the debate over the construction of a memorial to the murdered Jews in Berlin; and a public dispute between Martin Walser and Ignatz Bubis about the memory of the Holocaust following Walser's speech upon receiving a Peace Prize in 1998. Paradoxically, many German liberals and left-wingers (among them the new Chancellor, Schroeder) united with right-wingers in their opposition to the continuing memory of the Holocaust, and to the construction of the Berlin memorial in particular. DR

Hilberg, Raul: The Holocaust Today. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, 1988. vii, 14 pp. (B.G. Rudolph Lectures in Judaic Studies, 27).  Appeared also in "Shofar" 8 (1990), and in "Judaism in the Modern World" (New York: New York University Press, 1994).

Asserts that remembering the Holocaust is an act of revolt against an attempt to obliterate the event on the part of Western and Marxist countries, both during the Holocaust and afterwards. Recalls how the first communications in the summer of 1942 about a systematic plan of extermination were ignored, as were the report from Auschwitz smuggled out in 1943 and aerial photographs of the gas chambers at Birkenau from 1944. Thus, the Holocaust was "discovered" only when the Allied troops entered the camps. War criminals were tried for the killing of nationals, not specifically for having killed Jews. Interest in the Holocaust surfaced in the U.S. in the 1970s, along with moral uncertainties following the Vietnam war. Discusses also the renewed interest in the Holocaust in Germany and Poland. Emphasizes the importance of historical research, to keep the memory alive. EG

Hirsch, Marianne: Past Lives: Postmemories in Exile. Poetics Today 17, 4 (Win 1996) 659-686.

Introduces the notion of postmemory, designating the memory of those who did not live through the traumatic events of the Holocaust but who grew up with narratives that preceded their birth. Examines the discourses of postmemory in the photographic work "Tower of Faces" exhibited in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, based on Yaffa Eliach's collection of prewar photographs from the Lithuanian town Eisiskes, and in the installations "Lesson of Darkness" by the French artist Christian Boltanski and another by the American artist Shimon Attie, both based on archival photographs ? the former from a Jewish school in prewar Vienna, and the latter from a Jewish quarter in prewar Berlin. The photographic images provide the most powerful medium of postmemory; they are the means by which the children of survivors may rebuild and mourn the lost world of their parents. DR

History of the Human Sciences 9, 4 (Nov 1996).

This issue, entitled "Identity, Memory and History," presents the proceedings of a workshop held at the University of the West of England in Bristol in May 1996. It contains a paper presented by Steve Buckler, which had been circulated earlier to participants, and the responses. Buckler's paper deals with the nature of historical narrative, its incorporation into public historical memory, and the problems of incorporating the Holocaust into such memory because of the questions it raises regarding narrative, human identity, memory and meaning. Partial contents: Buckler, Steve: Historical Narrative, Identity and the Holocaust (1-20); Zajko, Vanda: "I May Be a Bit of a Jew": Trauma in Human Narrative (21-26): Hand, Sean: Outside Presence: Realizing the Holocaust in Contemporary French Narratives (27-43); Turner, Charles: Holocaust Memories and History (45-63); Steedman, Carolyn: About Ends: On the Way in Which the End Is Different from an Ending (99-114); Buckler, Steve: Afterword (115-121); White, Hayden: Commentary (123-138). SSC

Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona: Frames of Remembrance: The Dynamics of Collective Memory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1994. xiv, 214 pp.

Ch. 2 (pp. 23-43), "Ultimate Challenge," reflects on the challenges facing Holocaust remembrance. The "spaces of remembrance" are mainly lost, and well-known words and images may not always be used to represent the Holocaust. For instance, Auschwitz may symbolize the Holocaust in the West, but not in Poland, where its significance is wider. The correlations between the empathic and the detached academic views on the Holocaust, and between honoring the heroes and concentrating on the ordinary people are not clear. The remembrance of the Holocaust is not politically neutral. Its memory may aggravate interethnic relations and even incite antisemitism instead of abating it. Pp. 153-158 deal with the representation of the Holocaust on television, and television as a tool of remembrance. DR

Kaplan, Harold: Conscience and Memory: Meditations in a Museum of the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. xvi, 213 pp.

Presents philosophical reflections on the Holocaust, its meaning, and its ethical significance for the modern world. The Holocaust is more than an issue between Germans and Jews; its significance is universal. It debunks three "myths of modernity": that of God acting in history through human intermediaries; scientism, i.e. the belief in the primacy of the laws of nature; and the myth of power. All three myths were exploited by the Nazis in support of their program. Reflects on the historical categorization of the Holocaust. Objects to Christians turning the Holocaust into a kind of quasi-Christian cult centering on redemption. Concludes that the Holocaust was the final victory of despotic power over conscience. Its primary lesson is one of ethical and moral considerations (not metaphysical myths) which must be laid down as the bases of political thinking and action. The basic human right is the right to live; every democracy must be committed to this right, above all other principles. DR

Koenig, Helmut; Kohlstruck, Michael; Woell, Andreas, eds.:  Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung am Ende des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1998. 455 pp. (Leviathan: Zeitschrift fuer Sozialwissenschaft: Sonderheft 18).

Partial contents: Perels, Joachim: Die Zerstoerung von Erinnerung als Herrschafts-technik: Adornos Analysen zur Blockierung der Aufarbeitung der NS-Vergangenheit (53-68); Kohlstruck, Michael: Zwischen Geschichte und Mythologisierung: Zum Strukturwandel der Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung (86-108); Krasnodebski, Zdzislaw: Lob, Verlegenheit und Irritation: Deutsche Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung und polnische Schwierigkeiten mit der Geschichte (309-323); Bergmann, Werner: Kommunikationslatenz und Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung (393-408); Schlink, Bernhard: Die Bewaeltigung von Vergangenheit durch Recht (433-451). RW

Koselleck, Reinhart: Die Diskontinuitaet der Erinnerung. Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie 47, 2 (1999) 213-222.

Based on a lecture held in Heidelberg. Suggests that, in the Nazi period, most Germans had only a fragmentary knowledge of Nazi crimes, acquired in chance experiences; the author, then a soldier in the Wehrmacht, knew nothing of these crimes, and felt betrayed when he learned of them after the war. The collective memory is a synthesis of individual memories, but since experience cannot be transmitted, this collective memory is one degree removed, a fact that explains the break between the war generation and the '68ers. The children have no right to blame their parents, since they did not share their experience. Nazi crimes defy all efforts to grasp them scientifically or morally, or atone for them through religion. Argues that memorials should include all the victims of Nazism, not only the Jews. In Germany they should not permit a false identification of Germans with the victims, but point to the perpetrators. See the reply by Gabriel Motzkin, "Moralische Verantwortung und Diskontinuitaet der Erinnerung" [Ibid. 47, 6 (1999) 1023-1031]. Remarks that memories cannot be divorced from a moral context, as Koselleck tries to do; a moral dimension also makes empathy possible. The postwar generation of Germans feels guilt not through identification with the perpetrators ? which would be unjust ? but through empathy with the victims. Holds that a memorial has impact only if it is dedicated to a specific goup, in this case the Jews, as the symbolic representatives of all the victims of Nazism. RW

Krondorfer, Bjoern: Remembrance and Reconciliation: Encounters between Young Jews and Germans. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. xi, 260 pp.

Reconciliation between Jews and Germans, especially amongst the third generation after Auschwitz (born in the 1960s-70s), would seem to be a flawed and dubious idea. Both communities developed incompatible discourses and ethoses in respect to the Holocaust, and, while the German speaks of reconciliation through forgetting the Jew speaks of remembrance. The current ritualized rhetoric on the Holocaust instilled two stereotypes into the consciousness of both Jews and Germans ? the Jew as victim and the German as victimizer. All this often counters attempts to reconcile the two groups. In 1989-93, Krondorfer succeeded in organizing meetings between third generation American Jews and non-Jewish Americans and Germans, which began at Bryn Mawr College and continued in Berlin and the Auschwitz Museum, and which showed that the reconciliation between young Jews and Germans is possible. Based on this experience, as well as on his participation in the Jewish-German Dance Theater (which in 1988-89 put on a production of "But What about the Holocaust" before young American and German audiences), proposes psychological stratagems and rituals for reconciliation. DR

Kushner, Tony (Antony): Editor's Introduction: "Wrong War, Mate". Patterns of Prejudice 29, 2-3 (Apr-July 1995) 3-13.

An introduction to this issue of the journal devoted to "Fifty Years after the Holocaust and the Second World War." Reflects on misinterpretation and misrepresentation of the Holocaust by the mass media and mass fiction, both in the early postwar period and in 1995, when the liberation of the Nazi camps and VE day were commemorated. The media has tried to reshape the Holocaust memory so that it would fit into a more conventional image of the war. Works of fiction try to present the Holocaust in a form in which it may be read by the masses. In the first two decades after the war, media and fiction tended to downplay the Jewish aspect of the Nazi genocide; they were more interested in concentration camps, such as Dachau and Buchenwald. In January 1995, the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz was widely commemorated and covered by the media. However, the coverage of the Holocaust was superficial. The Holocaust memory has become politicized; it has become common to misinterpret it and to exploit its image for present-day issues (Bosnia, animal rights, etc.). DR

Lang, Berel: Holocaust Memory and Revenge: The Presence of the Past. Jewish Social Studies 2, 2 (Win 1996) 1-20.

The topic of revenge is virtually absent in postwar Jewish discourse on the Holocaust. It is not because no act of revenge against the perpetrators of genocide ever occurred. There were such attempts on the part of Jewish survivors, such as those undertaken by the "Revenge Group" (also called DIN) led by Abba Kovner, which operated in 1946 in Germany, and other acts by organized Jewish groups and individuals. Besides the few acts of overt revenge, there have been many instances of revenge in symbolic, displaced forms: many Jews refuse to buy German goods or to travel to Germany; the music of Wagner is not performed in Israel; there was strong opposition to accepting the German reparations agreed upon with Israel in 1952. The very concept of revenge is morally problematic. It is incompatible with the principles of justice and forgiveness, which is one reason for the silence about it in Holocaust discourse. However, revenge, even in symbolic form, motivates and fosters the memory of the Holocaust. DR

Lang, Berel, ed.: Writing and the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988. x, 301 pp.

Most of the essays were originally presented as papers at a conference held at SUNY in Albany, NY, April 1987. Lang, Berel: Introduction (1-15). "The Memory of History": Hilberg, Raul: I Was Not There (17-25); Langer, Lawrence L.: Interpreting Survivor Testimony (26-40); Fine, Ellen Sydney: The Absent Memory: The Act of Writing in Post-Holocaust French Literature (41-57); Segal, Lore: Memory: The Problems of Imagining the Past (58-65); Friedlaender, Saul: Historical Writing and the Memory of the Holocaust (66-77); Ladurie, Emmanuel Le Roy: Commentary (78-80). "The Representation of Evil": Appelfeld, Aharon: After the Holocaust (83-92); Hallie, Philip P.: Writing about Ethical Ambivalence during the Holocaust (93-109); Seeskin, Kenneth: Coming to Terms with Failure: A Philosophical Dilemma (110-121); Heyen, William: Unwilled "Chaos": In Poem We Trust (122-136); Ezrahi, Sidra DeKoven: Considering the Apocalypse: Is the Writing on the Wall Only Graffiti? (137-153); Steiner, George: The Long Life of Metaphor: An Approach to the "Shoah" [Appeared in "Encounter" (February 1987).] (154-171). "Fiction as Truth": Howe, Irving: Writing and the Holocaust [Appeared in "The New Republic" (27 October 1986).] (175-199); Young, James Edward: Holocaust Documentary Fiction: The Novelist as Eyewitness (200-215); Des Pres, Terrence: Holocaust Laughter? (216-233); Needler, Howard: Red Fire upon Black Fire: Hebrew in the Holocaust Novels of K. Tsetnik (234-244); Lang, Berel: Writing-the-Holocaust: Jabes and the Measure of History [Appeared in "The Sin of the Book: Edmond Jabes," ed. Eric Gould (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1985).] (245-260); Epstein, Leslie: Writing about the Holocaust (261-270); Roundtable Discussion: Raul Hilberg, Cynthia Ozick, Aharon Appelfeld, Saul Friedlaender (271-289). SSC

Levi Della Torre, Stefano: Oblio e memoria dello sterminio. Studi, Fatti, Ricerche 44 (Oct-Dec 1988) 3-9.

Discusses the psychological significance of tendencies toward forgetfulness or remembrance of the Holocaust. General factors which favor forgetting include the enormity of the event, the lapse of time, and the natural tendency to want to "forgive and forget." Recent public polemics (the Waldheim case, Bitburg) have revealed other factors, also noticeable in the Italian press: the privatization of the Holocaust (presented as a purely Jewish problem), the transformation of the victims into present-day (Israeli) "executioners," and relativization of the event's uniqueness. There is a tendency toward a return to "normality" and indifference, to turn the Holocaust into a symbol, and to attribute an excess of meanings to the Holocaust (e.g. presentation of Nazi Germany as a "victim" of the Jews, or demonization of Nazism). LV

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: America and the Memory of the Holocaust, 1950-1965. Modern Judaism 16, 3 (Oct 1996) 195-214.

Until the late 1960s, although popular entertainment did touch on the subject, the Holocaust received little attention in American academia or the Jewish community. The publication of William L. Shirer's "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" in 1959, and the reporting and comments on the trial of Adolf Eichmann in the early 1960s, helped increase public awareness of the Holocaust; opened up the floodgates of memory of its victims; and stimulated journalists, scholars, and intellectuals to a more profound examination of its character and causes. The Arab-Israeli war of 1967, the upheavals of Vietnam, and the growth of ethnic consciousness in the U.S. in the late 1960s, all contributed to making the Holocaust a focus of Jewish and Gentile interest and a major stimulus for motivating Jewish identity. REK

Loewy, Hanno; Moltmann, Bernhard, eds.: Erlebnis ? Gedaechtnis ? Sinn: Authentische und konstruierte Erinnerung. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1996. 300 pp.

Deals with the human capacity of memory and to what extent it is able to cope with the events of the Holocaust. Partial contents: Assmann, Aleida: Erinnerungsorte und Gedaechtnislandschaften (13-29); Diner, Dan: Massenvernichtung und Gedaechtnis: Zur kulturellen Strukturierung historischer Ereignisse (47-55); Ruesen, Joern: Trauer als historische Kategorie: Ueberlegungen zur Erinnerung an den Holocaust in der Geschichtskultur der Gegenwart (57-78); Young, James Edward: Das Dilemma der aesthetischen Auseinandersetzung mit dem Holocaust: Deutschland und USA im Vergleich (79-99); Muenz, Christoph: Erinnerung im juedischen Kontext: Der Welt ein Gedaechtnis geben (137-163). ID

Malet, Emile, ed.: Resistance et memoire: D'Auschwitz a Sarajevo. Paris: Hachette, 1993. 487 pp.

A collection of papers, speeches, and memoirs presented at a colloquium held in Lyon, October 1992. The following relate to the Jewish resistance in France during the Nazi occupation, the preservation of the memory of the Holocaust, and present-day forms of antisemitism: Wiesel, Elie: La memoire comme resistance (33-41); Mosco: Les statues et les hommes (161-168); Halter, Marek: La memoire inquiete (206-211); Klarsfeld, Serge: Memoire sans frontieres (242-248); Bulawko, Henry: Reflexions sur la resistance et la memoire (255-263); Marrus, Michael Robert: Les temoins portent la memoire (264-288); Manor, Yohanan: La memoire: Quels reperes? (288-294); Horwitz, Gordon J.: La memoire et l'historien: Une approche de la Shoah (307-311); Samuels, Shimon: L'antisemitisme, une menace pour la democratie europeenne (403-413). LV

Manea, Norman: The Truth As Commodity: Remarks on the Walser Debate. Partisan Review 66, 3 (1999) 392-397.

Objects to the excessive use of Holocaust memory for various ends, including political ones, and the proliferation of ceremonies, memorials, films, etc., memorializing the Holocaust. Admits that the pedalling of Germany's guilt may insult the new generation of Germans who cannot bear a responsibility for the genocide. Contends that the best memorialization of the Holocaust may be respectful solemn silence, and initiatives like the Spielberg Archive. Although understanding Walser's feelings, Manea believes that the writer, who must be the conscience of his people, cannot call for the termination of memory. DR

Maxwell, Elisabeth: The Universal Implications of the Holocaust. Halcyon 14 (1992) 115-138.  Unseen.

Mayer, Arno Joseph: Memory and History: On the Poverty of Remembering and Forgetting the Judeocide. Radical History Review 56 (Spr 1993) 5-20.  Appeared also in "Science, Mind and Art," eds. Kostas Gavroglu et al. (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1995).

An expanded version of a speech delivered at Princeton University on Yom Hashoah 1992, with the intention to respond to critiques of his book "Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?" (New York: Pantheon, 1988). Discusses the problem of selective remembering and selective forgetting in the process of developing the collective memory of the Holocaust (called "Judeocide"). Argues that the memory of Auschwitz has become overly static and undialectical, with the accent almost exclusively on the barbarity of the Nazis and the degradation and suffering of the victims. The horrors of Auschwitz should be read with a view to discerning political contexts. Discussing aspects of shaping and transmission of the collective memory of the Holocaust, contends that Yad Vashem was based on a sectarian and narrow conception. Both memory and history tend to be used and misused for political ends. There is a need to "desectarianize" and "re-universalize" the memory of the Jewish victims by illuminating it with contextual and homologic history. LV

Metz, Johann Baptist: Kirche nach Auschwitz. Mit einem Anhang: Fuer eine anamnetische Kultur. Hamburg: Katholische Akademie, 1993. 23 pp.

A lecture delivered in Hamburg, November 1991. Discusses the importance to the Church, and to Germans in general, of making the memory of the Holocaust a basic element in the politics of united Germany and in the attitude to Jews and to the State of Israel. This can only be achieved by incorporating the Jewish culture of remembering in Christian and European civilization. RW

Meyer, Michael A.: The Particular Significance of the Holocaust for Jews. Assessing the Significance of the Holocaust, eds. Abie I. Ingber, Benny Kraut. Cincinnati: Hillel Jewish Student Center; University of Cincinnati, Judaic Studies Program, [1986?]. Pp. 15-18.

A paper delivered at the University of Cincinnati on Yom Hashoah, May 1986. Discusses the significance of the Holocaust for Jewish history in terms of demography and the importance of survival for the Jewish people. The Holocaust has also led to a widespread crisis of faith and a hypersensitivity to manifestations of antisemitism. Warns against overemphasizing the Holocaust to the extent that Jewish identity becomes based on the Jews' victimization. Auschwitz is one pole of Jewish history but the longing for a better time ("the messianic age") must be the other pole. EB

Michaels, Walter Benn: "You Who Never Was There": Slavery and the New Historicism, Deconstruction and the Holocaust. Narrative 4, 1 (Jan 1996) 1-16.

If memory constitutes the core of individual identity, national memory constitutes the core of national identity. Discusses the methodology and the meaning of the conversion of history into memory, exemplified by the Blacks' memory of slavery and the Jews' memory of the Holocaust, and examines the process in terms of deconstructionist and New Historicism theory. Pp. 8-13 relate to Holocaust remembrance. States that if the passing of eyewitnesses and the fading of memories gives the question of what sustains Jewish identity a new urgency, the new deployment of deconstruction ? explaining how texts, by way of the performative, can produce the transformation of the historical past into the remembered past ? helps make the Holocaust available as a continuing source of identitarian sustenance. SSC

Montgomery, Scott L.: What Kind of Memory? Reflections on Images of the Holocaust. Contention 5, 1 (Fall 1995) 79-103.

Contends that contemporary mass culture (especially films and television shows) fails to present Nazism and the Holocaust properly. Instead of trying to understand these phenomena, the cinema gives the spectator stereotyped images of the Nazis and of the machinery of destruction, images which border on kitsch and even on "admiration" for evil. In addition, most films present the Holocaust as a unique event, without any possible parallel; such a stance reduces the evil aspect of all other cases of mass murder in the world ? in Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, etc. Spielberg's "Schindler's List," albeit somewhat better than other films, is still not free of the same shortcomings. Pp. 105-111 contain a response by Marga Cottino-Jones, "`What Kind of Memory?' Liliana Cavani's `Night Porter.'" DR

Moses, Rafael; Moses-Hrushovski, Rena: Some Sociopsychological and Political Perspectives of the Meaning of the Holocaust: A View from Israel. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 34, 1 (1997) 55-68.

On the background of Israeli reactions to the Holocaust over the last 40 years, focuses on the meaning of the Holocaust as it is woven into the social and political fabric of Israel today. The remembrance of the Holocaust serves to bolster claims of entitlement for Israelis and render them the feeling that, as a group that underwent extraordinary, historically unique sufferings, they deserve compensation; they have a feeling of righteousness in all their present actions. These perceptions are expressed in the Israeli view of the Arab-Israeli conflict. This attitude closes off empathy toward others, first of all to Arabs as victims, and suppresses feelings of guilt. Moreover, it encourages a holding on to rigid positions and to the past; it comes at the expense of dealing effectively with the present. The motivation of such attitudes is similar to psychological mechanisms of defense and is akin to the mechanisms motivating Holocaust denial. DR

Moses, Rafael, ed.: Persistent Shadows of the Holocaust: The Meaning to Those Not Directly Affected. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1993. xxii, 277 pp.  First published in German translation as "Die Bedeutung des Holocaust fuer nicht direkt Betroffene" (Stuttgart ? Bad Cannstatt: frommann-holzboog, 1992).

Based on lectures and group discussions delivered at the Fifth Conference of the Sigmund Freud Center for Study and Research in Psychoanalysis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, May 1988. Partial contents: Appy, Johann-Gottfried: The Meaning of "Auschwitz" Today: Clinical Reflections about the Depletion of a Destructive Symbol (3-28); Discussion (29-36); Roth, Sheldon: The Shadow of the Holocaust (37-64); Discussion (65-79); Volkan, Vamik D.: What the Holocaust Means to a Non-Jewish Psychoanalyst (81-105); Discussion (107-117); Moses, Rafael; Cohen, Yehezkel: An Israeli View (119-140); Discussion (141-153). RW

Muenz, Christoph: Der Welt ein Gedaechtnis geben: Geschichts-theologisches Denken im Judentum nach Auschwitz. Guetersloh: Chr. Kaiser; Guetersloher Verlagshaus, 1995. 584 pp.  Based on the author's diss. ? Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Siegen, 1994.

Deplores the lack of interest of both German historians and the general public in the Holocaust and, in particular, in the point of view of the victims. The meaning of the Holocaust has been discussed mainly in the U.S. and by Jews. They have dwelled on its irrationality, its incomprehensibility, and the impossibility of expressing the experience in words. The Holocaust threatens Jewish identity because of Judaism's fusion of history and religion. Surveys reactions of Orthodox rabbis during and after the Holocaust. Discusses the post-Holocaust theologies of Maybaum, Rubenstein, Fackenheim, Berkovits, Arthur Cohen, Irving Greenberg, and the views of Marc Ellis. Argues that all Jewish thinking on the Holocaust has to do with a wrestling for meaning and for an answer that makes Jewish life possible after the Holocaust. Discusses the centrality of memory in Judaism and as the basis of Jewish historiography; in contrast to Western historiography, it is not divorced from feeling and morality. Includes an extensive bibliography (pp. 499-579). RW

Mussner, Franz: Duerfen wir Auschwitz vergessen? Freiburger Rundbrief 2, 1 (1995) 12-18.

Discusses the significance of "Auschwitz" as the overthrow of Hegelian and other concepts of history as progress; as metaphor for the potential for evil in all human beings; as a warning against Christian persecution of God's chosen people; and as a problem for theodicy. RW

Remembering for the Future: Working Papers and Addenda. Vol. I-III. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. xxv, 3202 pp.

Papers presented at a conference held in Oxford, July 1988. Partial contents: Rubenstein, Richard Lowell: Covenant and Holocaust (662-671); Pawlikowski, John T.: The Shoah: Its Challenges for Religious and Secular Ethics [Appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 3 (1988).] (736-746); Carroll, Robert P.: Auschwitz as Symbol (785-798); Marmur, Dow: Holocaust as Progress: Reflections on the Thought of Ignaz Maybaum (955-959); Morgan, Michael L.: Historicism, Evil, and Post-Holocaust Moral Thought (1038-1052); Katz, Fred E.: Response to the Holocaust: The Painful Birth of the Third Phase (1182-1187); Sodi, Risa B.: The Memory of Justice: Primo Levi and Auschwitz [Appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 4 (1989).] (1393-1403); Duke, David Nelson: Remembrance Which Shapes Persons: Stories of the Holocaust and Ethics (1837-1849); Legters, Lyman H.: Marxian Responses to the Holocaust (1919-1924); Stein, Leon: The Holocaust and the Legacy of Existentialism (1943-1955); Watson, James R.: Levinas' Philosophy of Response (1956-1964); Berkovits, Eliezer: Understanding the Present ? to Save the Future (2342-2348); Lelyveld, Arthur: The Theological "Problem of Evil" and the Holocaust (2563-2578); Wiesel, Elie: The Future of Remembering (3129-3135); Jaeckel, Eberhard: The Impact of the Holocaust on Present and Future Civilisations (3146-3151). SSC

Rosenfeld, Alvin H.: The Holocaust in Jewish Memory and Public Memory. Dimensions 2, 3 (Fall 1986) 9-12.

Discusses the clash between the Jewish demand to remember the Holocaust as a unique crime directed against Jews and the American public memory, which would prefer either to forget the Holocaust altogether or to commemorate it as part of a wartime tragedy of general human suffering caused by unspecified evil. The optimistic, pluralistic, and culturally Christian ethos of America has a difficulty in dealing with the event of the Holocaust, which raises questions about the collapse of civilization and the guilt of Christianity. LF
 

[Schweid, Eliezer: The Expulsion from Spain and the Holocaust. Alpayim 3 (1990) 69-88.] (in Hebrew)

Analyzes differences in the Jewish response to the two catastrophes, particularly the fixation of the memory of the events in Jewish consciousness. Survivors of the expulsion gave a unified traditional response, to recreate a vibrant Jewish community based on Jewish tradition. The response to the Holocaust is varied because the Jewish community is split into segments; there are only responses of individuals or of official bodies. Focuses on educators who, in looking for meaning in the terrible events of the Holocaust in order to pass it on to future generations, are distorting Jewish identity and collective memory by tying these solely to the horror and tragedy of the Holocaust. Contends that the Jewish response to catastrophe was in the past, and should be today, to look to the positive aspects of Jewish life and strive for spiritual renewal. The Holocaust must be learned and taught, and never forgotten, but if it becomes the basis of Jewish identity then it will block spiritual and cultural renewal. SSC

Schweid, Eliezer: The Spanish Exile and the Holocaust: A Study in Jewish Spiritual Response to Catastrophe. The Expulsion from Spain and the Holocaust: The Jewish Community's Response: Background Papers for Opening Session of the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the Memorial Foundation at Beit Hanassi, July 3, 1990. [New York]: Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, [1990?]. Pp. 1-17.  Appeared in Hebrew in "Alpayim" 3 (1990).
 

[Segev, Tom: The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Keter; Domino, 1991. 8, 548 pp.] (in Hebrew)

Describes the reactions of the Jews of Mandatory Palestine to Nazism and the Holocaust; their ambivalent attitude to the refugees and survivors; the debate in the State of Israel over relations with Germany; the political aspects of the Kasztner libel case; the Eichmann trial; changes in the ideology governing presentation of the Holocaust, from emphasis on the ghetto fighters' heroism and rejection of the passivity of the masses to a more balanced view and mourning for the victims; the development of memorial sites such as Yad Vashem and of commemoration rituals; the treatment of the Holocaust in the educational system (including trips of young people to Auschwitz); and the constant presence of the Holocaust in the consciousness of Israelis, coloring their view of the world and affecting their reactions to all events that seem to threaten their survival. RW

Segev, Tom: The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust. Trans.: Haim Watzman. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993. ix, 593 pp.   Originally published in Hebrew as "Ha-million ha-shevi`i: Ha-Yisraelim ve-ha-Shoah" (Jerusalem: Keter; Domino, 1991).

Sicher, Efraim: In the Shadow of History: Second Generation Writers and Artists and the Shaping of Holocaust Memory in Israel and America. Judaism 47, 2 (Spr 1998) 169-185.

Briefly discusses a good number of Israeli and American writers whose work relates to the Holocaust. No happy medium or final way of remembering, memorializing, or assimilating the Holocaust has been found. It is not clear that anything but confusion is being bequeathed to future generations. REK

Stefani, Piero: La Shoah ? memoria, perdono, responsabilita: Una voce cristiana. Studi, Fatti, Ricerche 54 (Apr-June 1991) 7-10.

A paper delivered at a conference in Milano, April 1991. States that the Christian concept of "felix culpa" as meaningful human suffering inviting divine redemption cannot be used in the context of the Holocaust, and that planting a cross at Auschwitz means eluding responsibility and the search for a meaning for the extermination. Responsibility for the Holocaust lies with Christianity, with its failure to prevent such horrors after centuries of civilization in Europe. Calls for the Church to assume responsibility and to reinforce the memory of the Holocaust. See also the article by Mino Chamla. AA

Stein, Arlene: Whose Memories? Whose Victimhood? Contests for the Holocaust Frame in Recent Social Movement Discourse. Sociological Perspectives 41, 3 (1998) 519-540.

During the past two decades, the Holocaust has become "Americanized," it has become a salient part of American imagination, and is now an "atrocity tale" having wide cultural resonance in the USA. Two cases have promoted this phenomenon: the collapse of communism which precipitated a search for another "evil empire," and the affinity between the images evoked by the Holocaust and the apocalyptical imagery used by some groups in the USA. There is a tendency among some social movements to utilize Holocaust rhetoric and imagery. Two kinds of such appropriation can de discerned: metaphor creation, exemplified by the rhetoric of lesbian/gay activists; and revisionism, exemplified by conservative Christian rhetoric. The latter tends to depict Christians and Christianity as the primary victims of Nazism. Jewish survivors of the Holocaust are disturbed, because this phenomenon causes trivialization and de-Judaization of the Holocaust. Their anxiety is justified; however, the Holocaust belongs both to Jewish and to human history, and its memory may be used by non-Jewish groups. DR

Steinlauf, Michael Charles: Bondage to the Dead: Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997. xv, 189 pp.

Polish-Jewish relations, rather good in pre-partition Poland, deteriorated in the mid-19th century and even more in the Second Republic (1919-39) with its exclusivist nationalism. The wartime period was marked by strong anti-Jewish moods in Poland; antisemitism was a "legitimate" stance within the resistance movement. However, many Poles helped Jews. Between 1944-48 the Polish rulers conducted politics favorable toward Jews, but they used the Jewish issue as a tool in their struggle against the old elite, which whipped up anti-Jewish sentiments. In the 1950s-60s the Holocaust was increasingly de-Judaized in Polish discourse; after 1968, when Poland joined the anti-Zionist campaign, Jews ceased to be mentioned at all. The genocide of the Jews began to be discussed in Poland only after 1978; the Solidarity movement used its memory in its struggle against the government. At the same time, popular antisemitism emerged again. Now many Poles object to what they see as over-emphasis of Jewish suffering and neglect of non-Jewish suffering under the Nazis. DR

Stone, Dan: The Domestication of Violence: Forging a Collective Memory of the Holocaust in Britain, 1945-6. Patterns of Prejudice 33, 2 (1999) 13-29.

Reestablishing the idea of collective memory (rejected by some writers as meaningless), shows the construction of the collective memory of the Holocaust by Anglo-Jewry in 1945-46. Anglo-Jewry was left deeply shocked and with a lasting sense of guilt by the disclosures in 1945 regarding the mass murder of Europe's Jews. Thus, the discourse on the Holocaust was framed within narratives which permitted some form of compensation, or employed terminology which softened the force of this subject and domesticated the horror of what had occurred. These strategies took many forms: use of euphemisms to describe mass murder; condemnation of earlier inactivity in contrast to present activity; characterization of the Nazi genocide as part of a familiar "lachrymose" view of Jewish history; and focus on the Jewish state as compensation for past suffering, resorting to the language of disaster and redemption. Illustrates this forging of collective memory with citations from postwar Jewish writings in Britain. DR

Tollet, Daniel, ed.: Les verites des uns et celles des autres: Points de vue de juifs et de chretiens sur la Shoah en Pologne. Paris: Cerf, 1995. 232 pp.  On title-page also: Choix d'actes du colloque de Fribourg (Suisse) (fevrier 1993) et de documents.

Papers delivered at a conference held in Fribourg, Switzerland, 23-25 February 1993, on "Juifs en Pologne hier et aujourd'hui." Partial contents: Kersten, Krystyna: La societe polonaise face a l'extermination et la lutte des Juifs (39-60); Riegner, Gerhart M.: De la nuit du pogrom a la Solution finale: Experiences et lecons [Appeared in English in "Christian Jewish Relations" 3 (1988).] (63-92); Grajek, Shalom Stefan: L'insurrection du ghetto de Varsovie et sa signification (93-104); Czajkowski, Michal: Auschwitz, defi pour les chretiens polonais (127-167); Turowicz, Jerzy: L'antisemitisme et l'impact de la Shoah en Pologne (169-175); Dujardin, Jean: Les lecons de la Shoah: En quel sens est-il possible de parler de lecons? Point de vue ethique, point de vue religieux (177-199). ID

Trigano, Shmuel: France Faces Its Past: French Jews Face an Uncertain Future. Institute of the World Jewish Congress: Policy Forum 17 (1998) 29 pp.

Since the mid-1980s, the Holocaust and the history of the Vichy regime have come to occupy a major place in the national debate in France. This was partly due to initiatives of the socialist government, interested in directing public attention to the threat of the extreme-right. After the fall of the socialists, various trends regarding the legacy of the Holocaust were manifested, from Holocaust denial to a public apology by President Chirac for the crimes of the Vichy regime against the Jews. Memory of the Holocaust occupies a prominent place in the politics of the Jewish community and is a better medium of communication with global society than, for instance, support for Israel. An outcome of the present discourse on the Holocaust and the Vichy regime is relation to the issue of the restitution of Jewish property confiscated by Vichy. Only in the 1990s did this issue reappear on the communal agenda, in the context of French society's reexamination of the past. The establishment of the Matteoli Commission to investigate the question of despoliation of French Jewry, was a watershed in France's confrontation with its wartime past. DR

Wardi, Charlotte: Le cliche de la "deshumanisation" des victimes de la Shoah ou la fascination du mal. Revue de l'Universite de Bruxelles 3-4 (1993) 91-104.

Discusses deformations of the memory of the Holocaust in contemporary literature, in film, and in the mass media, due to the absolute freedom given to writers, filmmakers, etc., in describing historical events. Shows how artists fascinated by Evil express contempt for historical truth. Asserts that Western concepts of art favor manipulation of history in general and especially that of the Nazi period. TV serials, films, and books contribute to the corruption of historical truth. Pleads against the cliche of depicting inhuman behavior of victims in concentration camps and disregarding the lack of humanity of the murderers. Fascination for Evil and contempt for historical truth lead to the relativization and negation of the Holocaust. Argues that critics who are fascinated by the "beauty" of such films as Lanzmann's "Shoah" evince confusion between ethics and aesthetics. HV

Wiesel, Elie: On Memory and Reconciliation. The Jewish Legacy and the German Conscience: Essays in Memory of Rabbi Joseph Asher, eds. Moses Rischin, Raphael Asher. Berkeley, CA: Judah L. Magnes Museum, 1991. Pp. 327-331.

Argues that the Holocaust must be remembered both for the sake of the dead and out of concern for the future. Memory is painful and difficult, but reconciliation is even more so, especially since Germany has never asked for forgiveness. However, the task of survivors is to bear witness, not to render judgment; to bring people together and not to nourish hate. RW

Wieviorka, Annette: La construction de la memoire du genocide en France. Le Monde Juif 149 (Sept-Dec 1993) 23-38.

Surveys the evolution of the memory of the Holocaust in France from 1945 up to now. In the first years after the war, there were commemorations for the anti-fascist fighters, but not for the Jewish victims. Even the Jewish community did not give prominence to its fate during the war because of the need to reintegrate into French society. Holocaust literature appeared in France in the 1950s-60s, and contributed to the raising of consciousness about the genocide. Deals with commemorations of the Holocaust in the 1990s, and asserts that they help young French secular Jews born after the war to maintain their Jewish identity. HV

Wollaston, Isabel Louise: A War against Memory? The Future of Holocaust Remembrance. London: SPCK ? Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1996. ix, 102 pp.

Examines the variety of ways in which the Holocaust is perceived and remembered nowadays: in testimonies and research, memorials and museums, fiction and films, as well as in support for the State of Israel and as a civil religion in both Israel and the USA. The growing attention to the memory of the Holocaust in the world (manifested, for instance, in "Holocaust tourism") raises the question to what extent it should be regarded as a positive phenomenon. Examines the motives of Holocaust remembrance, as they are perceived by various authors and groups. Discerns two approaches to representation of the Holocaust: the purist, which claims that the Holocaust is incomprehensible and only survivors should be allowed to speak of it; and the populist, which supports Holocaust remembrance in any form, even if it is simplified and by means of mass culture. Discusses post-Holocaust theology and the place of Holocaust memory in the new Jewish self-identity. DR

Yale Journal of Criticism 6, 2 (Fall 1993).

Partial contents: "Papers from the Tenth Anniversary Conference of the Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies on `The Future of Memory,' Yale University, October 1992": Hartman, Geoffrey H.: Public Memory and Modern Experience (239-247); Huyssen, Andreas: Monument and Memory in a Postmodern Age (249-261); Langer, Lawrence L.: Memory's Time: Chronology and Duration in Holocaust Testimonies (263-273); Young, James Edward: The Veneration of Ruins (275-283). SSC

Young, James Edward: The Changing Shape of Holocaust Memory. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1995. vi, 49 pp.

Considers various functions which the memory of the Holocaust serves. For Jews, the vicarious memory of the catastrophe increasingly provides a locus for Jewish identity and knowledge, as traditional education and learning wanes among an ever-more-assimilated generation. Sketches expanding sources of Holocaust memory, including archival collections, memoirs, oral histories, and filmed and video-taped interviews of Holocaust survivors. Describes and discusses the memory of the Holocaust, and Holocaust monuments and memorials in Germany (East and West), Poland, Israel, and the U.S. An 8-page insert reports on the results of the American Jewish Committee-sponsored surveys of knowledge about the Holocaust in Germany, Austria, Australia, France, the U.S., Great Britain, and Poland, carried out between 1993-95. REK

Yovel, Yirmiyahu: History as Self-Interpretation: Jews and the Holocaust. Iyyun 45 (July 1996) 55-70.

A paper presented at an international conference in memory of Nathan Rotenstreich, Jerusalem, December 1994. Examines the meaning of the Holocaust for the individual Jew, and the place of history in determining individual self-interpretation. Discusses the problem of objectivity in terms of the philosophy of history, one of whose tasks is to bring to light the historicality of human existence. Differentiates two senses of objectivity: objectivity as a norm of discipline and as object-directedness. Contends that it is possible to retain the first while rejecting the second in approaching history as an expanded mode of self-consciousness. Describes the rise of existential antisemitism ? hatred of Jews for merely belonging to their historical group ? in place of the old religious antisemitism. Since the Holocaust was what brought this existential hatred of Jews to a climax, it must be grasped in that light. Consequently, it continues to affect the contemporary Jewish situation, causing secular Jews, too, to incorporate Jewish history into their self-interpretation. SSC

Zuckermann, Moshe: Fluch des Vergessens: Zur innerisraelischen Diskussion um den Holocaust. Babylon 4 (1988) 63-77.  Appeared in English in "Telos" 78 (1988-1989).

Comments on an article by Yehuda Elkana, "A Plea for Forgetting," which appeared in the Israeli newspaper "Ha'aretz" in March 1988, deploring the negative influence of the memory of the Holocaust on Israeli society, and emphasizing that no lessons whatever should be drawn from such an abnormal experience. Argues that Israel as a state cannot forget the Holocaust, because it never remembered it; it is repressing the meaning of the Holocaust in favor of a distorted image which was used to justify Zionist ideology, including the occupation of the territories. Thus, the belief that the Jews are eternal victims, abandoned by the world, has been encouraged by state actions such as the Eichmann and Demjanjuk trials, and Palestinian terrorists were compared to Hitler and Eichmann by right-wing Israeli politicians. Calls on Israel to preserve the memory of the victims by rejecting these comparisons and adopting an ethical policy in the territories. LF
 
 

Holocaust: Study and Teaching
 

Abendroth, Elisabeth: "Holocaust" im Unterricht: Moeglichkeiten einer Annaeherung. Tribuene 134 (1995) 186-198.  Appeared also in "Taeter ? Opfer ? Folgen" (1995).

Notes that teaching about the Holocaust in German schools has been criticized as both too little and too much: young people either know almost nothing about the Holocaust or have had so much information forced on them that they are sick of it. Suggests that the solution is to personalize the Holocaust and bring it close to the pupils' experience. Describes three school projects carried out in the 1970s-90s in Frankfurt am Main and vicinity. One researched the fate of former Jewish pupils of their own schools; one that of Anne Frank (who spent her early childhood in Frankfurt); and the third studied the Holocaust through the biography of Robert Kempner, who met with the pupils. All asked what people could have done to stop the persecution at each of its stages, and all drew lessons for the present. RW

Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Jolanta: Teaching the Holocaust in Post-Communist Poland. Jews in Eastern Europe 36 (Fall 1998) 5-18.

During the 45 years of the communist regime, Polish textbooks and curricula avoided mentioning the Holocaust. Only after 1989 did the Holocaust appear in the high school curricula. Surveys were conducted in 1996-97 in 13 schools in Warsaw, Krakow, and towns near Krakow (including Oswiecim). They showed that many high school students held anti-Jewish prejudices; many doubted that all the crimes committed in Auschwitz really happened; many were "tired" of Holocaust education; and many displayed xenophobia toward the Jews. Criticizes present-day Holocaust education in Poland ? e.g. it does not stress the uniqueness of the Holocaust, and it does not connect it with current manifestations of ethnic prejudice in Poland. Dwells on steps taken in order to change Polish stereotypes of Jews (and vice versa). Reflects on changes that need to be made in teaching the Holocaust in Poland. DR
 

[Arend, Moshe: On Religious Education after the Holocaust. Mahanaim 8 (Nov 1994) 44-48.] (in Hebrew)

Discusses aspects of teaching the Holocaust to religious Jewish students. Refers to the Holocaust as an expression of human failure ? the failure of the perpetrators and of the bystanders to achieve a higher level of humanity. States that the Jewish people were chosen by God for a special purpose ? to fulfil a special role and adopt responsibility in regard to humanity, in accordance with the Torah. LFo

Ballin, Anita: Teaching the Holocaust at the Imperial War Museum. British Journal of Holocaust Education 3, 2 (Win 1994) 184-188.

The Holocaust is a topic within the wider theme of Nazi Germany in the Museum's education program. It appears in three main parts of the program: regular study sessions on Nazi Germany for secondary school pupils, teachers' courses, and special events for 6th-form students. The course of study includes lectures, panel discussions, tapes of oral history, films, photographs, artifacts, and meetings with survivors. DR

Barlog-Scholz, Renata: Historisches Wissen ueber die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager bei deutschen Jugendlichen: Empirische Grundlage einer Gedenkstaettenpaedagogik. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang, 1994. 460 pp.  Based on the author's diss. ? Universitaet Heidelberg, 1992.

Discusses aims and methods in the teaching of the Holocaust in Germany. Describes Holocaust memorials, particularly on the sites of former concentration camps, and the possibilities they offer for education through preservation of the original buildings and other remains, the museum exhibits, archives, documentary films, students' local history projects, meetings with survivors, and camps and workshops which often include physical labor in the maintenance of the sites. Reports on responses to a questionnaire administered to a sample of secondary-school graduating classes in West Germany in 1985 and in 1990 (546 students altogether). The questionnaire concerned information, feelings, and attitudes. Differences between students who had visited concentration camps and those who had not were rather small. RW

[Barnea, Arieh: The Jews in Islamic Countries during the Holocaust Period ? a Proposal for a Lesson Plan. Bishvil ha-Zikaron 25 (Nov 1997) 35-39.] (in Hebrew)

Suggests and delineates points of discussion for a proposed lesson for high school students, on the events of the Holocaust in general and a comparison of what was happening to Jews in Europe and Jews in the Islamic world. LFo

Baum, Rachel Nahmmacher: "What I Have Learned to Feel": The Pedagogical Emotions of Holocaust Education. College Literature 23, 3 (Oct 1996) 44-57.

Most people have some basic knowledge of the Holocaust. Therefore, the study of Holocaust literature should aim to teach how to feel about the historical events ? in particular, empathy toward the victims of the Holocaust. Based partly on her own teaching experience, Baum reflects on the emotional reactions of students to Holocaust literature. They seem to be "stilled" by the material; they are silent, subdued. This may be due, in part, to a lack of moral lessons of the Holocaust for the present in the studying process. Most of the students put themselves in the place of victims, perpetrators, or bystanders and feel ashamed, and hence too confused to speak out. Students need an "affective community" in the present to provide an outlet for their feelings concerning the past. Teachers must help their students to see the sociality of their emotions and must connect Holocaust memory to contemporary events. DR

Beimel, Matthias: Juden in Deutschland. Frankfurt a.M.: Moritz Diesterweg, 1988. 99 pp.

Presents topics, methodological suggestions, and documentary material for a sequence of twelve lessons on the history of the Jews in Germany, intended for first-year students in secondary schools. The topics include: exploitation of Jews by medieval rulers, their persecution by the Crusaders, and later pogroms; emancipation and assimilation; racial antisemitism; the Holocaust as it affected German Jews, and present-day German attitudes to it. RW

Bensoussan, Georges: L'enseignement de la Shoah dans l'education nationale francaise, 1945-1990. Les Temps Modernes 547 (Feb 1992) 139-160.

Only from 1957 was the subject of the Second World War included in French textbooks for secondary schools, with very little information on the Holocaust. Its specificity was not mentioned, nor the role of the Vichy regime. The textbooks contained many fallacies and inaccuracies. The situation changed in the 1980s, mainly due to Lanzmann's film "Shoah" and the publication in France of some important books about the Holocaust period. The textbooks were revised, with the Holocaust more accurately depicted as part of the history of World War II. Vichy policy is described, but the tradition of French antisemitism is still not mentioned. Concludes that this situation is an effect of the difficulties of Western Europe in accepting a history which resulted in the genocide of the Jews. HV

Berman, Judith: Holocaust Education in Australian Jewish Day Schools, 1976-1996: Staff and Curricula. History of Education Review 27, 1 (1998) 66-83.  Unseen.

Discusses the introduction, development, and expansion of Holocaust education in eight Australian Jewish high schools.

Bernstein, George: Poesia y Holocausto: Un experimento en la ensenanza. Maj'shavot ? Pensamientos 32, 1-4 (Jan-Dec 1993) 86-100.

Finds that the best way to introduce the subject of the Holocaust to students attending classes on the philosophy of education is through poetry and the arts as a means of expressing and understanding the ultimate horror. States that American students are widely ignorant of the context of Nazism and the concentration camps, and recommends broader information dissemination and better pedagogical methods in order to stimulate the students to use their own experiences and to ask questions about what humans are capable of in terms of horror. AA

Bezchlebova, Maria; Frankova, Anita; Stichova, Eva: Cesta ? cil neznamy: Citanka [The Road ? Destination Unknown: A Reader]. Praha: Academia, 1995. 165 pp.

A reader for high school students in Slovakia on the subject of the Holocaust. Includes excerpts from memoirs of Czechoslovakian citizens about their experiences (including Theresienstadt and Auschwitz), poems, and literary excerpts. SSC

Borries, Bodo von: Geschichtslernen und Geschichtsbewusstsein: Empirische Erkundungen zu Erwerb und Gebrauch von Historie. Stuttgart: Klett, 1988. 230 pp.

Presents examples of interviews, questionnaires, and autobiographies, in order to describe the various methods employed in West Germany for historical education of the public and for teaching in schools, especially with reference to the Nazi regime. Discusses, also, public reactions. Though an effort has been made in recent years to increase historical consciousness, the teaching of history is still defective. Pp. 100-108, "Verharmlostes Grauen," discuss the deliberate changes made in photographs (originally taken by SS concentration camp guards) used in textbooks to reduce their impact. Most of the elementary school pupils misunderstand these pictures; secondary school pupils sometimes connect them with the Holocaust, while some university students avoid comment or protest. Concludes that this method of teaching the Holocaust in Germany has failed.  MR

Braham, Randolph L., ed.: The Treatment of the Holocaust in Textbooks: The Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, the United States of America. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs; New York: Institute for Holocaust Studies, City University of New York, distributed by Columbia University Press, 1987. ix, 323 pp. (Holocaust Studies Series, 10).

Each section surveys the country's postwar educational system and agencies responsible for the selection, production, and distribution of textbooks. Contents: Renn, Walter F.: Federal Republic of Germany: Germans, Jews and Genocide (1-152); Firer, Ruth: Israel [A summary of her book in Hebrew, "Sokhnim shel ha-lekach" (1989).] (153-229); Pate, Glenn S.: The United States of America (231-310). LF

British Journal of Holocaust Education 1, 1 (Sum 1992).

Partial contents: Newman, Aubrey: Teaching the History of the Holocaust at University Level: The Leicester Experience (8-13); Bauman, Janina: Entering the World of a Holocaust Victim: Schoolchildren Discuss a Ghetto Memoir [On the author's memoirs ? "Winter in the Morning: A Young Girl's Life in the Warsaw Ghetto and Beyond" (Virago, 1986) ? taught in a high school in Wakefield, West Yorkshire.] (14-24); Rubenstein, Philip; Taylor, Warren: Teaching about the Holocaust in the National Curriculum (47-54). SSC

Brothers, Eric: On Teaching the Holocaust and Jewish Resistance. Jewish Education 59, 3 (Win 1992) 29-32.

Describes a course given on the Holocaust to 12th-grade students at a private school in Manhattan (the Lenox School) and the methodology used. The course included a strong emphasis on Jewish resistance to Nazism throughout Europe. Because the class aimed to get students angry about the Holocaust (and thus motivate them to learn), it involved them through role playing, films (as a touchstone for discussions or to intensify material studied), songs, and papers, in addition to traditional methods of teaching.  LC

Calvert, Hildegund M.: Jews in Nazi Germany: What West German Textbooks Say. Indiana Social Studies Quarterly 37, 1 (Spr 1984) 43-53.  Unseen.

Charlesworth, Andrew: Teaching the Holocaust through Landscape Study: The Liverpool Experience. Immigrants & Minorities 13, 1 (Mar 1994) 65-76.

A revised version of a paper presented at the conference "Teaching the Holocaust: Issues and Dilemmas," Wittenberg University, Ohio, October 1993. Relates the experiences of the author and his students in 1990, 1991, and 1993, when he taught a course on "The Geography of the Holocaust." The course focused on spatial relations, such as the surrounding landscape of Jewish settlements, the ghettos, slave labor camps and death camps in Poland, and the "geography of the bystander" then and now. Describes field trips to Poland as part of the course. Charlesworth wished to confront his students with the tension of belief that exists between the historical record and the places and landscapes where the events occurred. States that engaging so deeply with the Holocaust through experience of place and landscape marks the participants as witnesses ? bearers of testimony ? just like the survivors. SSC

Crouch, Margaret Weiss: The Holocaust in Undergraduate Education: A Status Survey and Interpretive Synthesis of Topics, Textbooks, and Resources.  Diss. ? Wilmington College (Delaware), 1996. 224 pp.  Unseen.

A survey of colleges and universities (accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools) offering undergraduate courses on the Holocaust in 1994, the departments offering them, course syllabi topics, required textbooks or readings, and audiovisual resources. Analysis of the data provides an overview of the status of undergraduate Holocaust education in the mid-Atlantic region. An independent panel of Holocaust scholars and survivors was also surveyed for their recommendations for departments, topics, and course materials deemed most fitting for an undergraduate course on the Holocaust. A synthesis of the course syllabi and the panel's responses may be interpreted as a course guide.

Danks, Carol: Using the Literature of Elie Wiesel and Selected Poetry to Teach the Holocaust in the Secondary School History Classroom. The Social Studies 87, 3 (May-June 1996) 101-105.

One of the most effective ways to teach the history of the Holocaust is through its literature. Proposes Elie Wiesel's "Night" as an authentic narrative voice. Presents the novel as a history of four journeys: a geographical one, an historical one, Wiesel's relationship with his father, and his spiritual journey. Suggests topics to discuss with the students, and other classroom activities. Other works by Wiesel (e.g. "Dawn" and "The Accident") can also be used in the teaching process, as well as some poetic works (e.g. by Dan Pagis and Nelly Sachs). DR

Darsa, Jan: Educating about the Holocaust: A Case Study in the Teaching of Genocide. Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review 2 (1991) 175-193.

Discusses the failure of schools to educate students about the watershed event of the Holocaust, and why it is important to teach this subject. States that it is an event that can teach us about governments, institutions, and individual behavior. It can serve to help students think about what happens when democracy fails, when civil liberties are denied, and when individual conscience is overpowered by the state. Pp. 183-193 contain an annotated bibliography on Holocaust education, listing books and articles in English. SSC

David, Jose: De las cenizas a la vida: Nuevos abordajes para trasmitir el holocausto. Montevideo: Eppal, 1996. 243 pp.

A Jewish teacher in Uruguay explains his approach to the teaching of the Holocaust through artistic, recreational activities ? e.g. painting, photography, ceramics, collage, drawing, and installations. MZ

Dawidowicz, Lucy S.: How They Teach the Holocaust. Commentary 90, 6 (Dec 1990) 25-32.

Surveys 25 secondary-school Holocaust curricula produced in 12 states and New York City. They undertake to give students basic information and provide appropriate moral education. Criticizes most of the curricula in that they do not stress the centrality of premeditated mass murder as an instrument of policy and they omit the history of antisemitism, particularly its roots in Christian doctrine. Cites grammatical and factual errors which "reflect prevailing educational standards." Regarding moral lessons, the common pedagogic strategy is to generalize the terms of scapegoating, prejudice, and bigotry; analogies to the Nazi genocide are often imprecise and tendentious. Concludes that the primary lesson of the Holocaust is "Thou shalt not murder," yet teaching moral standards as incorporated in the Ten Commandments is seen as a violation of the separation between church and state. States that something is clearly wrong with the American system of education and standards of morality. Pp. 31-32 list the curricula examined. Two are commended as excellent (Michigan and New York State). SSC

Dimensions 9, 2 (1995).

Partial contents: "The State of Holocaust Education": Langer, Lawrence L.: Opening Locked Doors: Reflections on Teaching the Holocaust (3-7); Halperin, Irving: "To Seek After Knowledge": Reading and Teaching Holocaust Literature (8-14); Shawn, Karen: Current Issues in Holocaust Education (15-18); Storr, Anthony: The Roots of Intolerance (19-23). SSC

Dimensions 12, 1 (1998).

This issue, entitled "Holocaust Education: Traditions, Touchstones and Taboo," deals with a questioning of assumptions connected with Holocaust education and morality ? for instance, that knowledge of the events will promote good behavior, and that the lessons of the Holocaust are the same for everyone, both of which have not proven to be true. The question is what fosters moral behavior and how to inculcate it in students. Contents: Langer, Lawrence L.: Moralizing the Holocaust (3-6); Allen, William Sheridan: The History of the Holocaust and the Efficacy of Moral Codes (7-12); Bartov, Omer: The Lessons of the Holocaust (13-20); Iggers, Georg G.: The German Historians and the Burden of the Nazi Past (21-28); Drinan, Robert F.: How Can the Significance of the Holocaust Be Taught? (29-31); Friedman, Karen Ehrlich: Teaching the Holocaust: The Spectrum of Morality (33-36). SSC

Doerr, Margarete: Warum sind so viele Menschen Hitler freiwillig gefolgt? Ein Vorschlag, Autobiographien fuer den Geschichtsunterricht nutzbar zu machen. Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 37, 12 (Dec 1986) 739-760.  Originally published in "Lehren und Lernen" 11, 2 (Feb 1985).

Proposes the use of autobiographies and memoirs as an aid in teaching the Nazi period in West German schools. Recommends and discusses three books which deal also with the Jews and antisemitism: Christabel Bielenberg's "Als ich Deutsche war" (Munich, 1969), Melita Maschmann's "Mein Weg in der Hitlerjugend" (Stuttgart, 1963), and Rudolf Hoess's "Kommandant in Auschwitz" (Stuttgart, 1958). MR

Doneson, Judith E.: Teaching the Holocaust with Film. Jewish Quarterly 38, 1 (Spr 1991) 58-62.  Appeared also in "The Holocaust in University Teaching," ed. Gideon Shimoni (Oxford: Pergamon, 1991).

Analyzes historical films, newsreels, and fictional films, and the messages each conveys in order to assess the use of film in teaching the Holocaust. Notes the importance of proper analysis of historical films (e.g. Nazi antisemitic films) to avoid the possibility of the viewer receiving the wrong message. Emphasizes the importance of the dual analysis of content and context; there is the salient level of the film that deals with content and there is the latent level that explains the context ? the popular attitudes at the time of the film's appearance. The instructor using film must have the skill to sift through and evaluate the limitless material available. MG

Dror, Yuval: National Denial, Splitting, and Narcissism ? Group Defence Mechanisms of Teachers and Students in Palestine in Response to the Holocaust. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies 1, 2 (1996) 107-137.

Between 1943-48, after the horrors of the Holocaust became known in the Land of Israel, three group defense mechanisms were used by the educational system of the Labor Movement in response to this national crisis. These psychological mechanisms were: denial and escape (e.g. in the form of silencing the subject or focusing on survivors rather than victims); splitting, which was manifested in contrasting the Yishuv with the diaspora; and national narcissism, manifested in the emphasis on national heroism and education for war, or in the imperative for national unity. These mechanisms can be detected not only in the perusal of texts for educators, but also in a collection of children's writings compiled for a 1944 conference, "The Present Holocaust in Our Children's Education." The first educational response to the Holocaust can be traced to 1948, signifying the beginning of coping with the crisis. The described educational model has wider applications, beyond the cases of Israel and/or the Holocaust.  DR

Eichner, Hans: Der Blick auf den Ettersberg: Der Holocaust und die Germanistik. Modernisierung oder Ueberfremdung? Zur Wirkung deutscher Exilanten in der Germanistik der Aufnahmelaender, ed. Walter Schmitz. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, 1994. Pp. 199-216.

A paper delivered at a colloquium in Marbach, September 1991. Calls for including literature on the Holocaust in the curriculum of German Studies departments at American universities. Discusses the problem of "literature after Auschwitz" in general, and the difficulty of finding German fiction worthy of inclusion in the curriculum. Grass, Boell, and Lenz hardly touch on the Holocaust; documentary drama (Rolf Hochhuth's "Der Stellvertreter" and Peter Weiss's "Die Vermittlung") impresses us less than do the original documents. Discusses some Holocaust novels in other languages (Borowski, Kosinski) and mentions, as successful German works, Jurek Becker's "Jakob der Luegner" and Fred Wander's "Der siebente Brunnen." Pp. 217-220 contain a response by Wolfgang Fruehwald, and pp. 221-227 contain excerpts from the discussion. RW

"Es gibt Tendenzen zur Verharmlosung": Parlamentarisches Nachspiel zu einer Untersuchung der "Tribuene". Tribuene 105 (1988) 80-101.

Following an opinion poll on antisemitism in West German schools, the 81st plenary session of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Landestag dealt with this problem in November 1987. Gives the full proceedings of the debate on the presentation of antisemitism and Nazism in education, citing evidence that ca. 12.5% of pupils think that reports on the Holocaust are exaggerated and ca. 38.5 % think that the murder of the Jews should no longer be mentioned because other nations are also guilty of genocide. MR

Fellner, Udo: "1938 ? der Anschluss und seine Folgen": Die Geschichte eines Projektes. Zeitgeschichte 15, 11-12 (Aug-Sept 1988) 467-471.

Describes a study project carried out in the main school of Neuhaus am Klb. (the southern Burgenland province of Austria) during the school year 1987-88. Pupils did research on the fate of former Jewish citizens of the town, focusing on Nazi persecution, antisemitism and prejudice. To illustrate the horrors of the persecution, pupils were taken to the cemetery of Kalch to clean the mass grave where the Jews massacred in this area were buried. MR
 

[Firer, Ruth: Agents of the Lesson. Tel-Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1989. 175 pp.]  An English summary of this book appeared in "The Treatment of the Holocaust in Textbooks" (1987).

Analyzes lessons of the Holocaust presented in 78 Israeli textbooks and readers and in ten historical studies written between 1946-88 (for university students). Pt. 1 (pp. 17-39) describes books for grades 5-8. They deal with the Holocaust indirectly, focusing on Zionism and humanistic values. Pt. 2 (pp. 41-124) examines the Holocaust in high school textbooks. Discusses specific subjects (e.g. annihilation of the Jews, Jewish resistance, German guilt), and changes in their presentation in the 1970s-80s compared with the 1950s-60s. In the later works, the facts are given, but students must draw their own conclusions as to the Holocaust's significance, albeit guided toward the national consensus. Pt. 3 (pp. 125-145) discusses Holocaust research divided into categories of Germano-centrism (late 1940s-early 1970s) and Judeo-centrism (1970s-80s). The earlier works presented lessons of warning to the German people and the world at large. The later works center on lessons for the Jewish people, particularly the necessity for Israel's existence. SSC

Firer, Ruth: Der Holocaust im israelischen Schullesebuch, 1948-1992. Internationale Schulbuchforschung 16, 1 (1994) 81-93.  Unseen.

Fischman, Jane Vogel: The Teaching of Holocaust Literature in American Universities.  Diss. ? State University of New York at Buffalo, 1996. 277 pp.  Unseen.

Surveys university transmission of knowledge of the Holocaust through reading, studying, and responding to Holocaust literature. A two-form questionnaire (for teachers or non-teachers) was sent to random populations drawn from interest groups of the IRA and MLA. An additional form was sent to a population of known, published educators. Ten eminent Holocaust literature educators were personally interviewed. The findings show that indirect teaching of Holocaust literature is prevalent in the universities even though full courses on the subject are less common. Non-teacher respondents give lack of awareness and/or knowledge of the subject, lack of materials, lack of time, and lack of appropriateness for their area of specialization as reasons why they do not teach Holocaust literature. They, however, also offer instances of their indirect teaching of specific Holocaust works. Teaching Holocaust literature is a multidisciplinary task; historical context is vital. Concludes that there is a need for standardization of course content, for college instructor certification, and for longitudinal study of the affect of teaching, reading, and responding to Holocaust literature.

Fox, John P.: Archive and Library Resources in England for Holocaust Related Subjects: A Short Guide for Students. British Journal of Holocaust Education 2, 2 (Win 1993) 209-239.

Many institutions of higher education in Britain have developed teaching programs on the Holocaust and related subjects in recent years. Suggests source books and periodicals which may be used by students, and describes the holdings of documentation centers which may provide the student with necessary sources: the Wiener Library, the Imperial Museum, the Public Record Office, the Newspaper Library of the British Library, and the Parkes Library and the University Archive at the University of Southampton.  DR

Fox, John P.: Holocaust as History. Modern History Review 3, 2 (Nov 1991) 2-6.

Discusses problems related to the manner and methodology of teaching the Holocaust. Summarizes major subjects for study: the "intentionalist" vs. "functionalist" debate, Jewish leadership during the Holocaust, criticism of the Allied position, and the significance of European antisemitism. Emphasizes the centrality of the "Jewish question" to Adolf Hitler's war in Europe from 1939-45. Suggests that the best way to teach the Holocaust is as an academic subject in its own right (not merely as an adjunct to studies on prejudice and racism) with the aim to approximate the historical truth as nearly as possible, examining moral implications as well. LC

Fox, John P.: Multi-Media Resources for Holocaust Research and Teaching. British Journal of Holocaust Education 3, 1 (Sum 1994) 56-117.

Lists available resources in several categories: Microfiche and Microfilm (containing collections of archival documents); Videos and Film (five documentary videos); Audio-Tapes (from the Oral History Section of the British Library National Sound Archive); Computer Diskettes; CD-ROMs.  DR

Fox, John P.: Report on 1987 Survey of United Kingdom Teaching on "the Holocaust" or "Nazi Final Solution of the Jewish Question" and Related Subjects. Leicester: National Yad Vashem Charitable Trust, in conjunction with the Centre for Holocaust Studies, University of Leicester, 1989. 66 pp.  Cover-title: Teaching the Holocaust: The Report of a Survey in the United Kingdom (1987).

Analyzes the results of the first survey of its kind in Britain, undertaken to investigate how the Holocaust is taught in British schools and universities. Focusing on Departments of History, the questionnaire was sent to 506 educational institutions ranging from universities to comprehensive and public schools, local education authorities, and local examination boards in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland. Concludes that the results of the survey indicate suspicion on the part of the respondents as to its motives and purpose, and a misunderstanding about the nature of the academic study known as "the Holocaust." Calls for a wider and more intensive study of the subject, including a special place of its own in academic curricula. MG

Frampton, Wilson: A Descriptive Study to Ascertain Curriculum Guidelines for Holocaust Education as Reported by State Departments of Education.  Diss. ? Temple University, Philadelphia, 1989. vii, 142 pp. An authorized facsimile appeared in Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1991.

A questionnaire was sent in January 1988 to representatives of the departments of education of all fifty states. All of them responded. The findings showed that there is no requirement for teaching Holocaust education currently operating at state departments of education and that the departments do not initiate programs on Holocaust education. Numerous local school districts, geographically dispersed, were identified as having instruction in Holocaust education. Teachers have attempted to interest the state in developing a curriculum, but Holocaust education has made little impact at the state departments of education. Concludes that pressures are necessary to move them to initiate action on Holocaust studies. SSC

Freiling, Harald: Der Holocaust als Thema amerikanischer Schulcurricula. Internationale Schulbuchforschung 11, 3 (1989) 255-282.  Unseen.

Frolick, David A.: Focus on Teaching: An Experiment in Learning: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach in Teaching the Holocaust. Shofar 17, 4 (Sum 1999) 38-65.

Describes the preparations for and running of a first-time program of teaching about the Holocaust. The experiment was interdisciplinary (involving the fields of political science, speech and communications/theater, sociology/anthropology, and French. The core seminar, taught by Frolick, dealt with "unique and universal aspects of the Holocaust." Despite the fact that few students took more than one course, results included extension of interest in Holocaust-related matters to students beyond the core group, a heavier-than-expected emotional and work impact on participants, transmission of information between courses, and enhanced learning for both students and faculty. Use was made of outside speakers (including survivors) and outside exhibitions, as well as an on-campus dramatic production. Many problems of preparation and presentation are described in an effort to encourage other colleges to offer similar programs. Includes 20 pp. of syllabi from the courses developed. YC

From Darkness to Dawn: Rethinking Christian Attitudes toward Jews and Judaism in the Light of the Holocaust. Toronto: Anglican Church of Canada, 1989. 67 pp.  On title-page also: A study program produced by the Subcommittee on Jewish Anglican Relations.

Designed as a six-week study program on Christian-Jewish relations in the light of the Holocaust, deals also with Christian antisemitism throughout the ages. Pp. 29-38, "The Holocaust Years, 1933-1945," note the indifference of the Churches and the "wholesale apostasy" of the Christian population in general who remained silent in the face of Nazi treatment of the Jews. Recognizes that this attitude was shaped by centuries of Christian anti-Judaism. MG

Garber, Zev; Berger, Alan L.; Libowitz, Richard Lawrence, eds.: Methodology in the Academic Teaching of the Holocaust. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. xxxvi, 327 pp.

Contents: Breslauer, S. Daniel: The Holocaust and the Chosen People: A Methodological Paradox (3-23); Garber, Zev: Teaching the Holocaust: The Introductory Course (25-55); Libowitz, Richard Lawrence: Asking the Questions: Background and Recommendations for Holocaust Study (57-73); Carmon, Arye: Teaching the Holocaust in Israel: The Dilemma as a Disturbing Reality and Pedagogical Concept (75-91); Zerner, Ruth: Resistance and Submission: Teaching about Responses to Oppression (93-104); Roth, John King: What Can Anyone Do? (107-127); Locke, Hubert G.: Teaching about the Holocaust: Theory and Method for Non-Jewish Audiences (129-142); Baron, Lawrence: Teaching about the Rescuers of Jews (143-154); Moore, James F.: Crossing the Experience Barrier: Teaching the Holocaust to Christian Students (155-167); Berger, Alan L.: Memory and Meaning: The Holocaust in Second Generation Literature (171-189); Brenner, Rachel Feldhay: "The Almost Meeting": The Quest for the Holocaust in Canadian Jewish Fiction (191-211); Pelli, Moshe: Ka-Tzetnik's Literary Portrayal of Holocaust Experience: A Study of "Kochav Ha'efer" ("Star of Ashes") as a Model for Analysis of Holocaust Literature (213-229); Krondorfer, Bjoern: Experimental Drama and the Holocaust: The Work of the Jewish-German Dance Theatre [in Philadelphia] and Its Application to the Teaching of the Holocaust (231-259); Epstein, Joel J.: The Holocaust as Non-History: Coverage in College Western Civilization Textbooks (263-274); Feingold, Marilyn Bonner: Problems Related to Knowledge Utilization in Elementary and Secondary Schools (275-300); Cargas, Harry James: My Papal Encyclical (301-308); Bitton-Jackson, Livia Elvira: The Nazi "Blood Myth" and the Holocaust (309-320). LF
 

[Golan, Sima: Bridges between Holocaust and Revival: A Handbook for the Teacher: An Educational Program with Creative Methods. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education and Culture, 1993. 266; 22 pp.] (in Hebrew)

A textbook for grade school children introducing the Holocaust by creative activities and discussions focusing on related subjects such as freedom, identity, kinship, home, family, legacy of fighters, and children in the Holocaust. Accompanied by a portfolio of 22 reproductions of paintings by Jewish artists, to be presented during the discussions. Includes an article by David Green (pp. 13-17) discussing psycho-educational aspects in the teaching of the Holocaust, and an article by S. Golan entitled "Experiencing Death in the Ghetto of Theresienstadt" (pp. 18-26) in which she highlights some of the artworks created by children in the ghetto. LFo

Goldberg, Martin: Children's Autobiographies and Diaries of the Holocaust. Teaching History 83 (Apr 1996) 8-13.

States that American textbooks on all levels of instruction from elementary through high school offer little more than a brief touching on the subject of the Holocaust. Recommends use of Holocaust memoirs and diaries in the history curriculum, and that teachers cooperate with librarians in instituting such literature-based programs. Pp. 10-12 contain an annotated list of recommended titles for use in the classroom. SSC

Grift, Wim van de; Kliphuis, Eja: Shoah bekeken: Een onderzoek naar gebruik en waardering van het schooltelevisieproject Shoah [Shoah Viewed: An Examination of the Use and Appreciation of the School Television Project Shoah]. Amsterdam: Stichting Centrum voor Onderwijsonderzoek Universiteit van Amsterdam; Anne Frank Stichting, 1987. 34 pp.

In March 1987 the Dutch School Television organized an experimental educational project called Shoah. A shortened version of Claude Lanzmann's film "Shoah" was televized. Teachers and pupils of 721 schools (ca. 21% of all Dutch high schools) were sent educational manuals including information on the persecution of the Jews. Questionnaires were later sent out. Analyzes the responses of 174 teachers and 543 pupils, which were largely positive. Concludes that the project Shoah is useful for instruction in the schools. SRH

Grobman, Gary: The Holocaust: A Guide for Pennsylvania Teachers. Millersville, PA: Millersville University, 1990. vi, 171 pp.

Intended for use in high schools and higher education institutions, both Jewish and non-Jewish. Presents a curriculum, consisting of twelve lessons, stressing the role of ideology, prejudice, and stereotypes in Holocaust history; ancient, Christian, and modern antisemitism; Hitler's Final Solution of the "Jewish question"; reactions to the Holocaust (resistance, rescuers, and bystanders); the analogy between Nazi racist policy and some contemporary forms of racial prejudice and genocide; U.S. restrictions against Jewish immigration during the 1930s; and the role of the U.S. as a bystander during the Holocaust and after. The appendices contain guidelines for teaching about struggle against discrimination, a list of Pennsylvania Holocaust resource centers, Jewish songs of the Holocaust (pp. 111-126), and a bibliography compiled by Ned Shulman (pp. 126-167). DR

Haynes, Stephen Ronald: Holocaust Education and the Church-Related College: Restoring Ruptured Traditions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. xxii, 185 pp.

In 1994 Haynes conducted a nationwide survey designed to yield a picture of Holocaust education at U.S. church-related colleges of liberal arts; 317 colleges were involved, and only 91 had a regular course on the Holocaust. The results of the survey were disappointing. States that the Holocaust was a rupture in two traditions: the Christian one and that of liberal education. Both Christian and liberal education bear responsibility for the Holocaust, because both produced ordinary educated persons capable of committing genocide. The church-related colleges of liberal arts have a religious obligation to teach the Holocaust as part of higher education penance for this. The Christian scholar must realize the responsibility of Christianity for the Holocaust. Proposes practical strategies and measures for including the Holocaust in college curricula. Pp. 157-170 contain the questionnaire, graphs displaying the results of the survey, and a list of the colleges involved.  DR

Haynes, Stephen Ronald: Holocaust Education at American Colleges and Universities: A Report on the Current Situation. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 12, 2 (Fall 1998) 282-307.

Based on a survey conducted by Haynes in 1995-96 by mail. 90 Holocaust educators answered Haynes's questionnaire and/or sent him their syllabi. The survey showed the great interest of both educators and students in this topic, and a broad spectrum of college and university departments where such courses are taught. Elucidates current practices of Holocaust educators ? their activities, resources, strategies, and priorities. The syllabi sent by the educators show great diversity in teaching the Holocaust: e.g. while ca. half of the courses focus on the perpetrators, the other half focus on the victims. Touches the issue of the limits of normativity in the teaching of the Holocaust. Discusses challenges which university-level Holocaust education faces and will face in the USA. Maintains that courses on the Holocaust should fulfil the task of humanizing the students. DR

Heckler, Ellen: An Analysis of the Treatment of the Holocaust in Selected American and World History Textbooks.  Diss. ? Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 1994. 287 pp.  Unseen. On textbooks published in the 1940s-80s.

Huerta, Carlos C.: Revisionist Literature: Its Place in Holocaust Literature and Its Role in Teaching the Holocaust. Conservative Judaism 47, 1 (Fall 1994) 19-26.

Asserts that in recent years Holocaust denial has become a real problem, especially in the USA, and pleads for introducing "revisionist" literature in the study of the Holocaust. Not exposing students to this kind of literature, which has penetrated American university campuses, leaves them open to the deniers' arguments when they are eventually encountered. Surveys briefly the main revisionist authors (e.g. Mark Weber, Robert Faurisson, Fred A. Leuchter) and the methods of spreading their propaganda. Suggests concrete ways to teach the revisionists' technique of misusing historical documents. LV

Illman, Karl-Johan: Nagra centrala judiska begrepp i de finlandssvenska religionsboeckerna for grundskolan [Some Important Jewish Concepts in Religion Textbooks for Swedish-Speaking Elementary Schools in Finland]. Nordisk Judaistik 7, 1 (1986) 7-20.  With an English summary.

6% of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking, with their own school system where Judaism is taught in grade 7. This study of 15 concepts occurring in the school textbooks ? including anti-Judaism, antisemitism, and the Holocaust ? reveals that the information on these subjects is scanty and the teaching regarding Jesus and the Jews perpetuates erroneous "facts." SSC

Isaacman, Clara Heller: Pathways through the Holocaust: An Oral History by Eye-Witnesses. [New York]: Ktav, 1988. 109 pp.

A textbook for teaching the Holocaust to children. Gives an overview of the history of the Jews in Europe, a chapter on Nazism and the Holocaust, and memoirs of eyewitnesses from various countries: Klaus Heck, a German soldier; Hanna Seckel, a Czech Jewess who emigrated to Denmark (October 1939) and later escaped to Sweden (October 1943); a Polish Jew named David who as a boy spent most of the war in work camps (as well as Mauthausen); Arie Shnaper, a Jewish underground fighter in the Vilna ghetto; Errikos Sevillias, a Greek Jew transported to Auschwitz (April 1944) who later did forced labor in Breslau; an abridged testimony of Zivia Lubetkin from the Eichmann trial regarding the Warsaw ghetto and her participation in the uprising; and an account by a Black American soldier, Leon Bass, who was among the first liberators of Buchenwald. Excerpts from rabbinic literature and questions follow each chapter. LC

Kaiser, Wolf: Teacher Training at the House of the Wannsee Conference, Berlin. Journal of Holocaust Education 6, 3 (Win 1997) 55-64.

A memorial and education center was opened in Berlin, in the House of the Wannsee Conference, on 20 January 1992. Its activities include seminars for teachers, lasting one or several days, on various aspects of the Holocaust. This program may help to turn teaching about the history of Nazism in German schools into a vehicle of moral and political education ? "education for democracy." Describes the studying process in the center. Its sessions may be combined with a guided tour of the HWC exhibition, visits to its resource center, as well as to the Jewish Museum or the "Centrum Judaicum," etc. DR
 

[Keren, Nili: The Impact of Public Opinion Shapers and of Holocaust Research on the Development of Educational Thought and Educational Programs on the Holocaust in High Schools and in Informal Education in Israel, 1948-1981.  Diss. ? Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1985. 297, xv pp.] (in Hebrew)

Designates five periods in the development of Holocaust awareness, research, and education in the State of Israel: 1948-1953, 1953-1960, 1961-1967, 1967-1973, 1973-1981. The first two periods were characterized by two simultaneous and contradictory processes: the need to remember, achieved by legislation and by establishing commemoration institutions, and the need to repress and a strong will to forget. The education establishment did not deal with the subject of the Holocaust. The stage of repression ended with the advent of the Eichmann trial; many Israelis were exposed for the first time to the horrors of the Holocaust. But the public interest waned, and only cursory gestures were made toward Holocaust education. The subject came into public awareness again in May 1967, the period of waiting before the Six-Day War, when many Jews feared a second holocaust, and with the victory in the war, when Israelis were described as conquerors and aggressors. This stage aroused an interest amongst politicians to examine different forms of aggression in order to justify the Israeli position, but it still did not cause the education establishment to engage in Holocaust education. The Yom Kippur War in 1973 caused a deep and meaningful change in the status of the Holocaust as a public issue and especially as an educational subject. Pressure came from universities and commemoration institutions, and from schoolteachers and parents, to institute Holocaust studies on various levels. In 1981 the Knesset ruled that the Holocaust should be taught in every Israeli school. SSC

Kolinsky, Eva: Remembering Auschwitz: A Survey of Recent Textbooks for the Teaching of History in German Schools. Yad Vashem Studies 22 (1992) 287-307.  Appeared in Hebrew in "Yad Vashem: Kovetz mehkarim" 22 (1993).

An evaluation of 22 schoolbooks published in West Germany between 1981-90. In contrast to the first decade of the FRG, when textbooks hardly mentioned Auschwitz, accounts of it are now given as a rule. However, they are not free of drawbacks. Auschwitz is presented in the perspective of the perpetrators, not of the victims. The texts focus on the organizational side of the camps, not on the sufferings of the victims, and there is a tendency to downplay the scope of the murder. Some textbooks try to correct this defect and give accounts of young people who were in Auschwitz, or include questions inviting pupils to find out what happened during the Nazi period to the Jews in their own town, i.e. they try to impel the pupils to identify with the victims. Stresses that mentioning Auschwitz cannot be equated with remembering. Pp. 306-307 give a list of the textbooks included in the survey. DR
 

[Komanev, Georgy; Novoseltsev, Anatoly: A First Agreement on Joint Holocaust Research. Yehudei Brit ha-Mo`etzot 14 (1991) 175-180.] (in Hebrew)

An interview held in May 1990, by Israeli historians David Prital and Ludmilla Tsigelman, with two historians of the Soviet Academy of Sciences who visited Israel and signed an agreement with Yad Vashem for cooperation of the two institutions in the study of the Holocaust in the USSR, and its dissemination in education and publications. The destruction of the Jews in World War II is not taught in Soviet schools, nor is it researched by scholars in universities. The interviewees hope to change that situation. They mention that the number of Jews killed in the USSR is probably much higher than has been thought heretofore. They also discuss rising nationalism, accompanied by antisemitism, in the USSR at present, but express the belief that most Jews will remain in the USSR. SSC

Koppel, Reynold S.: Coming to Terms with History: National Socialism and the Holocaust in the School Curricula of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Austria. Holocaust Studies Annual 3 [1985] (1987) 137-149.

Based on a project undertaken by the author who visited more than sixty schools in 12 cities (mostly in the FRG) in 1984. In 1978 the Ministers of Culture of the various states of the FRG decided that units about National Socialism must be included in the school curriculum; previously, it was left to individual principals or teachers. Curricula were developed on Nazism and the Holocaust, but many teachers that Koppel encountered were either unable or unwilling to teach the subject. Notes a proliferation of "resistance books" in the FRG contending that the majority of local inhabitants either resisted the Nazi regime or simply ignored it, and that those who supported the regime were duped by unscrupulous opportunists. Concludes that the quality of instruction and the attitude of teachers leaves much room for improvement. SSC

Kraus, Wolfgang; Bergler, Siegfried, eds.: Die "Reichskristallnacht," 9. November 1938: 50 Jahre danach ? was geht mich das an? Eine Arbeitshilfe fuer Unterricht und Gemeindearbeit. Neuendettelsau [West Germany]: Freimund, 1988. 95 pp.  On title-page also: Im Auftrag des Arbeitskreises Kirche und Judentum, der Vereinigten Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche Deutschlands und des Deutschen Nationalkomitees des Lutherischen Weltbundes.

Discusses the "Kristallnacht" pogrom and its relevance today, especially for the Church, and presents suggestions for treatment of the topic in the curriculum of religious instruction. Proposes readings and prayers for a commemorative gathering. Pp. 16-49 and 63-95 contain documents, eyewitness reports, reactions to "Kristallnacht" (especially by Protestant ministers), literary excerpts, and present-day reflections, especially by clergymen and by young people. RW

Kuras, Ivan F. et al., eds.: Yevreyi v Ukrayini: Istoriya, kultura, tradytsiyi [Jews in Ukraine: History, Culture, Traditions]. Kyyiv: Instytut Natsionalnykh Vidnosyn i Politologii NAN Ukrayiny, 1997. 255 pp.

Partial contents: Grinevich, Vladislav: K voprosu o yevreiskoi problematike na stranitsakh vuzovskikh uchebnikov istorii Ukrainy [On the Question of Jewish Topics in University Textbooks on the History of Ukraine. [Criticizes, inter alia, the book by Orest Subtelny.] (181-192); Podolskii, Anatolii Ye.: Prepodavaniye istorii Kholokosta v Ukraine i mirovoi opyt: Metodologiya, kontseptsii, podkhody [Teaching the History of the Holocaust in Ukraine and the World Experience: Methodology, Conceptions, Approaches] (227-238). DR

Lange, Thomas, ed.: Judentum und juedische Geschichte im Schulunterricht nach 1945: Bestandsaufnahmen, Erfahrungen und Analysen aus Deutschland, Oesterreich, Frankreich und Israel. Wien: Boehlau, 1994. 351 pp.

Partial contents: Schatzker, Chaim: Juden und Judentum in den Geschichts-lehrbuechern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (37-47); Lassmann, Wolfgang: Die Gestalt des Judentums im Spiegel der Universalgeschichte: Eine Untersuchung von Geschichts-lehrbuechern an oesterreichischen AHS [Allgemeinbildenden Hoeheren Schulen] unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der reformierten Oberstufe (61-94); Bensoussan, Georges: Der Unterricht ueber die Schoah im staatlichen franzoesischen Schulwesen 1945-1990 [Appeared in French in "Les Temps Modernes" 547 (1992).] (95-112); Rossow, Aenne; Wiegmann, Ulrich: Die Instrumentalisierung identitaetsloser Opfer: Zum Platz juedischer Geschichte und des Genozids an den deutschen und europaeischen Juden in den Geschichtslehrplaenen und -buechern der SBZ und der DDR 1946-1990 (113-124); Wolf, Siegfried: Antisemitismus und Schoah als Unterrichtsgegenstand in Ostdeutschland ? ein Fragment (125-139); Gloeckner, Eckhard: Der neue Antisemitismus ? eine Herausforderung fuer die Schule? (259-266); Steffens, Gerd: Veraenderung jugendlicher Mentalitaeten und die Erinnerung an Auschwitz (267-278); Freiling, Harald: Kinder- und Jugendbuecher im Unterricht ueber die Judenverfolgung und die Schoah (279-291); Gugelot, Frederic: Die Schoah in Frankreich unterrichten (325-329); Koessler, Gottfried: Die Opfer berichten: Zeitzeugen im Unterricht (331-336); Mueller-Henning, Markus: Erinnern und sich veraendern: Ein Projektmodell deutsch-israelischer Schulpartnerschaft 1986-1993 (337-347). ID

Lerntage des Zentrums fuer Antisemitismusforschung 5 (1988).

This issue, entitled "Lerntag ueber den Holocaust als Thema im Geschichtsunterricht und in der politischen Bildung," includes papers and discussions from a study-day held in New York, 8 November 1987, comparing problems of teaching the Holocaust in different countries. Contents: Scheffler, Wolfgang: NS-Prozesse als Geschichts-quelle: Bedeutung und Grenzen ihrer Auswertbarkeit durch den Historiker (13-27); Hopf, Christel: Antisemitismus als Unterrichtsgegenstand: Zwischen moralischer Empoerung und Leugnung (28-50); Krause-Vilmar, Dietfrid: Ueber den Umgang mit dem Nationalsozialismus heute (51-76); Schatzker, Chaim: Die Rezeption der "Shoah" durch das israelische Bildungswesen und die israelische Gesellschaft (77-92); Morawek, Elisabeth: Holocaust als Thema im Geschichtsunterricht und in der politischen Bildung in Oesterreich (93-108); Friedlander, Henry: Holocaust als Problem der politischen Bildung in den USA (109-132). MR

Lorand, Ferenc: A holocaust-tema pedagogiai dimenzioi [Pedagogical Dimensions of the Holocaust Theme]. Holocaust Fuzetek 7 (1997) 85-104.

Draws attention to two dimensions of the pedagogical approach to the topic of the Holocaust: one is that Hungarian students must be taught what happened in Auschwitz and during the Holocaust in general; the second is that there is a need to educate youth to develop their character and personality, with an aim to preventing them from becoming like those who conceived and realized the Holocaust. SSC

Maitles, Henry; Cowan, Paula: Teaching the Holocaust in Primary Schools in Scotland: Modes, Methodology and Content. Educational Review 51, 3 (Nov 1999) 263-271.

A study based on interviews with eight teachers in primary schools in Scotland (five of whom teach aspects of the Holocaust). Concludes that teaching the Holocaust from grade 5 is successful and stimulating both for teachers and pupils. Previous teacher interest is not required, but there is a need for in-service training on the use of survivor testimony and how to deal with concentration and death camps, etc. The focus is more on combatting racism than on antisemitism. The question is not of age but of methodology. Primary teachers use a multi-disciplinary approach that employs art and role-playing. Since Holocaust education is not compulsory, pupils will be exposed to the subject only if there is encouragement from local authorities or the government. YC

Maxwell, Elisabeth: Why Should the Holocaust Be Remembered and Therefore Taught? European Judaism 22, 1 (Win 1988-Spr 1989) 17-28.

A lecture delivered at Yarnton Manor, Oxford, March 1988. Discusses the aims and purpose of the "Remembering for the Future" conference (Oxford, July 1988). Shows how remembrance of the Holocaust is threatened today by revisionism, disinformation, denial of its uniqueness or that it ever occurred. Emphasizes that only by education ? through detailed documentation, teaching, published writings, and conferences ? can the distortion about the truth of the Holocaust be fought and its remembrance preserved. Discusses the history of Christian antisemitism which made the Nazi genocide possible. Presents the views of Protestant and Catholic theologians (such as Alice and Roy Eckardt, Paul Van Buren, and Cardinal Roger Etchegaray) on how the Christian Church must revise its doctrines to create a theology free of contempt for the Jews. MG

McRoy, James J.: Youth Reflect on Hitler: A Cross-National Study. Social Education 49, 6 (Sept 1985) 545-552.

Content analyses of 2,000 essays written by British and U.S. high school students in 1978, on the subject "What I Have Heard about Adolf Hitler," compared with results from surveys held in West Germany in 1977, show a superficial knowledge of the subject. The fifty variables analyzed included: Germany, antisemitism, the Holocaust, genocide, the Nuremburg racial laws, "Kristallnacht." Concludes that students must be taught the historical context of Nazism and the Holocaust, and that Holocaust curriculum guides should include discussion of the psychology and the historical roots of antisemitism.

Millen, Rochelle L., ed.: New Perspectives on the Holocaust: A Guide for Teachers and Scholars. New York: New York University Press, 1996. xxii, 382 pp.

Based on papers presented at the conference "Teaching the Holocaust: Issues and Dilemmas," held at Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, October 1993. Contents: "Viewing the Holocaust in Context": O'Connor, Joseph E.: Introduction (3-5); Milchman, Alan; Rosenberg, Alan: Two Kinds of Uniqueness: The Universal Aspects of the Holocaust (6-18); Katz, Steven Theodore: Children in Auschwitz and the Gulag: Alternative Realities [On the treatment of children in various Nazi death camps.] (19-38); Fink, Carole: Prelude to the Holocaust? The Murder of Walther Rathenau [An earlier version appeared in "Judaism" 44 (1995).] (39-56); Lorenz, Dagmar C.G.: Anti-Semitism in the Tradition of German Discourse: The Path to the Holocaust [In the 16th-20th centuries.] (57-69); Breitman, Richard David: Secrecy and the Final Solution [With a focus on the role of Heinrich Himmler.] (70-82). "Considering Issues of Teaching and Curriculum": Welker, Robert P.: Introduction (91-97); Id.: Searching for the Educational Imperative in Holocaust Curricula [In the USA.] (99-121); Bialystok, Franklin: Americanizing the Holocaust: Beyond the Limit of the Universal [Appeared in German in "Die Gegenwart der Schoah" (1994).] (122-130); Berke, Jacqueline; Saltzman, Ann L.: Teaching the Holocaust: The Case for an Interdisciplinary Approach [On a joint course taught by the authors, from the Departments of English and Psychology, at Drew University.] (131-140); Clarke, Charles R.; Dobkin, Sharon L.: Holocaust: Transcendent Case Study for the Social Sciences (141-146); Markman, Marsha Carow: Teaching the Holocaust through Literature [Discusses Hitler's "Mein Kampf," diaries and memoirs by Jews, and works of fiction.] (147-158); Wilkins, Sara Leuchter: Witness to the Holocaust: History from a First-Hand Perspective [On courses taught by the author at Marshall University.] (159-165); Medoff, Rafael: Teaching about International Responses to News of the Holocaust: The "Columbus Dispatch" Project at Ohio State University (166-173); Charlesworth, Andrew: Teaching the Holocaust through Landscape Study [On a course taught by the author in Liverpool. A revised version appeared in "Immigrants and Minorities" 13 (1994).] (174-185); Huerta, Carlos C.; Shiffman-Huerta, Dafna: Holocaust Denial Literature: Its Place in Teaching the Holocaust [An earlier version appeared in "Conservative Judaism" 47 (1994).] (186-195); Schilling, Donald G.: The Dead End of Demonizing: Dealing with the Perpetrators in Teaching the Holocaust [Discusses recent scholarly works used by the author in teaching about the Holocaust.] (196-211); Bassman, Michael F.: Teaching the Holocaust and Making It Relevant for Non-Jewish Students [At East Carolina College, North Carolina.] (212-221); Kalau, Elisabeth I.: Teaching the Holocaust: Helping Students Confront Their Own Biases [On a course taught by the author, whose father was a Nazi army colonel, at the University of Maine at Farmington.] (222-231); Gonshak, Henry: "A Madwoman and a Scavenger": The Toll of Holocaust Survival in Cynthia Ozick's "Rosa" (232-241); Teichman, Milton; Leder, Sharon: Truth and Lamentation: Two Modes of Literary Response to the Holocaust (242-251). "Teaching toward Dialogue: Spiritual and Moral Issues": Bennett, Timothy A.: Introduction (261-264); Lozowick, Yaacov; Millen, Rochelle L.: Pitfalls of Memory: Israeli-German Dialogues on the Shoah [On seminars for Germans held at Yad Vashem. A slightly different version was first published in German in "Dass Auschwitz nicht noch einmal sei..." (1995).] (265-274); Heyl, Matthias: Education after Auschwitz: Teaching the Holocaust in Germany (275-286); Jacobs, Steven L.: Post-Shoah Jewish Theology: Identifying the Categories (287-293); Haynes, Stephen Ronald: Christianity, Anti-Semitism, and Post-Holocaust Theology: Old Questions, Changing Paradigms [Surveys recent research, in particular by Langmuir and Maccoby, for the purpose of teaching about the relationship between Christianity and antisemitism, and the religious dimensions of the Holocaust.] (294-318); Seidelman, William E.: Power, Responsibility, and Abuse in Medicine: Lessons from Germany [On the role of medicine in the horrors of the Nazi period, and the ethical vacuum created by "collective forgetfulness" in the postwar German medical profession.] (319-343); Pawlikowski, John T.: The Holocaust: Its Impact on Christian Thought and Ethics (344-361). DR

Mitchell, Otis C.: The Holocaust in Postwar Germany: An Examination of the West German Treatment of the Subject in Media, the Schools, and Historical Writing. Assessing the Significance of the Holocaust, eds. Abie I. Ingber, Benny Kraut. Cincinnati: Hillel Jewish Student Center; University of Cincinnati, Judaic Studies Program, [1986?]. Pp. 7-14.

A paper delivered at the University of Cincinnati on Yom Hashoah, May 1986. Discusses awareness of the Holocaust in West Germany. Until 1960 the Holocaust was hardly discussed in the media or in schools. In 1960, instruction of the modern period of German history became part of the curriculum in all elementary and secondary schools. At first, publication of textbooks dealing with Nazism led to antisemitic incidents. Since then there has been much published material, but the problem of presenting the Holocaust in a meaningful way for German youth remains. Discusses, also, the "historians' debate," contending that both sides tend to adopt extreme positions. EB

Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide. Sacramento, CA: California State Board of Education, 1988. 65 pp.

Presents curriculum resources, course descriptions for kindergarten to 12th grade, and examples of violations of human rights. See pp. 45-53, "The Holocaust: Genocide against the Jews." SSC

Plowright, John: Teaching the Holocaust: A Response to the Report on a United Kingdom Survey. Teaching History 62 (Jan 1991) 26-29.

Discusses a 1987 survey on how the Holocaust is taught in British schools and the report by John P. Fox, "Teaching the Holocaust: The Report of a Survey in the United Kingdom" (Leicester: National Yad Vashem Charitable Trust; Centre for Holocaust Studies, University of Leicester, 1989). The results (based on 249 responses) indicate that teaching of the subject is inadequate, which was known anyway. States that, in fact, the very structure of the questionnaire begged the question. Discusses how the Holocaust should be taught ? from a multidisciplinary approach with broadly constructed syllabi and appropriate teaching materials. Expresses concern that the study of the Holocaust may be restricted to the academic discipline of history, or become isolated as a marginal subject. MG

Podolskii, Anatolii Ye.: Prepodavaniye Kholokosta v shkolakh Ukrainy: Problemy i perspektivy [Teaching the Holocaust in Ukrainian Schools: Problems and Perspectives]. Yevreiskaya Shkola 4 (Oct-Dec 1994) 51-56.

In post-Soviet independent Ukraine it has become possible to teach the history of the Holocaust in the schools, both Jewish and non-Jewish. Makes some proposals how to build a course for Jewish schools, and a six-hour optional course for non-Jewish schools. DR

Rachlin, Susan, ed.: The November Pogrom ? Kristallnacht, 1938-1988: Educational Resource Guide. New York: Board of Jewish Education of Greater New York, 1988. viii, 53 pp.

This guide is intended for use by families, schools, synagogues, community centers, libraries, and other institutions. It includes background information excerpted from historical studies, reactions in the USA, eyewitness testimonies, program suggestions, and a brief bibliography, filmography and list of Holocaust resource organizations. EG

Raj, Tamas, ed.: A gyerekeknek nem mindig mondjak meg az igazat: A zsidosag a tankonyvekben es a hittankonyvekben [Children Are Not Always Told the Truth: Judaism in Schoolbooks and in Religious Textbooks]. Budapest: Makkabi, 1994. 136 pp.

A collection of studies on the representation of Judaism, the Holocaust, and the State of Israel in Hungarian textbooks for public schools and for religious instruction in Catholic, Calvinist, and Lutheran churches, published from the 1950s to 1991. They note that the Jewish question is almost taboo, the victims of the Holocaust are generalized, concentration camps are represented as detention camps, and the anti-Jewish laws and the role of the Hungarian gendarmerie are not mentioned. Partial contents: Karsai, Laszlo: Tankonyveink a soarol [Our Textbooks on the Shoah] (27-37); Szecsi, Jozsef: A magyarorszagi katolikus hittankonyvek zsidosagkepe [Representation of Judaism in Hungarian Catholic Religious Textbooks] (49-63); Majsai, Tamas: A soa (holocaust) es a zsidosag napjaink reformatus hittankonyveiben [The Shoah (Holocaust) and Judaism in Contemporary Protestant Religious Textbooks] (65-115). MA

Rathenow, Hanns-Fred; Weber, Norbert H., eds.: Auschwitz ? mehr als ein Ort in Polen: Begegnungen, Reflexionen, Konsequenzen. Berlin (West): Technische Universitaet, 1986. 148 pp.

A collection of essays on political education and the significance of teaching young people in Germany and other European countries about the Holocaust. Partial contents: Rathenow, Hanns-Fred; Weber, Norbert H.: Politisches Lernen am Beispiel "Auschwitz" (9-16); Staschel, Bernd: Anmerkungen zu Adornos "Erziehung nach Auschwitz": 20 Jahre danach (17-33); Matthies, Stephan: Auschwitz erfahrbarmachen oder, Die Schwierigkeit, Auschwitz in der Schule zu behandeln (85-104); Weber, Dagmar: "Auschwitz" in deutschen Geschichtsbuechern (105-113); Kutza, Barbara: "Auschwitz" in polnischen Geschichtsbuechern (114-118); Kluge, Eva: "Auschwitz" in niederlaendischen Unterrichtsmaterialien (119-123); Weitz, Regina: "Auschwitz" in britischen Geschichtsbuechern (124-129); Mueller, Ursula: "Auschwitz" in franzoesischen Geschichtsbuechern (130-137). MR

Rathenow, Hanns-Fred; Weber, Norbert H., eds.: Erziehung nach Auschwitz. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus, 1989. vii, 217 pp.

Partial contents: Rathenow, Hanns-Fred; Weber, Norbert H.: Auschwitz: Eine Herausforderung fuer die Paedagogik (7-23); Gamm, Hans-Jochen: Schwieriger Umgang mit Tradition: Die jungen Deutschen und ihre Zeitgeschichte (24-33); Muszynski, Heliodor: "Auschwitz": Paedagogisches Leitmotiv in der Bildung und Erziehung der jungen Generation in Polen (77-82); Sachs, Shimon: Das Trauma des Holocaust: Gedanken eines Berliner Emigranten in Israel (83-88); Uhlig, Christa: "Auschwitz" als Element der Friedenserziehung in der DDR (89-97); Reich, Brigitte; Stammwitz, Wolfgang: Antifaschistische Erziehung in der Bundesrepublik? Von den Schwierigkeiten einer paedagogischen "Bewaeltigung" des Nationalsozialismus (98-108); Dudek, Peter: "Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit" im schulischen Unterricht? (109-116); Wenzel, Birgit; Weber, Dagmar: "Auschwitz" in Geschichtsbuechern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (117-135); Szymanski, Tadeusz: Jugendliche in Auschwitz: Reflexionen nach fuenfundzwanzig Jahren Gedenkstaettenarbeit (137-144); Distel, Barbara: Gedenkstaettenarbeit: Lernen fuer die Zukunft (145-154); Metzke, Josef-Maria: "Damit kein Gras darueber waechst": Mit einer Hauptschulklasse in Auschwitz (155-160); Krebs, Gisela: Auschwitz ? Staette gegenwaertiger Vergangenheit: Studierende der TU Berlin besuchen die Gedenkstaette (161-168); Laengerer, Thomas: Majdanek ? eine szenische Reise: Mitglieder der Evangelischen Jugend verarbeiten ihre Erfahrungen (169-178); Preuschoff, Axel: Spuren suchen: Anstoesse fuer einen geschichtsbewussten Umgang mit der Gegenwart (179-185); Metto, Michael: Audiovisuelle Medien zum Thema Auschwitz (187-201); Markmann, Hans-Jochen: Didaktische Materialien (212-216). RW
 

[Ravid, Smadar: Here and Not There. Book 1-3. Tel-Aviv: Rekhess, 1993. 62; 29; 39 pp.] (in Hebrew)

Three workbooks for teaching the Holocaust to pupils in Israeli schools by way of accounts of the experiences of children during the Holocaust. Presents testimonies of children on their war experiences, until their arrival in Palestine; excerpts from diaries and literary works written during the Holocaust; postwar literary works; instructions for preparatory work at home, and group and individual work in the classroom. Also gives basic data about World War II and the history of the Jews during the Holocaust. Contents: Book I: Child Survivors on Their Way to Palestine. ? Book II: The Path of Events. ? Book III: In the Ghettos and in the Camps.  LFo

The Reference Librarian 61-62 (1998).  Also published in hard-cover under the title "The Holocaust: Memories, Research, Reference," eds. Robert Hauptman, Susan Hubbs Motin (Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1998).

This issue of the journal, entitled "The Holocaust: Memories, Research, Reference," contains essays with an emphasis on research and the research process, geared to aiding reference librarians to stay abreast of the subject in order to aid students interested in studying the Holocaust and to assist scholars in their research. Partial contents: Chartock, Roselle K.: Preparing a Holocaust Unit for High School Students [On the first formal curriculum on the subject for high school students, constructed by teachers in the Social Studies Department at Monument Mountain Regional High School in Great Barrington, MA, in 1972.] (33-40); Colijn, G. Jan; Bearden, William; Rosenthal, Gail: A Holocaust Resource Center Becomes a Beehive: The Case of the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey (41-50); Gantt, Patricia M.; Meier, David A.: Remainders of Vanished Lives: Teaching the Painful Legacy of the Holocaust [On the Holocaust Resource Center in the Department of Teacher Education's West River Teacher Center at Dickinson State University in Dickinson, North Dakota.] (51-57); Totten, Samuel: Incorporating Contemporaneous Newspaper Articles about the Holocaust into a Study of the Holocaust [On use of news items from the American press of the 1930s-40s to teach high school students about the Holocaust.] (59-81); Goldberg, Martin: Holocaust Autobiography [On the use of memoirs to teach about the Holocaust.] (157-163); Totten, Samuel: Examining the Holocaust through the Lives and Literary Works of Victims and Survivors: An Ideal Unit of Study for the English Classroom (165-188). SSC

Remembering for the Future: Working Papers and Addenda. Vol. I-III. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989. xxv, 3202 pp.

Papers presented at a conference held in Oxford, July 1988. Partial contents: Schatzker, Chaim: The Impact of the Holocaust on Israeli Society and Israeli Education (968-974); Keren, Nili: Ideologies, Attitudes and Holocaust Teaching in the State of Israel: History and Recent Development (1029-1037); Barzel, Neima: Education towards the Cultivation of Remembrance in the Third Generation after the Holocaust [In Israel.] (1071-1081); Epstein, Joel J.: Holocaust Education in the United States: The Church Related Institution (1168-1174); Feinstein, Stephen C.: Strategies and Problems in Teaching the Holocaust: The Uses of Jewish History and Theological Discussions (1175-1181); Locke, Hubert G.: The Holocaust and the American University: Observations on Teaching and Research in a Graduate Professional Field (1188-1193); Pentlin, Susan Lee: The American Teacher of German and the Holocaust (1194-1206); Weinberg, David: Conceptual and Methodological Approaches to the Teaching of the History of the Holocaust at an American University (1207-1215); Rosenbloom, Maria: Structured Educational Efforts Inform and Sensitize Mental Health Professionals to the Implications of the Holocaust (1296-1307); Ofer, Dalia: Personal Letters in Research and Education on the Holocaust [Appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 4 (1989).] (2251-2262); Kakol, Kazimierz: "Our Memories Are Your Only Graves": The Strategy of Poland's Activeness in Educating the Young Generation on the Holocaust (2498-2509); Porat, Dina: Teaching the Holocaust to Israeli Students, 1974-1987 (2692-2697). SSC

Remembering the Voices That Were Silenced: Planning Guide. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1990. xi, 174 pp.  At head of title-page: Days of Remembrance, April 22-29, 1990.

A guide for educational program coordinators dealing with commemoration of the Holocaust. Contains a chronology of events between September 1939-December 1940, excerpts from historical works dealing mainly with that period, planning aids and resources, a list of "Holocaust Resource Centers and Organizations in the USA," and a short filmography and bibliography.  MG

Schatzker, Chaim: Die Bedeutung des Holocaust fuer das Selbstverstaendnis der israelischen Gesellschaft. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 15 (6 Apr 1990) 19-23.  Appeared also in "Tribuene" 107 (1988) and in "Identitaet und Erinnerung" (Frankfurt a.M.: Haag + Herchen, 1990).

Analyzes three successive approaches of society and of the educational system in Israel to the Holocaust. For many years, Israelis kept the Holocaust at an emotional distance by demonizing the perpetrators, suppressing the experience of the survivors, blaming or glorifying the victims, and transforming the memory of the Holocaust into ritual. These attitudes were not conducive to objective learning. Interest in learning about the Holocaust arose with the Eichmann trial, leading to an increase in research and an attempt to derive universal lessons for ethics and democracy. A more recent existential approach tries to make young people experience the Holocaust through talks with survivors or trips to Auschwitz. Such traumatic experiences may, however, be misused for political purposes.  RW

Schreier, Helmut; Heyl, Matthias, eds.: Das Echo des Holocaust: Paedagogische Aspekte des Erinnerns. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. R. Kraemer, 1992. 273 pp.

Partial contents: Elias, Ruth: Erziehung nach Auschwitz (13-18); Cohen, Elie Aron: Die Schuld der Deutschen (19-25); Juelich, Dierk: Die Wiederkehr des Verdraengten ? Sozialpsychologische Aspekte zur Identitaet der Deutschen nach Auschwitz (57-71); Kraushaar, Wolfgang: Philosemitismus und Antisemitismus: Zum Konflikt zwischen Horkheimer, Adorno und der Studentenbewegung (73-99); Hurwitz, Emanuel: Friedensliebe und Aggression (101-119); Steffensky, Fulbert: Schuld und Identitaet: Die Faehigkeit, mit sich selbst zu brechen (121-133); Heyl, Binjamin: Zwischen Kreuz und Hakenkreuz (135-141); Kestenberg, Judith S.: "Als eure Grosseltern klein waren": Mit Kindern ueber den Holocaust sprechen (145-159); Wangh, Martin: How to Teach the Holocaust [In German, translated from English.] (161-167); Abram, Isidoor (Ido) Bert Hans: Rassenwahn und Rassenhass: Lehren aus der Schoah (187-200); Schreier, Helmut: Die Kategorie Verantwortung und die Forderung nach einer "Erziehung nach Auschwitz" (201-216); Heyl, Matthias: Von der Notwendig- und Unmoeglichkeit einer "Erziehung nach Auschwitz" (217-233); Keilson, Hans: Was bleibt zu tun? (235-249); Maronde, Margit: Erzogen nach Auschwitz: Erfahrungen mit dem Holocaust: Orte, Buecher, Beruehrungspunkte (251-256). MR

Schweitzer, Friedrich: Forgetting about Auschwitz? Remembrance as a Difficult Task of Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 18, 3 (Oct 1989) 163-173.

A paper prepared for the International Seminar on Religious Education and Values, Stony Point, NY, August 1988. Discusses contemporary problems of teaching the Holocaust as a moral issue in West German schools. Deals with the question of "collective guilt" and how young Germans relate to the period of the Third Reich. One danger in teaching the Holocaust is turning Auschwitz into a metaphor, thus losing its specific historical meaning. Examines the moral concepts used ? i.e. liability, responsibility, guilt ? and their adequacy to the task of moral education, suggesting relationship through an understanding of guilt which goes beyond liability, and accepts responsibility for what the post-Holocaust generation has done with the past. Recent political trends to re-establish a German national identity can lead to a new perspective towards the past and its negative aspects.  EB

Seiden, Cecile, ed.: The Holocaust & Genocide: Curriculum Guide. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education, [1995?]. Multiple pagings.

Two ring binders, containing material for teaching the Holocaust. Contents: [Grades] 7-12: Caring Makes a Difference. ? [Grade] K-8: The Betrayal of Mankind [On cover: Primary author, Peppy Margolis]. SSC

Shawn, Karen: The End of Innocence: A Literature-Based Approach to Teaching Young Adolescents about the Holocaust.  Diss. ? New York University, 1991. 346 pp.  Unseen.

Presents a curriculum and a theoretical rationale of methods and materials for teaching the Holocaust to middle-level students in American schools.

Shimoni, Gideon, ed.: The Holocaust in University Teaching. Oxford: Pergamon, 1991. xiii, 279 pp.

Contents: "Teaching Approaches and Resources": Amishai-Maisels, Ziva: The Visual Arts as an Aid for Teaching about the Holocaust (1-8); Brown, Michael Gary: The Holocaust as an Appropriate Topic for Interdisciplinary Study (9-14); Doneson, Judith E.: The Use of Film in Teaching about the Holocaust [Appeared in "The Jewish Quarterly" 38 (1991).] (15-23); Moore, James F.: Integrating Theological Analysis into a Course on the Holocaust (24-33). "Selected Syllabi" [of courses from various universities]: Bankier, David: The Holocaust: Origins, History and Reactions (37-41); Blikstein, Izidoro: Semiology of Nazism: Dachau Concentration Camp (42-47); Brenner, Rachel Feldhay: The Holocaust and Canadian Jewish Literature (48-52); Brown, Michael Gary: Holocaust Perspectives (53-60); Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel): Modern Antisemitism and the Holocaust (61-66); Engel, David: Problems in the Study of the Holocaust (67-72); Ezrahi, Sidra DeKoven: Literature and Historical Memory: Holocaust Literature and the Language of Catastrophe (73-76); Friedlander, Henry: Nazi War Crimes: Laws and Trials (77-81); Garber, Zev: Responses to the Holocaust (82-93); Hellig, Jocelyn L.: Theological Issues Arising out of the Holocaust (94-101); Helmreich, William B.: Holocaust Survivor Communities in the United States (102-108); Hyman, Paula E.: The Holocaust: Historical Perspectives (109-113); Jick, Leon A.: The Destruction of European Jewry (114-127); Katz, Steven Theodore: The Holocaust in Historical Context (128-132); Libowitz, Richard Lawrence: Jewish and Christian Responses to the Holocaust (133-138); Marrus, Michael Robert: The Holocaust: The Nazis, Occupied Europe, and the Jews (139-158); Michman, Dan: Jewish Leadership under Nazi Domination (159-166); Moore, James F.: Holocaust Theology (167-172); Newman, Aubrey: The Holocaust: Genocide in Europe, 1933-1945 (173-189); Norich, Anita: Literature of the Holocaust (190-192); Ofer, Dalia: Major Issues in the History of the Holocaust (193-201); Roskies, David G.: Jewish Responses to Catastrophe (202-208); Schleunes, Karl Albert: The Holocaust: History and Perspectives (209-217); Tatz, Colin: The Politics of Genocide (218-222); Tec, Nechama: The Nazi Totalitarian State and the Holocaust (223-228); Fischman, Jane Vogel; Kennedy, DayAnn: Analysis of Literature for Children and Young Adults: Books on the Holocaust (229-238); Bibliography (239-278). SSC

Shofar 10, 2 (Win 1992).

The section entitled "Teaching the Holocaust" contains the following papers presented at the third annual conference of the Midwest Jewish Studies Association, Madison, WI, October 1991: Baron, Lawrence: Integrating the New Psycho-Social Research about Rescuers of Jews into the Teaching of Holocaust Courses (97-107); Frolick, David A.: Teaching Children about Children in the Holocaust or, Why Am I Confused about Holocaust Education in the Public Schools? (108-112); Millen, Rochelle L.: The Yad Vashem Summer Seminar for Educators from Abroad: Teaching the Holocaust and Antisemitism (112-117). LC

Short, Geoffrey: Antiracist Education and Moral Behaviour: Lessons from the Holocaust. Journal of Moral Education 28, 1 (1999) 49-62.

Suggests that study of the Holocaust may be used in anti-racist education, especially in order to nurture in students a willingness to act against racism. Research of bystanders' behavior during the Holocaust, conducted by historians and psychologists, may help the educator to prevent a passive stance toward racism among his pupils. Educators must give their pupils some knowledge of minorities, to promote an inclusivist view of national identity. Holocaust education also offers considerable scope for teaching about heroism in the context of non-conformity, and helps recognize non-conformity as a virtue. DR

Short, Geoffrey: The Holocaust in the National Curriculum: A Survey of Teachers' Attitudes and Practices. Journal of Holocaust Education 4, 2 (Win 1995) 167-188.

Summarizes the findings of a series of interviews with 34 history teachers in the southeast of England between October 1994-July 1995. Thirteen to fifteen questions were asked, aiming to reveal the teachers' attitudes towards Holocaust education, their pedagogic strategies, the textbooks used, and the perception of and reactions to the material by the pupils. Compares this survey to a similar one carried out by Carrie Supple in the northeast of England in 1992. Concludes that the majority of textbooks used by the teachers are inadequate in many respects. DR

Short, Geoffrey: Teaching about the Holocaust: A Consideration of Some Ethical and Pedagogic Issues. Educational Studies 20, 1 (1994) 53-67.

The Holocaust is now part of the history curriculum for all 11-14-year-olds in maintained schools in England and Wales. Stresses that before the children learn about the Holocaust, they should be taught something about Jewish culture and identity and positive aspects of Jewish life (as opposed to a history of persecution); they also need to learn about the nature of racism and of stereotyping. Other issues discussed are the extent of freedom of speech to be permitted in the classroom, whether to raise the issue of Holocaust denial, and attributing blame for events in the Holocaust (e.g. not all Germans, and not only Germans, were responsible for the Holocaust). Teachers should state their abhorrence of the Holocaust and the thinking that underpinned it, but allow the children to air their views and feelings freely. It is also important that teachers explore and challenge any misconceptions the children may have regarding Jews and Judaism (these are manifold) before teaching about the Holocaust. SSC

Short, Geoffrey: Teaching the Holocaust: The Relevance of Children's Perceptions of Jewish Culture and Identity. British Educational Research Journal 20, 4 (1994) 393-405.

Reports the findings of a British study undertaken to provide teachers of the Holocaust with information on the way in which 12-14-year-olds think about Jewish culture and identity. The sample consisted of 72 boys and girls in two schools close to a London suburb, who were interviewed by the author. States that if the Holocaust is to be taught effectively, children will not just have to learn what happened but will have to regard what happened as a crime against humanity. Appropriate teaching of the Holocaust may be achieved by assessing the children's factual knowledge of Judaism, awareness of misconceptions about Judaism and Christianity (and their correction), and attention to antisemitic notions. Recommends multifaith religious education ? to avoid the confusion of Judaism with Islam, stress the common ground between Judaism and Christianity, and explain the rituals of Judaism. All children should learn about the nature of stereotyping, ideally in a broadly-based anti-racist program. LFo

Social Education 55, 2 (Feb 1991).

The special section "Teaching about Genocide" includes the following articles dealing with the Holocaust: Parsons, William S.; Totten, Samuel: Teaching and Learning about Genocide: Questions of Content, Rationale, and Methodology (85-90); Friedlander, Henry: Nature of Sources for the Study of Genocide (91); Milton, Sybil H.: The Racial Context of the Holocaust [An abridged version of the article which appeared in "German Studies Review" 13 (1990).] (106-110); Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: Through the Looking Glass: Press Responses to Genocide (116-120, 129). SSC

Social Education 59, 6 (Oct 1995).

This issue is entitled "Teaching about the Holocaust." Contents: Totten, Samuel; Feinberg, Stephen: Teaching about the Holocaust: Rationale, Content, Methodology, & Resources (323-333); Kleg, Milton: Anti-Semitism: Background to the Holocaust (334-338); Friedman, Ina R.: The Other Victims of the Nazis (339-341); Miller, Scott: Denial of the Holocaust (342-345); Owings, Alison: Women in Nazi Germany: Denial by Any Other Name (346-347); Tec, Nechama: Altruism and the Holocaust (348-353); Drew, Margaret A.: Incorporating Literature into a Study of the Holocaust: Some Advice, Some Cautions (354-356); Danks, Carol: Using Holocaust Short Stories and Poetry in the Social Studies Classroom (358-361); Goldstein, Phyllis: Teaching "Schindler's List" (362-364); Spielberg, Steven: My Primary Purpose in Making "Schindler's List" Was for Education (365-366); Haverkamp, Beth; Schamel, Wynell: Nazi Medical Experiment Report: Evidence from the Nuremberg Medical Trial (367-373); Wieser, Paul: Hitler's Death Camps (374-376). SSC

Stargardt, Ute: "Wissen macht Frei"; "Wollen macht Frei"; "Arbeit macht Frei": Teaching Holocaust Literature in Vienna. Shofar 11, 1 (Fall 1992) 80-101.

Describes a course organized by the author for a group of American students of Holocaust literature, in Vienna in 1991 (with short trips to Prague and to Poland). The students' encounter with the places connected with Holocaust history, and especially with contemporary Austrians, many of whom retain their sympathies with the Nazi past and some anti-Jewish prejudices, was the main factor which gave them insight to the Holocaust.  DR

Stephens, Elaine C.; Brown, Jean E.; Rubin, Janet E.: Learning about... the Holocaust: Literature and Other Resources for Young People. North Haven, CT: Library Professional Publications, 1995. xv, 198 pp.

A resource book for teachers, librarians, youth leaders, parents, and others who want to select and use materials about the Holocaust with children from kindergarten through high school. Ca. 170 items; each one contains a summary and teaching suggestions. Includes informational books, photo essays, personal narratives, biographies, poetry, historical fiction, plays, fiction and non-fiction. The final chapter lists organizations and institutions; curriculum guides, journals, and other educational materials; and media resources. SSC

Supple, Carrie; Perks, Rob, eds.: Voices of the Holocaust: A Cross-Curricular Resource Pack. London: British Library National Sound Archive, 1993. 70 pp.  Accompanied by four cassettes.

A resource to be used in teaching the Holocaust. The book contains a transcript of the tapes ? testimonies of Holocaust survivors living in Britain ? divided into nine thematic sections: Life before the Holocaust, Antisemitism, Nazis in Power, Getting Out, Occupation, Ghettos, Deportation and Arrival, Camps, Death Marches and Liberation. Each section is preceded by a short introduction and suggestions for discussion and activities in the classroom. SSC

Tagliacozzo, Franca: Memoria e catarsi: Didattica della storia dopo Auschwitz. La Rassegna Mensile di Israel 63, 1 (Jan-Apr 1997) 107-120.

Deals with the dilemma of how to teach about the Holocaust and how to preserve the memory of what happened in a world so eager to forget. Refers to Primo Levi's recollection of Dante's "Il canto di Ulisse" when he was in Auschwitz: in front of an intelligent interlocutor he journeys into memory and compares the reality of Auschwitz with Dante's Inferno. In the same way, in a critical manner, through reference to a system of positive values, the teacher should stimulate the formation of responsibility and of a collective conscience: the Holocaust should be taught because if it happened, it can happen again. AA

Tatz, Colin: Confronted by the Holocaust. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 5, 2 (1991) 6-34.

An expanded version of a lecture held at Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, January 1991. Discusses problems which the teaching of the Holocaust poses to educators ? how to view and interpret it; to scholars ? how to comprehend its moral and philosophical aspects; and to religious persons ? how to reconcile religion and the fact of the Holocaust. DR

Teaching about the Holocaust and Genocide. Albany, NY: State University of New York; State Education Department, Bureau of Curriculum Development, 1985. 2 vols. (The Human Rights Series, 1-2).  Unseen.

Totten, Samuel: The Use of First-Person Accounts in Teaching about the Holocaust. British Journal of Holocaust Education 3, 2 (Win 1994) 160-183.

Discusses the historical and educational value of utilizing first-person accounts in Holocaust education. The accounts have a great value (they show the Holocaust "from the inside," personalize the history, and help students to gain a fresh perspective on past events); however, they also have limitations (there may be fallacies, they lack historical perspective, etc.). Specifies the purposes of the use of these accounts in the classroom, as well as some methods and principles of their use (to use different types of accounts; to avoid assaulting the students with horror; to avoid fostering a sense of cynicism in them, as well as trivialization of the events; to pose questions for the students to consider; etc.). DR

Totten, Samuel: Using Literature to Teach about the Holocaust. Journal of Holocaust Education 5, 1 (Sum 1996) 14-48.

For students of the Holocaust (especially young people), it may appear as a distant, even "ancient" event. Its study is accompanied by difficulties in comprehending the enormous numbers of people killed. The study of Holocaust literature, aptly selected, may provide them with insight into the Holocaust realities. Presents recommendations on selecting such literature to assist in the teaching process: it must be historically correct, it must not romanticize the Holocaust, it must deal with typical, not exceptional, situations, etc. Makes methodological proposals for use of this literature in the classroom. DR

Trampolskaya, Irina: Didakticheskii sbornik po izucheniyu problematiki Katastrofy [A Didactic Anthology for the Study of the Problems of the Holocaust]. Kibbutz Lohamei Haghetaot: Beit Lohamei Haghetaot, 1993. 40 pp.

A collection of various materials intended for educators teaching about the Holocaust in Russian. Pp. 1-11 contain recommendations concerning the methodology of teaching. Pp. 11-34 contain excerpts from survivors' memoirs, mainly from the ghettos of Warsaw, Vilna, Kovno. Pp. 35-40 contain excerpts from various sources dealing with the meaning of the Holocaust for the Jewish people and the importance of teaching the subject. DR

Tydor Baumel, Judith: "Through a Child's Eyes": Teaching the Holocaust through Children's Holocaust Experiences. British Journal of Holocaust Education 2, 2 (Win 1993) 189-208.

Considering children's accounts of the Holocaust period as an important tool in teaching the history of the Holocaust to children and teenagers, summarizes the literature now available to the educator. There were three waves of publications on children's experiences during the Nazi period: the first ? immediately after the war, the second in the decade from the mid-1950s, and the third began during the mid-1970s and continues to this day. The last wave has been supplemented by academic, analytical publications, attempting to research the fate of Jewish children during the Holocaust. In the 1960s an interest in Jewish children's art of the Holocaust period also emerged.  DR

Wajsenberg, Jenny: Resource Kit for Teaching the Holocaust. Units 1-4. Nedlands, Western Australia: History Teachers' Association of Western Australia, 1998. 27; 8; 24; 19 pp.  In a ringbinder, accompanied by a videocassette.  On title-page also: "The Sun Shines for Me": A Resource Kit for Teaching the Holocaust for Middle and Senior School Students, by Jenny Wajsenberg for the Holocaust Institute of W.A.

Contents: Unit 1: Teacher Resources. ? Unit 2: "The Sun Shines for Me": Holocaust Survivors Describe Their Experiences during World War Two. ? Unit 3: Mapping the Holocaust. ? Unit 4: It's Who You Are: The Experiences of One German Jew [Facsimiles of documents and photographs belonging to a Jew who has lived in Perth since 1949.]. SSC

Wegner, Gregory P.: "What Lessons Are There from the Holocaust for My Generation Today?" Perspectives on Civic Virtue from Middle School Youth. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 13, 2 (Win 1998) 167-183.

The Holocaust should be taught in schools because it provides a vehicle for teaching civic virtue and preparing citizens to oppose the state's power for evil. Holocaust curricula that overlook the history of antisemitism and its roots in Christianity produce distortion and trivialization. The fact that the Final Solution grew out of Nazi racial ideas should not be overlooked. Surveys the essays of eighth-grade students on "What Lessons Are There from the Holocaust for My Generation Today?," written by 200 of the 236 students who participated in a four-week integrated language arts/social studies curriculum on the Holocaust. The students were from Wisconsin, with about 40% German and 20% Asian origins. Describes the course curriculum and the themes of the students' essays. Indicates areas of confusion, error, and omission in the essays. REK

Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed.: The Holocaust. Vol. 1-4. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational, 1997. 511 pp. (in four vols.). (A Grolier Student Library).  Accompanied by "A Guide to `The Holocaust'," prepared by Miriam Klein Kassenoff and  Anita Meyer Meinbach (32 pp.).

In encyclopedic format, presents subjects dealing with the Holocaust in alphabetical order ? including persons, places, organizations, events, etc. ? with many illustrations. Intended to serve as an aid in teaching students about the Holocaust. The accompanying guide contains questions and activities for the classroom, arranged chronologically in ten main themes. A list of the contributing authors is given in Vol. 1. SSC

Wilcock, Evelyn: Teaching the Holocaust to Children of Mixed Marriage: Issues in Delivery and Reception. Journal of Holocaust Education 6, 1 (Sum 1997) 1-26.

Notes the difficulties in finding material on the fate of persons of mixed descent ("Mischlinge") in the Holocaust, as they have been marginalized in Holocaust historiography. The prevailing tendency is to merge them with other groups (Jews, Christians, non-Jews married to Jews), and thus to ignore the specificity of their fate. Dwells on the special situation of the "Mischlinge" under Nazi rule, both in Germany and in the occupied East. The neglect of these problems in literature and in Jewish acts of commemoration makes children of mixed descent feel ostracized by both sides. The sense of ostracism may be reinforced by recent sensationalist media criticism of "Mischlinge" (e.g. in the "Daily Telegraph"'s report on "Hitler's Jewish Soldiers," 1996). Moreover, the present-day tendency to draw a rigid line between Jews and others in Jewish discourse, and to compare intermarriage with the Holocaust, is a hindrance in conveying the Holocaust's lessons and is dangerous. Calls to de-marginalize the topic of the "Mischlinge" under Nazi rule. Discusses teaching this topic to classes with children of mixed ethnic background.  DR

Wilson, Ruth, ed.: Child Survivors Speak Out: An Anthology: 15 Stories of Survival. Bowral, Australia: Kenigsberg/Wilson, 1995. 130 pp.   A kit accompanied by tape cassettes and a handbook for teachers (x, 50 pp.). On title-page also: Recorded by students of Masada College, Moriah College, the Emanuel School.

A resource tool for teaching about the Holocaust. Relates the experiences of 15 Jews from various countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia) ? in ghettos, in camps, and in hiding. Includes questions and guidelines for teachers and students. SSC
 

[Yaoz, Hanna: Changes in the Teaching of the Subject "The Holocaust" in Literature in the High School 1950-1995. Hitpathutah shel ha-hora'ah be-mosedot ha-hinukh be-Yisrael [The Development of Teaching in Educational Institutions in Israel], eds. Rivka Glaubman, Yaacov Iram. Tel-Aviv: Ramot ? Tel-Aviv University, 1999. Pp. 391-401.] (in Hebrew)

Discusses changes in Holocaust literature curricula for regular state high schools and religious state high schools in Israel. Contends that the curricula discussed reflect changes in the public's attitude toward the Holocaust during various periods, as well as personal attitudes of administrative and teaching staff who supervise the teaching of the Holocaust, Holocaust literature, and literature in general in the state high schools. Recommends to shape the teaching programs for state high schools according to the guidelines followed by those for the religious state high schools, since they relate simultaneously to the teaching of literature and to the enhancement of empathy toward Holocaust victims, the people of Israel, and to mankind's sufferings in general. LFo

Zacher, Hans-Juergen: Die Reichspogromnacht: Erfahrungen mit einem Unterrichtsprojekt. Freiburger Rundbrief 6, 2 (1999) 120-124.

In connection with commemoration of the "Kristallnacht" pogrom, a project was initiated in a German school in November 1997, in which the pupils were asked to speak to their grandparents about their recollections of the events on 9 November 1938. Relates some of the pupils' experiences, discussing especially cases in which the grandparents would not answer the children's questions. States that young people may react with fears, and with feelings of profound insecurity or even crisis. Therefore, pupils should be prepared in advance for possible silence on the topic. They should be given some basic knowledge of Jewish history, antisemitism, and racism. The project is also intended to warn the younger generation about the dangers of right-wing radical tendencies. ID

Zins, Chaim: An Electronic Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: A Knowledge Structuring for Jewish Education. Ann Arbor, MI: U.M.I. Dissertation Services, 1993. 203 pp.  Reproduction of the author's diss. ? Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1990.

Discusses the importance and method of creating a computer database with information about the Holocaust for use as a teaching tool. SSC
 

Author Index
 
 A
 Abendroth, Elisabeth  67
 Abram, Isidoor (Ido) Bert Hans  93
 Adler, Shimon  3
 Allen, William Sheridan  73
 Aly, Goetz  16
 Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Jolanta  67
 Amishai-Maisels, Ziva  94
 Appelfeld, Aharon  36, 50, 55
 Appy, Johann-Gottfried  59
 Arad, Yitzhak  42
 Arend, Moshe  67
 Assmann, Aleida  56

B
 Baccarini, Emilio  36
 Baigell, Matthew  34
 Ballin, Anita  68
 Bankier, David  94
 Bar-On, Dan  36, 49
 Barlog-Scholz, Renata  68
 Barnea, Arieh  68
 Barnea, Naomy  37
 Baron, Lawrence  78, 95
 Bartoszewski, Wladyslaw  4
 Bartov, Omer  1, 37, 73
 Barzel, Neima  92
 Bass, Leon  82
 Bassman, Michael F.  87
 Bauer, Yehuda  38
 Baum, Rachel Nahmmacher  68
 Bauman, Janina  70
 Baumann, Leonie  1
 Bearden, William  91
 Beimel, Matthias  69
 Bendt, Vera  31
 Bennett, Timothy A.  88
 Bensoussan, Georges  38, 69, 85
 Benz, Wolfgang  6, 39
 Berenbaum, Michael  1, 39
 Berg, Nicolas  39
 Berger, Alan L.  2, 40, 43, 78
 Bergler, Siegfried  84
 Bergman, Jay  40
 Bergmann, Werner  53
 Berke, Jacqueline  87
 Berkovits, Eliezer  48, 60
 Berman, Judith  2, 69
 Bernstein, George  69
 Bernstein, Michael Andre  41
 Bettelheim, Bruno  48
 Bezchlebova, Maria  70
 Bialas, Wolfgang  40
 Bialystok, Franklin  87
 Bitton-Jackson, Livia Elvira  79
 Blikstein, Izidoro  94
 Blodig, Vojtech  6
 Borowitz, Eugene B.  41
 Borries, Bodo von  70
 Bradlow, Edna  3
 Braham, Randolph L.  70
 Brauman, Rony  43
 Brebeck, Wulff E.  17
 Breitman, Richard David  87
 Brenner, Rachel Feldhay  78, 94
 Breslauer, S. Daniel  78
 Brink, Cornelia  12
 Brocke, Edna  16
 Brog, Mooli  2, 3
 Brothers, Eric  71
 Brown, Jean E.  97
 Brown, Michael Gary  94
 Brug, W.A.  3
 Brumlik, Micha  4, 16, 41
 Buckler, Steve  51, 52
 Bujak, Adam  4
 Bulawko, Henry  56
 Bunzl, Matti  4
C
 Calvert, Hildegund M.  71
 Campanini-Fleer, C. Miriam  5
 Campen, M. van  42
 Cargas, Harry James  15, 42, 43, 79
 Carlebach, Emil  4
 Carmon, Arye  78
 Carroll, Robert P.  60
 Chamla, Mino  43
 Charim, Isolde  31
 Charlesworth, Andrew  5, 71, 87
 Chartock, Roselle K.  91
 Clarke, Charles R.  87
 Claussen, Detlev  40
 Cohen, Elie Aron  93
 Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel)  94
 Cohen, Yehezkel  59
 Colijn, G. Jan  91
 Costas, Bob  43
 Cottino-Jones, Marga  58
 Couture, Andrea M.  5
 Cowan, Paula  86
 Crouch, Margaret Weiss  71
 Czajkowski, Michal  63

D
 Da Silva, Teresien  5
 Danks, Carol  72, 97
 Darsa, Jan  72
 David, Jose  72
 Dawidowicz, Lucy S.  72
 Des Pres, Terrence  55
 Diner, Dan  7, 39, 56
 Distel, Barbara  6, 90
 Dobkin, Sharon L.  87
 Doerr, Margarete  73
 Don-Yehiya, Eliezer  43
 Doneson, Judith E.  73, 94
 Draper, Paula Jean  6
 Dratwa, Daniel  6
 Drew, Margaret A.  97
 Drinan, Robert F.  73
 Dror, Yuval  74
 Dudek, Peter  90
 Dujardin, Jean  63
 Duke, David Nelson  60
 Dwork, Deborah  50

E
 Eckardt, Alice Lyons  15
 Eichmann, Bernd  7
 Eichner, Hans  74
 Eitinger, Leo  42
 Eliach, Yaffa Sonenson  24
 Elias, Ruth  93
 Ellis, Marc H.  44
 Endlich, Stefanie  6, 7
 Engel, David  94
 Engel, Vincent  44
 Engelking, Barbara  44
 Epstein, Joel J.  79, 92
 Epstein, Leslie  55
 Ericson, Richard V.  15
 Essbach, Wolfgang  40
 Ezrahi, Sidra DeKoven  50, 55, 94

F
  Fackenheim, Emil  42
  Fackenheim, Emil Ludwig  43, 48
  Fagin, Helen  29
  Farber, Gennadii  7, 8
  Farmer, Sarah  8
  Feinberg, Charles  16
  Feinberg, Stephen  96
  Feingold, Marilyn Bonner  79
  Feinstein, Stephen C.  92
  Feldman, Jackie  8
  Fellner, Udo  75
  Felman, Shoshana  50
  Ferrarotti, Franco  45
  Fine, Ellen Sydney  55
  Fink, Carole  87
  Finkielkraut, Alain  45, 46
  Firer, Ruth  70, 75
  Fischman, Jane Vogel  76, 94
  Fisher, Adam  8
  Fisher, Eugene Joseph  9, 15
  Forges, Jean-Francois  43
  Fox, John P.  76, 77
  Frampton, Wilson  77
  Frankova, Anita  70
  Freed, James Ingo  9, 34
  Frei, Norbert  16
  Freiling, Harald  77, 85
  Frenkel, Aleksandr  7, 8
  Fresco, Nadine  50
  Friedlaender, Saul  9, 24, 34, 46, 50, 55
  Friedlander, Albert Hoschander  46
  Friedlander, Henry  85, 94, 96
  Friedman, Ina R.  97
  Friedman, Karen Ehrlich  73
  Friedman, Michelle A.  10
  Frolick, David A.  78, 95

G
 Gaita, Raimond  47
 Gamm, Hans-Jochen  90
 Gantt, Patricia M.  91
 Garbe, Detlef  16
 Garber, Zev  78, 94
 Gatti, Stephane  10
 Gebert, Konstanty  34
 Geisert, Helmut  10
 Gendler, Gail M.  43
 Geyer, Michael  50
 Gitelman, Zvi  34
 Gloeckner, Eckhard  85
 Golan, Sima  79
 Goldberg, Amos  47
 Goldberg, Martin  79, 91
 Goldstein, Phyllis  97
 Gonshak, Henry  87
 Gorny, Yosef  48
 Gottlieb, Roger S.  48
 Gouri, Haim  50
 Grabherr, Eva  31
 Grajek, Shalom Stefan  63
 Green, David  79
 Greenspan, Miriam  48
 Grift, Wim van de  79
 Grinevich, Vladislav  84
 Grobman, Gary  80
 Groehler, Olaf  16
 Grosser, Alfred  49
 Gugelot, Frederic  85
 Gutman, Sharon Weissman  15
 Gutwein, Daniel  49

H
 Hahne, Bernd  10
 Hallie, Philip P.  55
 Halperin, Irving  73
 Halter, Marek  56
 Hand, Sean  52
 Hansen, Miriam Bratu  50
 Hardtmann, Gertrud  49
 Harris, Whitney  42
 Hartman, Geoffrey H.  24, 50, 65
 Hartmann, Erich  11
 Hassoun, Jacques  50
 Haverkamp, Beth  97
 Haynes, Stephen Ronald  80, 88
 Heck, Klaus  82
 Heckler, Ellen  81
 Hellig, Jocelyn L.  94
 Helmreich, William B.  94
 Hepp, Nicolas  17
 Herf, Jeffrey  50
 Heschel, Abraham Joshua  48
 Heyen, William  55
 Heyl, Binjamin  93
 Heyl, Matthias  88, 93
 Hilberg, Raul  51, 55
 Hirsch, Marianne  51
 Hoff, Penelope  3
 Hoffman, Lawrence A.  16
 Hoffmann, Detlef  11, 17, 31
 Hoffmann-Curtius, Kathrin  11
 Hoheisel, Horst  40
 Honecker, Erich  12
 Hopf, Christel  85
 Horwitz, Gordon J.  56
 Howe, Irving  55
 Huerta, Carlos C.  81, 87
 Hurwitz, Emanuel  93
 Huyssen, Andreas  34, 65
 Hyman, Paula E.  94
 Hyndrakova, Anna  12

I
 Iggers, Georg G.  73
 Illman, Karl-Johan  81
 Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona  52
 Isaacman, Clara Heller  81

J
 Jacobs, Edward  3, 13
 Jacobs, Steven L.  88
 Jaeckel, Eberhard  60
 Jankowski, Stanislaw M.  13
 Jick, Leon A.  94
 Jochimsen, Jess  39, 40
 Joutard, Philippe  43
 Juelich, Dierk  93
 

K
 Kaiser, Katharina  40
 Kaiser, Wolf  82
 Kakol, Kazimierz  92
 Kalau, Elisabeth I.  87
 Kaplan, Harold  52
 Karsai, Laszlo  89
 Karski, Jan  42
 Kassenoff, Miriam Klein  100
 Katz, Fred E.  60
 Katz, Steven Theodore  87, 94
 Kaufmann, Francine  13
 Keilson, Hans  93
 Kennedy, DayAnn  94
 Keren, Nili  82, 92
 Kersten, Krystyna  63
 Kestenberg, Judith S.  93
 Kiesel, Doron  4
 Kimmich, Dorothee  40
 Klarsfeld, Serge  56
 Kleg, Milton  96
 Klenicki, Leon  9, 15
 Kliphuis, Eja  79
 Kluge, Eva  90
 Knigge, Volkhard  11, 16
 Koelmel, Rainer  24
 Koenig, Helmut  52
 Koerte, Mona  40
 Koessler, Gottfried  85
 Kohlstruck, Michael  52, 53
 Kolinsky, Eva  83
 Kolton, Leonid  8
 Komanev, Georgy  83
 Koppel, Reynold S.  84
 Korn, Salomon  4, 36
 Koselleck, Reinhart  53
 Krakowski, Shmuel  6
 Kranz, Tomasz  7
 Krasnodebski, Zdzislaw  53
 Kraus, Wolfgang  84
 Krause-Vilmar, Dietfrid  85
 Kraushaar, Wolfgang  93
 Krebs, Gisela  90
 Kren, George M.  48
 Krockow, Christian von  24
 Krondorfer, Bjoern  53, 79
 Kugelmann, Cilly  4
 Kugelmass, Jack  34
 Kunik, Petra  4
 Kuperstein, Isaiah  14
 Kuras, Ivan F.  84
 Kushner, Tony (Antony)  54
 Kutza, Barbara  90

L
 Ladurie, Emmanuel Le Roy  55
 Laengerer, Thomas  90
 Lang, Berel  54, 55
 Langbein, Hermann  6
 Lange, Thomas  85
 Langer, Lawrence L.  50, 55, 65, 73
 Lassmann, Wolfgang  85
 Leder, Sharon  88
 Legters, Lyman H.  60
 Lehrke, Gisela  14
 Lelyveld, Arthur  60
 Leoni, Giovanni  50
 Levi Della Torre, Stefano  55
 Levi, Primo  34, 48
 Libowitz, Richard Lawrence  78, 94
 Lichtenstein, Heiner  6
 Linenthal, Edward Tabor  14
 Lipstadt, Deborah Esther  55, 96
 Lisus, Nicola A.  15
 Littell, Franklin Hamlin  15, 16, 43
 Littell, Marcia Sachs  15
 Locke, Hubert G.  78, 92
 Loder, Theodore W.  16
 Loewy, Hanno  16, 18, 56
 Lokin, Rutger  17
 Lorand, Ferenc  85
 Lorencova, Anna  12
 Lorenz, Dagmar C.G.  87
 Lozowick, Yaacov  88
 Lubetkin, Zivia  82
 Lustig, Arnost  42
 Lustiger, Jean-Marie  4
 Lutz, Thomas  7, 17

M
 Mais, Yitzchak  24
 Maitles, Henry  86
 Majsai, Tamas  90
 Malet, Emile  56
 Maltzin, Matvei  18
 Manea, Norman  56
 Manor, Yohanan  56
 Margolis, Peppy  94
 Markman, Marsha Carow  87
 Markmann, Hans-Jochen  91
 Marks, Stan  18
 Marmur, Dow  60
 Maronde, Margit  93
 Marrus, Michael Robert  56, 94
 Matthies, Stephan  90
 Matz, Reinhard  18
 Maxwell, Elisabeth  57, 86
 Mayer, Arno Joseph  57
 McRoy, James J.  86
 Medoff, Rafael  87
 Meier, Cordula  40
 Meier, David A.  91
 Meinbach, Anita Meyer  100
 Melnychenko, Volodymyr  26
 Menzel, Katharina  11
 Metto, Michael  90
 Metz, Johann Baptist  16, 57
 Metzke, Josef-Maria  90
 Meyer, Michael A.  57
 Michaels, Walter Benn  58
 Michman, Dan  94
 Milchman, Alan  87
 Millen, Rochelle L.  87, 88, 95
 Milton, Sybil H.  7, 17, 19, 96
 Mindlina, Klara  19
 Mitchell, Otis C.  88
 Mitscherlich-Nielsen, Margarete  49
 Moltmann, Bernhard  56
 Mommsen, Hans  16
 Monteath, Peter  19
 Montgomery, Scott L.  58
 Montmartre, Henri  20
 Moore, James F.  78, 94
 Morawek, Elisabeth  85
 Morgan, Michael L.  60
 Mosco  56
 Moses, Rafael  58, 59
 Moses-Hrushovski, Rena  58
 Motzkin, Gabriel  53
 Mueller, Ursula  90
 Mueller-Henning, Markus  85
 Muenz, Christoph  56, 59
 Mussner, Franz  59
 Muszynski, Heliodor  90

N

 Nancy, Jean-Luc  40
 Nathan-Murat, Mireille  50
 Naumann, Klaus  12
 Needler, Howard  55
 Newman, Aubrey  70, 94
 Niethammer, Lutz  16
 Norden, Edward  20
 Norich, Anita  94
 Novick, Peter  34
 Novoseltsev, Anatoly  83
 Nowinski, Ira  19

O
 O'Connor, Joseph E.  87
 Obenaus, Herbert  21
 Ofer, Dalia  2, 21, 92, 94
 Offenberg, Mario  10
 Orlich, Wolfgang  40
 Ouwerling, Marc  17
 Owings, Alison  97
 Ozick, Cynthia  55

P
 Paldiel, Mordecai  22, 42
 Parsons, William S.  96
 Pate, Glenn S.  70
 Pawlikowski, John T.  48, 60, 88
 Pelli, Moshe  79
 Pentlin, Susan Lee  92
 Perels, Joachim  53
 Perks, Rob  97
 Petersdorff, Ulrich von  22
 Pfuetze, Hermann  22
 Plowright, John  88
 Podolskii, Anatolii Ye.  84, 89
 Porat, Dina  92
 Preuschoff, Axel  90
 Prins, Ralph  23
 Pritchard, Marion  42
 Puvogel, Ulrike  23

R
 Rachlin, Susan  89
 Radzynski, Annie  50
 Raj, Tamas  89
 Rapoport, Nathan  34
 Rappoport, Leon H.  48
 Rathenow, Hanns-Fred  90
 Ravid, Smadar  91
 Reemtsma, Jan Philipp  12
 Regler, Gustav  49
 Reich, Brigitte  90
 Reichel, Peter  23
 Rein, Esti  24
 Reinartz, Dirk  24
 Renn, Walter F.  70
 Rensinghoff, Ines  11
 Reuber, Werner  11
 Richter, Horst-Eberhard  49
 Riegner, Gerhart M.  63
 Rosenberg, Alan  87
 Rosenbloom, Maria  92
 Rosenfeld, Alvin H.  25, 50, 60
 Rosenfeld, Alvin L.  25
 Rosenthal, Gail  91
 Roskies, David G.  94
 Rossow, Aenne  85
 Roth, John King  43, 78
 Roth, Sheldon  59
 Rubenstein, Betty Rogers  24
 Rubenstein, Philip  71
 Rubenstein, Richard Lowell  60
 Rubin, Janet E.  97
 Rubinstein, Alvin Z.  25
 Rubinstein, Frankie  25
 Ruedenberg, Lucia Meta  26
 Ruesen, Joern  12, 56
 Ryan, Michael D.  16
 Rybachuk, Ada  26

S
 Sachs, Shimon  90
 Saidel, Rochelle Genia  26
 Saltzman, Ann L.  87
 Samet, Jerry  48
 Samuels, Shimon  56
 Sandkuehler, Thomas  16
 Schamel, Wynell  97
 Schatzker, Chaim  85, 92
 Scheffler, Wolfgang  85
 Schilling, Donald G.  87
 Schittenhelm, Karin  26
 Schleunes, Karl Albert  94
 Schlink, Bernhard  53
 Schoenberner, Gerhard  26
 Schreier, Helmut  93
 Schwarcz, Vera  50
 Schweid, Eliezer  60, 61
 Schweitzer, Friedrich  93
 Seckel, Hanna  82
 Seeskin, Kenneth  55
 Seferens, Horst  27
 Segal, George  34
 Segal, Lore  55
 Segev, Tom  61
 Seidelman, William E.  88
 Seiden, Cecile  93
 Senger, Valentin  4
 Seonnet, Michel  10
 Sevillias, Erikos  82
 Shawn, Karen  73, 94
 Shiffman-Huerta, Dafna  87
 Shimoni, Gideon  94
 Shnaper, Arie  82
 Shnur, Emma  43
 Short, Geoffrey  95, 96
 Shulman, William L.  27
 Sicher, Efraim  62
 Smilovitsky, Leonid  27, 28
 Sodi, Risa B.  60
 Soelle, Dorothee  42, 43
 Spielberg, Steven  97
 Spielmann, Jochen  10, 17, 34
 Stam, Dineke  5
 Stammwitz, Wolfgang  90
 Stargardt, Ute  97
 Staschel, Bernd  90
 Steedman, Carolyn  52
 Stefani, Piero  62
 Steffens, Gerd  85
 Steffensky, Fulbert  93
 Stein, Arlene  62
 Stein, Leon  60
 Steinbach, Peter  28, 36
 Steiner, George  55
 Steinlauf, Michael Charles  62
 Stephens, Elaine C.  97
 Stichova, Eva  70
 Stiegler, Bernd  39
 Stier, Oren Baruch  28
 Stone, Dan  63
 Storr, Anthony  73
 Suessmuth, Rita  4
 Sulzenbacher, Hannes  31
 Supple, Carrie  97
 Szecsi, Jozsef  89
 Szurek, Jean-Charles  28
 Szymanski, Tadeusz  90

T
 Tagliacozzo, Franca  98
 Tatz, Colin  94, 98
 Taylor, Warren  71
 Tec, Nechama  94, 97
 Teichman, Milton  88
 Thibaud, Paul  43
 Tollet, Daniel  63
 Totten, Samuel  91, 96, 98
 Tracy, David  50
 Trampolskaya, Irina  99
 Treister, Kenneth  29
 Trigano, Shmuel  64
 Turner, Charles  52
 Turowicz, Jerzy  63
 Tydor Baumel, Judith  2, 29, 30, 99

U
 Uhl, Heidemarie  30
 Uhlig, Christa  90
 Ullman, Richard L.  16
 Urban-Fahr, Susanne  30

V
 Van Pelt, Robert Jan  50
 Volkan, Vamik D.  59
 Voyevodskii, Konstantin  8

W
 Wajsenberg, Jenny  99
 Wangh, Martin  93
 Wardi, Charlotte  64
 Watson, James R.  60
 Weber, Dagmar  90
 Weber, Norbert H.  90
 Wegner, Gregory P.  100
 Weiler, N. Sue  31
 Weinberg, David  92
 Weinberg, Gerhard L.  25
 Weitz, Regina  90
 Welker, Robert P.  87
 Wells, Leon  42
 Wenzel, Birgit  90
 Werner, Uta  40
 White, Hayden  52
 Wiegmann, Ulrich  85
 Wiesel, Elie  4, 42, 48, 56, 60, 64
 Wiesenthal, Simon  42
 Wieser, Paul  97
 Wieviorka, Annette  31, 50, 65
 Wigoder, Geoffrey  100
 Wilcock, Evelyn  100
 Wilkins, Sara Leuchter  87
 Wilson, Ruth  101
 Woell, Andreas  52
 Wolf, Siegfried  85
 Wolffsohn, Michael  36
 Wolfgang Fruehwald  74
 Wollaston, Isabel Louise  65
 Wrocklage, Ute  11

Y
 Yaoz, Hanna  101
 Yaron, Michael  7
 Young, James Edward  16, 24, 31-34, 40, 50, 55,   56, 65
 Yovel, Yirmiyahu  66

Z
 Zacher, Hans-Juergen  101
 Zajko, Vanda  52
 Zerner, Ruth  78
 Zimmermann, Michael  16
 Zins, Chaim  102
 Zuckermann, Moshe  66
 Zweig, Ronald W.  34


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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