Bibliography on Arab and Muslim Antisemitism
 
 

Table of Contents
 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS

Senkman, Beatriz: Weinstein, Ana Epelbaum de , eds.: Fuentes para el estudio de la cultura sefaradi en revistas judeo-argentinas. Sefardica 2 (Nov 1984) 145-164.

A bibliography of articles published in 13 periodicals in Argentina between 1911-84. Many entries deal with antisemitism, the Inquisition, crypto-Jews, and antisemitism in Arab countries.

GENERAL

Allswang, Bradley Benzion: The Final Resolution: Combating Anti-Jewish Hostility. Jerusalem: Feldheim, 1989. ix, 293 pp.

An Orthodox Jewish theological approach to the phenomenon of antisemitism. Examines anti-Judaism in the ancient period (Egypt, Persia, Hellenism, the Roman Empire), in Christianity and Islam, and in the present (communism, Nazism). Also examines modern-day bias against Israel on the part of Arabs and Blacks. Discusses philosophical and psychological causes of this phenomenon. Contends that Jewish attempts to assimilate throughout the ages did not mitigate the anti-Jewish hostility of Gentiles. States that the abandonment of observant Judaism creates antisemitism, and proposes return to religion as a solution to this conflict.

Almog, Shmuel , ed.: Antisemitism through the Ages. Trans.: Nathan H. Reisner. London: Pergamon, for the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, 1988. xi, 419 pp. Originally published in Hebrew as "Sin'at Yisrael ledoroteha" (Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, 1980).

Contents: Ettinger, Shmuel : Jew-Hatred in Its Historical Context [Appeared in English in "Immanuel" 11 (1980).] (1-12); Stern, Menahem : Antisemitism in Rome (13-25); Herr, Moshe David : The Sages' Reaction to Antisemitism in the Hellenistic-Roman World (27-38); Rokeah, David : The Church Fathers and the Jews in Writings Designed for Internal and External Use (39-69); Stow, Kenneth Richard : Hatred of the Jews or Love of the Church: Papal Policy toward the Jews in the Middle Ages (71-89); Bonfil, Robert (Reuven) : The Devil and the Jews in the Christian Consciousness of  the Middle Ages (91-98); Rokeah, Zefira Entin : The State, the Church, and the Jews in Medieval England (99-125); Glatzer, Michael : Pablo de Santa Maria on the Events of 1391 (127-137); Breuer, Mordechai : The "Black Death" and Antisemitism (139-151); Kaplan, Yosef : Jews and Judaism in the Political and Social Thought of Spain in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (153-160); Ben-Shammai, Haggai : Jew-Hatred in the Islamic Tradition and the Koranic Exegesis (161-169); Grossman, Avraham: The Economic and Social Background of Hostile Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ninth and Tenth Century Muslim Caliphate (171-187); Barnai, Jacob : "Blood Libels" in the Ottoman Empire of the Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries (189-194); Bar-Asher, Shalom : Antisemitism and Economic Influence: The Jews of  Morocco (1672-1822) (195-215); Porath, Yehoshua : Anti-Zionist and Anti-Jewish Ideology in the Arab Nationalist Movement in Palestine (217-226); Harkabi, Yehoshafat : On Arab Antisemitism Once More (227-239); Zimmermann, Moshe : From Radicalism to Antisemitism [On Wilhelm Marr. Appeared in slightly different form in "The Jerusalem Quarterly" 23 (1982). ] (241-254); Almog, Shmuel : The Racial Motif in Renan's Attitude to Jews and Judaism [Appeared in Hebrew in "Zion" 32 (1967).] (255-278); Katz,
Jacob : The Preparatory Stage of the Modern Antisemitic Movement (1873-1879) (279-289); Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel) : The Dreyfus Affair and the Jews (291-310); Gartner, Lloyd P. : The Two Continuities of  Antisemitism in the United States (311-320); Avni, Haim : Argentina: A Case Study in Dimensions of Government Antisemitism [On the pogrom in Buenos Aires in January 1919.] (321-338); Katzburg, Nathaniel : Hungarian Antisemitism: Ideology and Reality (1920-1943) (339-348); Gutman, Yisrael: On the Character of Nazi Antisemitism (349-380); Bauer, Yehuda : Antisemitism in Western Europe (381-384); Stern, Frank : From Overt Philosemitism to Discreet Antisemitism, and Beyond: Anti-Jewish Developments in the Political Culture of the Federal Republic of Germany (385-404).
 

[Almog, Shmuel et al., eds.: Bein Yisrael la-umot: Kovetz ma'amarim, shai li-Shmuel Ettinger. [Israel and the Nations: Essays Presented in Honor of  Shmuel Ettinger]. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History; Historical Society of Israel, 1987. 375, cxlvi pp.]. In Hebrew and English, with English summaries for the Hebrew articles.

Partial contents: Hebrew section: "The Early Modern Period": [Beinart, Haim : The "Jewish Badge" in Spain and the Enforcement of the "Decree of  the Badge" under the Catholic Monarchs (29-41); [Cohen, Daniel J. : German  Jewry's Struggle against Expulsion in 1545: R. Joselmann of Rosheim and the Appeal to Cardinal Farnese (43-51); [Nadav, Mordechai : The Staging and Failure of a Blood Libel against the Jews of Wohyn in 1663 [On the refusal of Marina Yanova to incriminate the Jews. An abridged version appeared in "Et-Mol" 110 (1993) 12-13.] (53-70); [Cygielman, Shmuel Arthur : The Proposals of M. Butrymowicz for the Correction of the Jews of Poland and Lithuania in the Late Eighteenth Century (87-100). "The Nineteenth Century": [Oppenheim, Israel : The "Jewish Question" in the Newspaper  "Glos," 1856-1894 (129-156); [Wistrich, Robert Solomon : Radical Antisemitism in France and Germany (157-184); [Breuer, Mordechai : The Reactions of German Orthodoxy to Antisemitism (185-213); [Shavit, Ya`akov : "Semites" and "Aryans" in Modern Jewish Politics [Reactions to Ernest Renan.] (215-241). "The Twentieth Century": [Kulka, Otto Dov : The Historical Significance of Modern Antisemitism: Reflections on the Studies of Shmuel Ettinger (245-262); [Abitbol, Michel : Jews and Muslims in North Africa during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (263-276); [Bar-Asher, Shalom : Modern European Antisemitism in Algeria and North Africa (277-285); [Netzer, Shlomo : Pogroms in Poland as a Reflection of Polish-Jewish Relations (1918-1921) (287-296); [Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel) : Religion and Fatherland: The Central Consistory in France during the Second World War (307-334); [Bauer, Yehuda : Negotiations between Jews and Nazis during the Second World War [On Slovakia and Hungary, 1942-1944.] (335-346); [Katzburg, Nathaniel : The Central Authority in the Hungarian Jewish Community, 1939-1943 [On the Neolog and Orthodox leadership.] (347-360).
"English Section": Sysyn, Frank E. : A Curse on Both Their Houses: Catholic Attitudes toward the Jews and Eastern Orthodox during the Khmel'nyts'kyi Uprising in Father Pawel Ruszel's "Fawor niebieski" [1649] (xi-xxiv); Popkin, Richard Henry : A Late Seventeenth-Century Gentile Attempt to Convert the Jews to Reformed Judaism [On the 8-volume work "Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy at Paris".] (xxv-xlv); Hertzberg, Arthur : The New England Puritans and the Jews (xlvii-lxvi); Reinharz, Jehuda : The Response of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbuerger juedischen Glaubens to Antisemitism during the Weimar Republic (lxxxv-cx); Friedlaender, Saul : National Identity and the Nazi Past: Recent Historiographical Debates in West Germany (cxi-cxxvii).
 
 

Antisemitismo, lacra social. [Mexico]: Oficina de Relaciones Humanas de Tribuna Israelita, [1988?]. 28 pp.

Analyzes antisemitic prejudice based on various stereotypes: religious - the idea that the Jews killed Jesus; superstitious - ritual crimes and plagues; economic - the accusation of usury; racial - the view that the Jews are inferior; political - Zionism as racism, Arab antisemitism, and the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
 
 

Armstrong, Karen: Holy War: The Crusades and Their Impact on Today's World. London: Macmillan, 1988. xv, 452 pp. A revised edition appeared in New York: Doubleday, 1991 (628 pp.).

Accompanies a television series of the same name produced by the British Channel 4. A study of the struggle between Christians, Jews, and Muslims, focusing on the concept of Holy War. Argues that an inclination to violence inherent in the biblical tradition of monotheism was passed on to Christianity and Islam. Surveys the early history of these religions to show that a pattern of separatism and aggression is often a response to insecurity and a threat to one's identity. Describes the Crusades as such a response, juxtaposing this account with descriptions of modern Zionism. The Crusaders, who persecuted the Jews despite official Church disapproval, created a demonic image of both Jews and Muslims and was directly responsible for the Middle East conflict today. Also discusses the emergence of Islamic antisemitism.
 
 

Baar, Marius: Zeitbomben der Weltgeschichte: Nahost - die Folgen eines jahrhundertealten Missverstaendnisses. Bad Liebenzell: Verlag der Liebenzeller Mission, 1991. 162 pp. A 3rd, rev. ed. appeared in 1992 (172 pp.).

As a theologian, explains Christian misinterpretation of passages in the Gospel. Condemns religious Jew-hatred and the friendly relations between the Vatican and Israel's persecutors, such as Hitler, the Mufti of  Jerusalem, and Yasir Arafat. Asserts that Islam has taken over the challenge of the Nazis to exterminate the Jews. Quotes from the Bible (especially the prophets) to prove that all these persecutions were predicted there.
 

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Baar, Marius: Nahost - Auftakt zu Weltbrand oder Weltfrieden? Erbschaftsstreit zwischen Ismael und Isaak um Volk, Land und Segen. Bad Liebenzell: Verlag der Liebenzeller Mission, 1984. 322 pp. A 4th, rev. ed. appeared in 1991 (474 pp.).

Based on his experiences with Muslims as a missionary in Islamic lands, Baar condemns the Jew-hatred of Muslims. Believing in biblical prophecies, he considers terrorism and attacks against Jews in Israel and all over the world as the beginning of the apocalypse, in which the Jews will eventually triumph. Views the hatred of Jews by Christians and Muslims as a struggle between God and the Devil. Pp. 267-288 focus on racism, antisemitism, and anti-Zionism among Muslims, Christians, and Jews themselves.
 
 

Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): Les chretientes d'Orient entre "jihad" et dhimmitude, VIIe-XXe siecle. Paris: Cerf, 1991. 529 pp.

Analyzes the relationship between Islamic power which conquered vast parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa from the 7th century, and the conquered peoples, especially Christians. Relates also to the Zoroastrians and Jews. Discusses the essence of the Islamic precept of "jihad," where war is a religious obligation, and examines in detail the "dhimmi" status of non-Muslims (pp. 65-108). Denies the myth of Arab tolerance throughout the centuries and opposes the apologetic current of Islamic thought which forgets the massacres and forced conversions to Islam, mostly between the 7th-11th centuries, which led to the extinction of the pre-Islamic cultures in the Middle East.
 
 

Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Century. Trans.: Miriam Kochan, David Littman. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ; London: Associated University Presses, 1996. 522 pp. Originally published as "Les chretientes d'Orient entre `jihad' et dhimmitude, VIIe-XXe siecle" (Paris: Cerf, 1991).
 

Bautz, Franz J. , ed.: Geschichte der Juden: Von der biblischen Zeit bis zur Gegenwart. 2nd, rev. ed. Muenchen: C.H. Beck, 1987. 247 pp. First published in 1983.

A collection of articles based on a series of lectures on Jewish history given on Bavarian radio in Autumn 1980. Includes articles discussing antisemitism in various periods and countries. Partial contents: Nave Levinson, Pnina : Kirche und Synagoge (77-95); Morabia, Alfred : Die Begegnung der Juden mit der Welt des Islam (96-114); Riff, Michael Anthony : Das osteuropaeische Judentum (115-139); Grab, Walter : Der preussisch- deutsche Weg der Judenemanzipation (140-164); Greive, Hermann : Antisemitismus, Zionismus und Staat Israel (165-183).
 
 

Bayme, Steven: Understanding Jewish History: Texts and Commentaries. Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, in association with the American Jewish Committee, 1997 - S 97 B 3566. xvii, 443 pp.

A survey of Jewish history, with illustrative readings. The following chapters touch on antisemitism and the Holocaust: "The Church and the Jews" (about the early Church); "Jewry and Islam"; "The Crusades and the Jews" (includes a discussion of the Ashkenazic concept of martyrdom developed in the Middle Ages); "Jews and Christian Spain"; "East European Jewry" (describes the Chmielnicki pogroms and their immediate and long-term effects); "Modern Anti-Semitism" (touches on the antisemitism of Marx, Proudhon, and Wagner, and on the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"); "Reaction in Eastern Europe" (evaluates the extent and impact of the pogroms in Russia beginning in 1881); and "The Holocaust" (includes attitudes of bystanders).
 
 

Beinart, Haim: Atlas of Medieval Jewish History. Trans.: Moshe Shalvi. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992. 144 pp. Originally published in Hebrew as
"Atlas Carta le-toldot am Yisrael bi-yemei ha-beinayim" (Jerusalem: Carta, 1981).

Contains text with maps and illustrations. Covers Jewish history from the 5th-17th centuries, including discussion of the Crusades, blood libels, expulsions, the Inquisition, and pogroms.
 

Berger, David , ed.: History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1986. ix, 138 pp.

Based on a conference sponsored by the ADL and the Joseph and Ceil Mazer Institute for Research and Advanced Studies in Judaica of the Center for Jewish Studies, CUNY. Contents: Berger, David : Anti-Semitism: An Overview (3-14); Feldman, Louis H. : Anti-Semitism in the Ancient World (15-42); Cohen, Shaye J.D. : "Anti-Semitism" in Antiquity: The Problem of  Definition (43-47); Chazan, Robert : Medieval Antisemitism (49-65); Cohen, Jeremy : Robert Chazan's "Medieval Anti-Semitism": A Note on the Impact of  Theology (67-72); Gerber, Jane Satlow : Anti-Semitism and the Muslim World (73-93); Endelman, Todd M. : Comparative Perspectives on Modern Antisemitism in the West (95-114); Sarna, Jonathan Daniel : American Anti- Semitism (115-128).
 
 

Biale, David: Power, Passivity and the Legacy of the Holocaust. Tikkun 2, 1 (1987) 68-73. See the abstract for the author's book on this subject in the preceding entry.
 

, David: Power and Powerlessness in Jewish History. New York: Schocken Books, 1986. xi, 244 pp.

Argues against the accepted view of historians that the Jewish past in the Diaspora was characterized by political powerlessness. In fact, the Jews enjoyed considerable self-rule during the Middle Ages. Both Christianity and Islam held that the Jews' refusal to convert incurred degradation and deprivation, but their protection was assured. Attacks on the Jews were usually carried out by rebels against the established power. From the 13th century on, the Jews' status declined due to new theological attitudes and the rise of the centralized, absolutist state. The Jewish Enlightenment created the myth of the Jew who was powerless in the Middle Ages, reinforced by Zionist attacks on Diaspora passivity and by the Holocaust. Recently, rising anti-Zionism has led to a change in the Jews' view of  Israel as representing a radical break with the powerless past; a tendency to identify with Holocaust victims indicates belief in an eternal fate of  persecution.
 
 

Boonstra, Janrense: Jansen, Hans: Kniesmeyer, Joke: Antisemitism: A History Portrayed. Trans.: Jean Kramer-Updike. 's-Gravenhage: SDU, [for the] Anne Frank Foundation, 1989. 129 pp. Originally published as "Antisemitisme: Een geschiedenis in beeld" ('s-Gravenhage: SDU, 1989). A 2nd, rev. ed. appeared in English in 1993 (131 pp.); reprinted in 1998.
 
 

Boonstra, Janrense: Jansen, Hans: Kniesmeyer, Joke: Antisemitisme: Een geschiedenis in beeld. [Antisemitism: A History Portrayed]. 's-Gravenhage: SDU, [for the] Anne Frank Stichting, 1989. 129 pp.

A catalogue of an exhibition of paintings, engravings, caricatures, and photographs describing the history of antisemitism throughout the ages, with connecting text and background material. The book is divided into 18 sections, including antisemitism in the Roman and early Christian periods, in the Middle Ages, the Crusades, the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, economic and political antisemitism, 19th century racism, the Nazi period, antisemitism in the Arab world and in the Soviet Union, and Holocaust denial.
 
 

Carmichael, Joel: Mystical Antisemitism and Xenophobia. Midstream 32, 4 (Apr 1986) 14-18.

A paper given at the Seminar on Antisemitism, Institute for Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University (Jerusalem, December 1985). Distinguishes between general hostility to Jews and mystical antisemitism which is derived from the Church's interpretation of the Jews' refusal to recognize Christ as a necessary consequence of their demonic nature. This led to anti-Jewish violence, but the Church wished to preserve the Jews in a state of  humiliation to show the greater power of Christianity. Nazism and Bolshevism also adopted this view of the Jew as the enemy. Notes that Arabs exploit Christian and Marxist antisemitism but do not subscribe to mystical antisemitic theology.
 

Cerbelaud, Dominique: Ecouter Israel: Une theologie chretienne en dialogue. Paris: Cerf, 1995. 188 pp.

An appeal by a Catholic theologian for true dialogue between Christians and Jews. Stresses the need for theologians to openly reject anti-Judaism in Christian theology. Traces the history of Christian antisemitism beginning with the Church Fathers, and elaborates on the consequences, with emphasis on the Holocaust. Compares the early inter-Jewish polemic with the progressively increasing antisemitism, and evaluates the effects of  Gnosticism and Islam on attitudes toward Judaism. Views the Holocaust as the epitome of anti-Jewish sentiment and describes its effects on the declaration of Vatican Council II. Contends that authentic dialogue based on mutual respect and tolerance among the three monotheistic religions is vital and faithful to the words of the Bible itself.
 

Coudenhove-Kalergi, Heinrich: Antisemitismus: Von den Zeiten der Bibel bis Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts. Ed.: Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. Wien: Amalthea, 1992. 303 pp. Based on the abridged version (Wien: Paneuropa, 1929) of the work originally published as "Das Wesen des Antisemitismus" (Berlin: S. Calvary, 1901).

Traces the history of antisemitism in Christian and Islamic countries, demonstrating that it was always based on religion. Refutes or explains as historically conditioned the charges of modern antisemitism. The foreword by the editor and son of the author, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi (pp. 11-38), discusses the upsurge of antisemitism in the West in the 1920s.
 
 

Cutler, Allan Harris: Cutler, Helen Elmquist: The Jew as Ally of the Muslim: Medieval Roots of Anti-Semitism. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1986. x, 577 pp.

Argues that after the rise of Islam in the seventh century, Christian- Jewish relations cannot be understood apart from Christian-Islamic relations. Shows that the outburst of antisemitism in Western Europe after 1000 was due primarily not to the deicide charge or socio-economic rivalry, but to the clash between Christianity and Islam, in which Jews were seen as dangerous allies of the Muslims. Analyzes the anti-Jewish and anti-Muslim polemical literature. The Spanish Inquisition, too, was motivated by racial and political motives in persecuting the Conversos who were sincere converts. The unprecedented mass conversions of the Jews of Spain and southern Italy in the late Middle Ages can also be explained by the attraction of Spanish Christian culture with its strong Muslim influence.
 

Dolan, Edward F.: Anti-Semitism. New York: Franklin Watts, 1985. 135 pp.

An illustrated explanation of antisemitism through the ages. Identifies three elements as the roots of antisemitism - a religion that set the Jews apart, lack of a homeland, and their reputation as shrewd businessmen. Traces the growth of religious, social, and economic antisemitism and the theory of the Jewish conspiracy. Gives a short account of Nazi racist ideology and the Holocaust. Traces the spread of antisemitism in the USA since the mid-19th century and the influence of antisemites like Father Coughlin during the 1930s. Although the aftermath of World War II led to an upsurge of sympathy for the Jews, antisemitism persists in the USSR and the Arab nations, and among some U.S. Blacks, the neo-Nazis, and the Ku Klux Klan. Many of these groups disguise their hostility to Jews as  anti-Zionism.
 
 

Drai, Raphael: Identite juive, identite humaine. Paris: Armand Colin, 1995. 489 pp.

Examines the influences of Jewish tradition on Western culture, and the co-existence of these two influences throughout history, focusing on three  major events: the Revelation at Sinai, the Holocaust, and Zionism. Pt. 4 (pp. 177-242), "Exils," deals with the image of the Jew in Christianity and Islam, including negative views and historical events. Pt. 5 (pp. 245-291), "Lumieres," traces the status of the Jews in France after the Revolution, and discusses the views of Kant, Bauer, and Marx in regard to the "Jewish question." Pt. 7 (pp. 383-442), "Shoa," examines the background to the Shoah in 19th-20th century antisemitism, and analyzes the  dehumanization of  the Jews during the Shoah. Emphasizes, throughout the book, the significance of three documents which influenced Western thought: the
Decalogue, Mein Kampf, and the UN Declaration on Human Rights.  
 

Eitinger, Leo: Mennesker blant mennesker: En bok om antisemittisme og  fremmedhat. [People among People: A Book about Antisemitism and Xenophobia].
Oslo: J.W. Cappelens Forlag, 1985. 172 pp.

A survey of antisemitism throughout the ages, including chapters on the pre- Christian period, Christendom, the Reformation, Islam, the Emancipation and 19th-century racism, Russia and the USSR, the Holocaust, the Middle East conflict, and anti-Zionism. Devotes a special chapter to the psychological
aspects of racism and antisemitism. Pp. 161-170 contain an essay by Axel Stroem on racism and antisemitism in Norway.
 

Ekman, Ulf: Judarna - framtidens folk. [The Jews - People of the Future]. Uppsala: Livets Ords, 1992. 131, xii pp.

A general overview of the people and of the Land of Israel, based on biblical references. Ch. 3 (pp. 36-51), "Antisemitismens forbannelse" ["The  Curse of Antisemitism"], gives a brief summary of the development of  antisemitism. Ch. 5 (pp. 70-83), "Muslimsk antisemitism," describes the conflict between Islam and Judaism.
 
 

Ekman, Ulf: The Jews - People of the Future. Trans.: The Author. Uppsala: Word of Life Publications, 1993. 159 pp. Originally published as "Judarna -
framtidens folk" (Uppsala: Livets Ords, 1992).
 
 

Fein, Helen , ed.: The Persisting Question: Sociological Perspectives and Social Contexts of Modern Antisemitism. Berlin (West): Walter de Gruyter,
1987. xiv, 430 pp. (Current Research on Antisemitism, 1).

A collection of articles, most of them published previously or abridged from longer works. Contents: Fein, Helen : Explanations of the Origin and Evolution of Antisemitism (3-22); Ruether, Rosemary Radford : The Theological Roots of Antisemitism (23-45); Katz, Jacob : Anti-Semitism through the Ages (46-57); Sartre, Jean-Paul : What Is an Anti-Semite? (58- 63); Fein, Helen : Dimensions of Antisemitism: Attitudes, Collective Accusations, and Actions (67-85); Langmuir, Gavin I. : Toward a Definition of Antisemitism (86-127); Wuthnow, Robert : Anti-Semitism and Stereotyping (128-163); Weil, Frederick D. : The Extent and Structure of Anti-Semitism in Western Populations since the Holocaust (164-189); Quinley, Harold Earl ; Glock, Charles Y. : Christian Sources of Anti-Semitism [Appeared also in "Essential Papers on Jewish-Christian Relations in the United States" (1990).] (190-207); Fein, Helen : Anti-Jewish and Anti-Minority Discrimination, Ideology and Violence in Comparative Contexts (211-223); Armstrong, John A. : Mobilized and Proletarian Diasporas (224-254); Zenner, Walter Paul : Middleman Minority Theories: A Critical Review (255- 276); Fein, Helen : The Impact of Antisemitism on the Enactment and Success of "the Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (279-287); Merkl, Peter : Dimensions of Nazi Prejudice (288-316); Kershaw, Ian : The Persecution of the Jews and German Popular Opinion in the Third Reich (317- 352); Fein, Helen : Contemporary Conflicts: How Do Jewish Claims and Jewish Nationhood Affect Antisemitism? (355-373); Hobsbawm, Eric John : Are We Entering a New Era of Anti-Semitism? (374-379); Goldhagen, Erich : Communism and Anti-Semitism (380-391); Nudelman, Rafail : Contemporary Soviet Anti-Semitism: Forms and Content (392-411); Harkabi, Yehoshafat : Contemporary Arab Anti-Semitism: Its Causes and Roots (412-427).
 
 

Fohrer, Georg: Geschichte Israels: Von den Anfaengen bis zur Gegenwart. 5th, rev. ed. Wiesbaden: Quelle und Meyer, 1990. 292 pp. First published in
1977.

Ch. 9 (pp. 240-279) describes anti-Judaism in antiquity, Muslim and Christian persecution of Jews during the Middle Ages, pogroms, and expulsions from England, France, Spain, Portugal, and from German regions. Surveys modern antisemitism, the pogroms in Russia, the anti-Jewish policy of the Nazi regime, and the Holocaust. Also mentions anti-Zionism.
 
 

Gilman, Sander L.: Katz, Steven Theodore , eds.: Anti-Semitism in Times of  Crisis. New York: New York University Press, 1991. vii, 406 pp.

Papers delivered at a conference held at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, in 1986. Partial contents: De Lange, Nicholas Robert Michael : The Origins  of Anti-Semitism: Ancient Evidence and Modern Interpretations (21-37); Lazar, Moshe : The Lamb and the Scapegoat: The Dehumanization of the Jews in Medieval Propaganda Imagery (38-80); Cohen, Jeremy : Traditional Prejudice and Religious Reform: The Theological and Historical Foundations of Luther's Anti-Judaism (81-102); Peli, Pinchas Hacohen : Responses to Anti-Semitism in Midrashic Literature (103-114); Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia : Jews as Magicians in Reformation Germany (115-139); Sokel, Walter H. : Dualistic Thinking and the Rise of Ontological Antisemitism in Nineteenth- Century Germany: From Schiller's Franz Moor to Wilhelm Raabe's Moses Freudenstein [Appeared in "Shofar" 5 (1987).] (154-172); Klueger, Ruth : The Theme of Anti-Semitism in the Work of Austrian Jews [Appeared in "Shofar" 5 (1987).] (173-187); Orbach, Alexander : The Modern Character of Nineteenth-Century Russian Antisemitism (188-211); Dinnerstein, Leonard : Antisemitism in Crisis Times in the United States: The 1920s and 1930s (212- 226); Katz, Steven Theodore : 1918 and After: The Role of Racial  Antisemitism in the Nazi Analysis of the Weimar Republic (227-256); Ezergailis, Andrew : Anti-Semitism and the Killing of Latvia's Jews (257- 290); Stern, Guy : The Rhetoric of Anti-Semitism in Postwar American Literature (291-310); Gilman, Sander L. : Jewish Writers in Contemporary Germany: The Dead Author Speaks (311-342); Lewis, Bernard : The Arab World Discovers Anti-Semitism [Appeared in "Commentary" 81 (May 1986).] (343-352); Menashri, David : The Jews of Iran: Between the Shah and Khomeini (353- 371); Gilman, Sander L. : German Reunification and the Jews [Appeared in "New German Critique" 52 (1991).] (372-390).
 

Greenspoon, Leonard Jay: Le Beau, Bryan F. , eds.: Representations of Jews through the Ages. Omaha: Creighton University Press, 1996. xxi, 243 pp.
(Studies in Jewish Civilization, 8).

Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Symposium of the Philip M. and Ethel Klutznick Chair in Jewish Civilization, Creighton University, September 1995. Partial contents: Singer, Marc : "Loud in Talk, Flashy in Dress, Offensive in Display of Jewelry": "The American Hebrew" and Distinctions among American Jews [Pp. 13-20 discuss a special Passover issue of 4 April 1890, devoted to the theme "Prejudice against the Jews: Its Nature, Its Causes and Remedies: A Consensus of Opinion by Non-Jews"; 60 well-known Christians responded to a questionnaire sent them by the editors.] (9-23); Cohen, Pamela Allison : George Segal's Holocaust Memorial [1984, installed in San Francisco's Lincoln Park.] (49-56); Kremer, S. Lillian : (Re)Imagining Jews in Twentieth-Century American Literature [By non-Jewish writers (including antisemitic stereotypes) and by Jewish writers.] (57-80); Alperin, Davida J. : Images of Jews in Black-Jewish Discourse [Relating to Black-Jewish relations in the U.S., examines the image of the Jew in Blacks' discourse about cooperation.] (81-101); Mork, Gordon R. : "Wicked  Jews" and "Suffering Christians" in the Oberammergau Passion Play [On the text of the play and its production, from the 17th century to the revisions in 1990.] (153-169); Rosenthal, Regine : Inventing the Other: Ambivalent Constructions of the Wandering Jew/ess in Nineteenth Century American Literature [On the images of the Wandering Jew and of the beautiful Jewess, with a focus on Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The English Notebooks" and "The Marble Faun," and Herman Melville's "Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the
Holy Land."] (171-188); Lemmons, Russel William : Hans Schweitzer's Anti-Semitic Caricatures: The Weimar Years, 1926-1933 [On the Nazi caricaturist,
who became the political cartoonist of Goebbels' weekly paper "Der Angriff" from 1927 and also published an antisemitic book, under the
pseudonym Mjoelnir, together with Goebbels - "Das Buch Isidor" (1928).] (197-212); Calvert, John : Radical Islamism and the Jews: The View of
Sayyid Qutb (213-229); Levy, Richard Simon : A Lie and a Libel: The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" since the Holocaust [Discusses, also, the
strength of conspiracy beliefs amongst the public.] (231-243).  

Hoeven, Jan Willem van der: Babylon or Jerusalem?. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image, 1993. 187 pp.

Reflects on two cities discussed in the Bible: Babylon - representing the efforts and achievements of man, rejection of God, and materialism - and  Jerusalem, representing God's intervention and salvation, holiness and righteousness. Ch. 8 (pp. 81-106), "The Time of Jacob's Trouble," describes troubles which befell the people of Israel from the destruction of the Temple to the Holocaust. States that God has not rejected His people: the message of God's love is Zionism, the movement for return to the Land of  Israel. Indeed, those Jews who heard this message and came to the Land were spared from the Nazi genocide. Ch. 11 (pp. 131-146), "Why Israel Is Hated," discusses Arabs' and Muslims' hatred of the State of Israel. Contends that this hatred is inspired not only by the question of the land, but is deeply rooted in the ideology of Islam, and is essentially a hatred of the Jews. The main goal of Arab movements which have engaged in fighting Israel, and of the wars of the bordering Arab states with Israel, was not to regain their lost territories but to eliminate the State of Israel from the map.
 

Jansen, Hans: Boonstra, Janrense: Kniesmeyer, Joke: Antisemitismen: En historisk skildring i ord och bild. Trans.: Dora Heger. Stockholm: Natur
och Kultur, 1991. 132 pp. Originally published as "Antisemitisme: Een geschiedenis in beeld" ('s-Gravenhage: SDU, 1989).
 
 

Johnson, Paul: A History of the Jews. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987. xi, 643 pp. A paperback version appeared in London: Orion Books, 1993.

A comprehensive survey of Jewish history from the biblical period to the present. States that writing a history of the Jews is almost like writing a history of the world seen from the viewpoint of a learned and intelligent victim. Stresses the Jewish contribution to civilization in the great conceptual discoveries of the intellect and their formulation, as well as the Jews' role as epitomizers of the human condition - the emblem of  homeless and vulnerable humanity. Jews have attracted, over the millennia, unparalleled and inexplicable hatred, yet they have survived because their belief in providence is a force, a historic dynamic, which moves events. Includes discussion of antisemitism in pagan antiquity and in early Christianity, in Islam, in the Middle Ages (e.g. the Crusades, the Inquisition), and in the modern period (e.g. 19th century Europe, the Holocaust, Arab and Soviet anti-Zionism).
 

Johnson, Paul: Storia degli Ebrei. Trans.: Eleonora Vita Heger. Milano: Longanesi, 1991. 716 pp. Originally published as "A History of the Jews" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987).
 

Johnson, Paul: Une histoire des Juifs. Trans.: Jean-Pierre Quijano. Paris: Ed. Jean-Claude Lattes, 1989. 681 pp. Originally published as "A History of the Jews" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987) - see the abstract in Vol. 3, no. 42.
 

Johnson, Paul: La historia de los judios. Trans.: Anibal Leal. Buenos Aires: Javier Vergara, 1991. 656 pp. Originally published as "A History of the Jews" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987).
 

Johnson, Paul: Historia dos judeus. Trans.: Carlos Alberto Pavanelli. 3rd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, 1989. 653 pp. Originally published as "A History of the Jews" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987) - see the abstract in Vol. 3, no. 42.
 
 

Keith, Graham: Hated without a Cause? A Survey of Anti-Semitism. Carlisle, Cumbria: Paternoster Press, 1997 - S 98 B 1536. xiii, 301 pp.

Refutes the frequent accusation against Christianity and the Church that they have always been a source of antisemitism. Hostility toward Jews appeared in the ancient world long before Christianity, and its cause was Jewish religious and civic separatism. Contends that the New Testament contains no more recriminations against the Jews than the Bible; denying the chosenness of Jews, it does not depict them as excessive sinners. The enmity toward Jews discernible in the writings of early Christians (e.g. Chrysostom) is accounted for by their endeavors to separate Christianity from Judaism. In the medieval period, antisemitism was expressed by some
clerics, but the Church never officially supported it. Luther may be blamed for antisemitism, but Protestantism did not advocate it. The Enlightenment was more hostile toward the Jews than was the Church. Antisemitism in 19th- 20th-century Germany was mainly anti-Christian, and Hitler was as much anti- Christian as anti-Jewish. On the other hand, the Muslim roots of  antisemitism (beside anti-Zionism) in the contemporary Arab world must not be ignored. Suggests that Christians must regard Jews as no different from other peoples of the world, i.e. also not immune to criticism. The Church has the right to try to evangelize the Jews, and these efforts must not be dismissed as antisemitism.
 
 

Kuper, Leo: Theological Warrants for Genocide: Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Terrorism and Political Violence 2, 3 (Fall 1990) 351-379.

Analyzes the religious element in genocide, its legitimation in the sacred texts of the major monotheistic religions, and the significance of those texts in modern-day religious fundamentalism. Regarding Judaism, discusses the biblical injunction to destroy the seven nations inhabiting the Land of  Israel. In modern-day Israel, sacred texts are sometimes used to justify violence against Palestinians on the part of Jewish fundamentalists. Regarding Islam, discusses the threat of "jihad" (holy war) against non- Islamic groups. Modern Islamic antisemitism dates from the 19th century, and is a result of the teachings of the Christian Arab minorities. Antisemitism is now an essential part of Islamic fundamentalism. Although Christian doctrine does not justify genocide, anti-Judaic teachings and negative stereotypes of the Jews inculcated hatred, which became a warrant for centuries of persecution, culminating in the Holocaust. Concludes, however, that the role of sacred texts in genocidal conflict is variable and indeterminate, due to the complexity of the societal context.
 

Labovitz, Annette: Antisemitism - from Time Immemorial. Miami: Central Agency for Jewish Education, in cooperation with the Office of Jewish Education of South Broward, [1990?]. 63, [26] pp.

A curriculum designed for high school students and adult education classes, tracing antisemitism from biblical times to the present. Sections are devoted to sources in the Hebrew Bible and in pagan writings, Rome and early Christianity, the Middle Ages, medieval Spain, Martin Luther, the Polish-Russian experience, the Damascus blood libel, the Mortara Affair, the Dreyfus Affair, the Holocaust, and Arab antisemitism.
 
 

Lassner, Jacob: The Origins of Muslim Attitudes towards the Jews and Judaism. Judaism 39, 4 (Fall 1990) 494-507.

Discusses the origins of Muslim anti-Jewish sentiment. Islam refashioned the biblical Jewish past and claimed revelation in a direct tradition from Moses to Muhammad. The "Isra'ilyat" (popular tales from the Bible with Muslim interpretations), the failure of the Jews in Medina to accept Muhammad as the legitimate prophet of his time and their support of his enemies, and a revisionist historical outlook in which the past was always made to fit the ideals and circumstances of Muhammad and his age, engendered a highly negative view of the Jew which was accepted by successive generations of Muslims. Notes that modern attempts to
distinguish between the Jews as a religious community and other forms of Jewish communal and political associations, such as Israel and Zionism, are without historical precedent.
 

Liberman, Serge , ed.: Anti-Semitism and Human Rights. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1985. vi, 176 pp.

Proceedings of a seminar held in Melbourne, June 1984. Contents: Jakobovits, Immanuel : Anti-Semitism: After the Holocaust, after the State of Israel (1-6); Roth, Stephen J. : The Roots of Modern Anti- Semitism and the New Anti-Semitism (9-14); Samuels, Shimon : Anti-Semitism, the Abiding Prejudice (15-18); Foxman, Abraham H. : Anti-Semitism in the United States (19-26); Foster, John : Fabricating History (27-30); Kwiet, Konrad : The New Revisionism (31-32); Discussion (33-40); Rabinovich, Itamar : Anti-Semitism in the Muslim and Arab World (43-52); Gerson, Allan : The United Nations and Anti-Semitism (53-56); Korey, William: The Triumph of Evil: UN Anti-Semitism (57-60); Litvinoff, Emanuel : Russian Anti-Semitism: From Czar to Chernenko (61-73); Discussion (75-87);
Werblowsky, Raphael Jehuda Zwi : Christian-Jewish Relations (91-96); Anderson, Robert A. : The Church and Anti-Semitism: The Beginning of a Tragedy (97-101); Smith, William G. : The Religious Factor in Anti- Semitism (103-106); Williams, John : The Churches, the Noahite Covenant and Anti-Semitism (107-113); Levi, John : The Religious Factor: Response I (115-116); Lubofsky, Ronald : The Religious Factor: Response II (117-118); Discussion (119-128); Rubinstein, William David : The Politics of Anti- Semitism: The Australian Experience (131-138); Waller, Louis : Legal Curbs on Discrimination and Race Hatred (141-146); Bailey, Peter H. : Institutional Protections against Anti-Semitism and Racism (147-155); Roth, Stephen J. : The Legal Fight against Anti-Semitism: The National Aspect (157-164); Lipski, Sam : Australia and the Jews (165-170); Discussion (171- 176).
 
 

Litvinoff, Barnet: The Burning Bush: Antisemitism and World History. London: Collins, 1988. 493 pp.

A historical survey of antisemitism as a problem integral to the evolution of nationhood throughout the ages. Contends that the Jew has always been the scapegoat for authoritarian rulers and regimes, and that the post-1945 period indicates a radical revision in this respect. Surveys antisemitism from the Crucifixion through the Middle Ages, but the major part of the book (pp. 119-457) deals with the 19th-20th centuries, particularly the pogroms in Russia; the racist views of Wagner, Stoecker, Gobineau, etc.; the Dreyfus Affair; "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion"; and the Holocaust.
 

Litvinoff, Barnet: Il roveto ardente: Storia dell'antisemitismo. Trans.: Isabella Farinelli, Francesca Piviotti. Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori, 1989. 525 pp. Originally published as "The Burning Bush: Antisemitism and World History" (London: Collins, 1988) - see the abstract in Vol. 3, no. 50.  
 

[Luzzatto, Edgar: Depth Antisemitism. Tel-Aviv: Tcherikover, 1987. 124 pp.].

Discusses the hidden, psychological aspects of antisemitism and their structural role in Christianity (stemming from the accusation of deicide) and in modern Western culture. Views antisemitism as an irrational force which functions in the subconscious of all those who have been in contact with and influenced by Western culture, in the past and present. Claims that this force may be fought, if properly understood, by wiping it out of  the subconscious and that this can be accomplished only by the existence of  the State of Israel. Includes chapters on Jewish self-hatred, Islam, Nazism, and Christian theology.
 

May, Fritz: Israel zwischen Blut und Traenen: Der Leidensweg des juedischen Volkes. Asslar: Schulte und Gerth, 1987. 301 pp.

Surveys two thousand years of persecution of the Jews through early Christianity, the Middle Ages, the Crusades, Luther's antisemitism, discrimination in Europe before and after emancipation, and the Nazi anti- Jewish policies which led to the Final Solution. Emphasizes the guilt of the Christians for traditional anti-Jewish incitement and their silence during the Holocaust. Focuses on the attitude of the Germans after the war, their denial of knowledge of or participation in the Jews' extermination, and their desire to forget the past, sometimes resulting in Holocaust denial. Mentions anti-Zionism and Arab hatred of the Jews, and condemns the
anti-Jewish and anti-Israel attitude of the Vatican.  

Memmi, Albert: Il razzismo: Paura dell'altro e diritti della differenza. Trans.: Cristina Spano. Genova: Costa & Nolan, 1989. 167 pp. Originally published as "Le racisme" (Paris: Gallimard, 1982).

An analysis of racism, not as an obsession with biological differences and with superiority of the pure race, but mainly as a reaction to differences among peoples. States that there is a latent racism in everyone, since differences confuse, and racism is in fact the interpretation given to those differences. Defines and analyzes racism on a philosophical level, and gives examples of racist expressions throughout history. Mentions some reasons for racism, such as colonial oppression, economic profit, and the need for a scapegoat, which usually result in antisemitic persecutions. On pp. 48-56, defines antisemitism as racism against Jews, combining traditional accusations with resentment of the economic and political role of Jews in society. States that the anti-Jewish stances of both Christianity and Islam stem from their need for self-affirmation through denigration of Judaism. The Nazis made use of all the anti-Jewish  stereotypes for their purposes.
 

[Memmi, Albert: Racism. Trans.: Nurit Peled-Elhanan. Jerusalem: Carmel, 1998. 172 pp.]. Originally published as "Le racisme" (Paris: Gallimard, 1982). See the abstract for the Italian edition: "Il razzismo" (Genova: Costa & Nolan, 1989).

The "Other" as Threat: Demonization and Antisemitism: Papers Presented for Discussion at the International Conference... Jerusalem, June 12-15, 1995. Jerusalem: Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University, 1995. 651 pp. On cover: "Not for publication."

Contains the papers which were submitted prior to the conference, reproduced as submitted by the authors [most of these papers were published in the volume based on this conference: "Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia" (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1999)]. Partial contents: Schul, Yaacov ;  Zukier, Henri : Why Do Stereotypes Stick? Motivated Cognition and the Persistence of Stereotypical Beliefs (99-132); Felstiner, John : "All Poets Are Yids": The Voice of the Other in Paul Celan [An earlier German version appeared in "Dachauer Hefte" 11 (1995).] (133-154); Dundes, Alan : Why Is the Jew "Dirty"? A Psychoanalytic Study of Antisemitic Folklore [Especially Christian folklore.] (155-192); Zukier, Henri : The Essential Other, the Jew, and the Western Mind [A study of the function of the outsider in Western society, the place of the Jew as the universal and intimate other, and manifestations of antisemitism.] (193- 226); Schwartz, Daniel R. : Judaism, Alexandrianism, Romanism and Christianity: Antisemitism in Antiquity (227-253); Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava : Jews and Christians in Muslim Medieval Thought (275-302); Shillony, Ben- Ami : The Flourishing Demon: Japan in the Role of the Jews? [On "Japan bashing and Jew baiting" in the West, deriving from demonization of the successful outsider.] (303-323); Thomas, Laurence Mordekhai : The Matrices of Malevolent Ideologies: Blacks and Jews [Considers how the perceptions Blacks and Jews have of one another have been influenced by the malevolent ideology of the other.] (325-346); Kulka, Otto Dov : Critique of Judaism in European Thought in the Modern Era: Genuine Factors and Demonic Perceptions [On anti-Jewish ideology in the main philosophical, social, and political currents of modern Europe - e.g. in the thought of Deists, Marx, Wagner, and Nazi ideology.] (449-478); Almog, Shmuel : The Borrowed Identity: Neo-Pagan Reactions to the Jewish Roots of Christianity [Discusses the issue of the hostility of certain Christian radical thinkers, or heretical or schismatic individuals and groups, throughout history, to the Jewish element in Christianity.] (479-507); Burrin, Philippe : Nazi Antisemitism: Animalization and Demonization (509-531); Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel) : Recurrent Images in French Antisemitism in the Third Republic [Between 1870-1940; focuses, especially, on the myth of the Jews' extensive power and influence.] (533-551); Gutman, Yisrael : Modern Antisemitism in Eastern Europe: The Popular Image of the Jew in Poland [In the 19th-20th centuries.] (553-565); Wistrich, Robert Solomon : Racism and Antisemitism in the New Europe: The Case of Germany (567-590); Benz, Wolfgang : Antisemitism as Refusal to Face Historical Reality: Motivation and Impact of "Revisionism" in Germany in the Nineties [On Holocaust denial, with a focus on the case of Guenter Deckert.] (591-608); Epstein, Simon (Simcha) : When the Demon Itself Complains of Being Demonized: Antisemitic "Second-Strike" Responses to Protest Campaigns [On a defensive stance adopted by antisemites when faced with Jewish protests, giving as example reactions of Goebbels, Gregor Strasser, and Hitler between 1927-33.] (609- 620); Porat, Dina : "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion": New Uses of an Old Myth (621-651).
 

Poliakov, Leon: De Maome aos Marranos. [From Mohammed to the Marranos]. Sao Paulo: Perspectiva, 1984. 288 pp.. Originally published as Vol. II of his
"Histoire de l'antisemitisme" (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1961).

Covers the antisemitism of Muhammad and Islam, and Spain and Portugal from the Middle Ages to the 19th century, with an appendix on the Jews of Rome
and the Holy See.
 

Poliakov, Leon: Historia del antisemitismo. Vol. 1-5. Trans.: Elena Rotes et al.. Barcelona: Muchnik, 1984-1986. 5 vols.. Originally published as "Histoire de l'antisemitisme" (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1955-1977). A six-part version of the Spanish edition appeared in Buenos Aires: Mila, 1986-1989.

The five volumes cover the history of antisemitism from early Christianity up to 1933.
 

Poliakov, Leon: Histoire de l'antisemitisme. Vol. 1-2. Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1991. 491; 542 pp. A reprint of the revised and abridged edition published
by Hachette in 1981, with an added index (pp. 529-542). Originally published in four volumes by Calmann-Levy between 1955-77.

A history of antisemitism from early Christianity up to 1933.
 

Poliakov, Leon: Istoriya antisemitizma: Epokha very. [The History of  Antisemitism: The Age of Faith]. Trans.: V. Lobanov, M. Ognyanova. Moskva: Lekhaim, Ierusalim, Gesharim, 1997. 429 pp. Translation of the section "L'age de la foi" of his "Histoire de l'antisemitisme," originally published in four volumes by Calmann-Levy between 1955-77.

A history of antisemitism from antiquity through the early modern period. Mentions anti-Jewish writings in pre-Christian and Christian antiquity. Describes restrictions imposed on the Jews under Islam. In Spain, the Jews' relations with the Muslims and Christians deteriorated in the 13th-15th centuries. Dwells on the fate of the Conversos in Spain and Portugal, on the Inquisition, which persecuted them, and on the "limpieza de sangre" statutes. Discusses the persecution of Jews in medieval Europe, the massacres of 1096, medieval superstitions against Jews, the period of the Black Death. Secular antisemitism developed in Europe in the 16th-17th
centuries, in the epoch of the ghettos. Relates the deteriorating attitude towards Jews in the wake of the Reformation in Germany; the massacres of  1648-55 in Poland; the beginning of antisemitism in Russia. The hostility and persecutions of the Middle Ages changed their character in the early modern period. Pp. 397-415 contain an essay on the situation of the Jews in the city of Rome until 1870.
 

Poliakov, Leon: Istoria antisemitismului. Vol. 1-2. [The History of Antisemitism. Vol. 1-2]. Trans.: Lelia Balus (vol. 1), Janina Ianosi (vol. 2). Bucuresti: Hasefer, 1999. 296; 350 pp. Translation of the first two volumes of "Histoire de l'antisemitisme" (Paris: Calmann-Levy 1955-77). See the abstract for the Russian translation: "Istoriya antisemitizma" (Moskva: Lekhaim; Ierusalim: Gesharim, 1997).

Vol. 1 is sub-titled: De la Hristos la evreii de curte; vol. 2: De la Mahomed la marani.
 

[Rokeach, David: History, Religion, Antisemitism - and Current Affairs. Nativ 8, 3 (May 1995) 42-48.].

Discusses the views of Gavin Langmuir on anti-Judaism and antisemitism. Langmuir sees anti-Judaism as an irrational response to irrational doubts regarding Christianity, and antisemitism as a non-rational response to rational doubts that were suppressed. Instead of explaining Jesus' life and death by examining the political situation in Judea in his time, early Christians chose to focus on three non-rational beliefs: the Jews lack understanding, they are responsible for Jesus' death, and God is punishing them. Irrational antisemitism, including demonization, began in the 12th century. Blood libels and other accusations were used by Church leaders to
strengthen the belief that the Jews were continuing to attack Jesus, and to fight heresy amongst Christians by blaming the Jews. Rokeach applies these views to the development of the "Aryan myth" in the 20th century, when blaming the Jews led to the Holocaust; to Arab antisemitism, which demonizes Jews in order to prove the supremacy of Islam; and to the political conflict between Right and Left in Israel.
 
 
 

Rosenberg, Stuart Eugene: Secrets of the Jews. Oakville, Ont.: Mosaic Press, 1994. viii, 197 pp.

Discusses both the survival of Jews from antiquity, and the survival of anti-Jewish beliefs. Describes the antisemitism of the ancient pagans; of  early, medieval, and modern Christians; of "post-Christians" (such as Voltaire who reintroduced the Jew-hatred of the ancient Greeks and Romans); of liberals (who would deny the Jews an autonomous existence); and of socialists and communists from Marx to the rulers of the Soviet Union. Examines the antisemitism of contemporary Arabs, who confront a strong Israel which refutes their traditional view of the Jews as powerless and cowardly. As a result, traditional Arab antisemitism has been replaced by
the stereotypes and myths depicted in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion. " Relates, also, to antisemitism in Japan. The Japanese, with only a handful of Jews living in their country, have purchased millions of books presenting anti-Jewish themes borrowed from the Arab world.
 

Schwanitz, Wolfgang , ed.: Jenseits der Legenden: Araber, Juden, Deutsche. Berlin: Dietz, 1994. 237 pp.

A collection based on papers presented at two conferences held in Berlin, in October 1992 (organized by the Deutsch-Aegyptische Gesellschaft Berlin)
and in March 1993 (organized by the ABM-Gruppe). The following deal with antisemitism: Hartewig, Karin : Juedische Kommunisten in der DDR und ihr
Verhaeltnis zu Israel (123-136); Ezzeldin, Ahmed : Islamfeindlichkeit und Antisemitismus [In Europe, mainly Germany, throughout the ages, and also in the Arab world.] (181-195); Brentjes, Burchard : Antisemitismus und Antizionismus in unseren Tagen [In Germany, from the 19th century until 1996.] (196-202).
 
 

Sharon, Moshe: Judaism in the Context of Diverse Civilizations - an Overview: The Meeting of Jewish National Monotheism with Paganism, Hellenism and Islam. Judaism in the Context of Diverse Civilizations, ed. Moshe Sharon. Johannesburg: Maksim, 1993. Pp. 11-131.

Discusses the nature of Judaism and examines three contexts of contact between Judaism and other cultures: the ancient Near East, Hellenism, and Islam. Pp. 62-78 discuss antisemitism in the Hellenistic and the Roman periods, especially in Egypt. Pp. 101-114 describe Islamic antisemitism in the medieval period, focusing on the Dhimmi status of Jews and Christians and the various restrictions it entailed. Pp. 122-131 deal with modern Islamic antisemitism, influenced by European antisemitism, and much more virulent than in medieval Islam.
 
 

Studio sull'antisemitismo. Lugano: Loggia Massonica "Brenno Bertoni", 1990. 119 pp.

Analyzes the causes of antisemitism and its expressions in the ancient period, in Christianity and later in Islam, differentiating between religious and pseudo-scientific, racial antisemitism after 1800. Discusses the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," Hitler's "Mein Kampf," the popes' stances on the "Jewish question," as well as the Freemasons' liberal attitude towards Jews.
 
 

Targarona Borras, Judit: Saenz-Badillos, Angel , eds.: Jewish Studies at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Vol. I-II. Leiden: Brill, 1999. xiii, 635; xiv, 701 pp. On title-page also: Proceedings of the 6th EAJS [European Association for Jewish Studies] Congress, Toledo, July 1998.

Partial contents: Vol. I: "Biblical, Rabbinical, and Medieval Studies": Alfonso, Esperanza : `Abd al-Karim al-Magili: Un paralelo magrebi a los acontecimientos de 1066 en Granada [On an antisemitic poem by Maghili (15th century), influenced by an antisemitic pamphlet by the Jewish convert to Islam Abd al-Haqq Islami, which incited the populace against the Jews in the Maghreb.] (370-378). Vol. II: "Judaism from the Renaissance to Modern Times": Ramras-Rauch, Gila : Ida Fink and Holocaust Literature (225-228); Meijers, Daniel : Europe's Last Pogrom? A Provisional Note on the Sociogenesis of Discrimination and Violence [On the pogrom in Kielce in 1946.] (330-336); Pilarczyk, Krzysztof : Zur Zensurfrage der juedischen Buecher in Polen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (346-353); Kerem, Yitzchak : The Fate of Greek Sephardic Cultural Personalities in the Holocaust [Mainly on Jewish musicians from Salonika, and their activities before the war and in Auschwitz.] (523-529).
 
 

Wein, Berel: Triumph of Survival: The Story of the Jews in the Modern Era, 1650-1990. New York: Shaar Press, 1990. xii, 488 pp.

Surveys 340 years of Jewish history from an Orthodox Jewish viewpoint. Pp. 6-20 describe the pogroms of 1648-49 in the Ukraine, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki. Pp. 69-77 deal with Napoleon's liberal measures, contending that his intention was to get rid of the Jews through assimilation, and that his Sanhedrin caused the suspicion to arise of a Jewish conspiracy to rule the world. Pp. 162-180 discuss the Pale of Settlement in Russia and oppression under the Tsars. Pp. 232-236 describe the Dreyfus Affair. Pp. 336-342 discuss the Jews in Muslim countries and the evolution from contempt to hatred of Jews in the 20th century. Pp. 343-386 discuss the Holocaust. Pp. 442-447 deal briefly with the postwar search for Nazi war criminals, Arab extremism, and the Church's attitude towards Israel.
 
 

Weiss, Pierre: Les Juifs: Une synthese historique. Vol. I-II. Paris: Publisud, 1990. 79; 110 pp.

Describes the relationship between Jews and Christians (and between Jews and Muslims) prior to World War II, with the pedagogic design of outlining the continuum of antisemitism. States that the accusation of a Jewish anti- Christian conspiracy (e.g. poisoning, bringing leprosy and the pest) arose in the 14th century, and along with the idea of collective responsibility of the Jews and the negative stereotype of the Jew, persist in the collective mentality to this day. Describes 19th-20th-century antisemitism in Europe and analyzes the sources and different aspects of Nazi and fascist antisemitism.
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. London: Methuen; Thames Television, 1991. xxvi, 341 pp. Published in paperback by Thames Mandarin, 1992.

A history of antisemitism, originating in the author's advisory capacity for the Thames Television series "The Longest Hatred" (1991). Surveys the evolution from pagan hostility toward Jews to Christian anti-Judaism, and its overwhelming influence on modern antisemitism. Mentions the antisemitic leanings of 19th-century socialist ideologues and of Karl Marx. Traces the evolution of Austrian and German antisemitism until Hitler's racist ideology and the legitimation of the Final Solution. Examines postwar forms of antisemitism in both countries, focusing on Fassbinder's play and the Waldheim affair. Reviews past and present-day antisemitism in Britain, America, France, and Eastern Europe. Remarks on the extent of anti-Zionist propaganda in the Soviet Union and ideological antisemitic tendencies among
former Soviet dissidents (e.g. I. Shafarevich). Surveys the status of the Jews in Islamic lands, blood libels in those countries, widespread anti- Jewish stereotypes, the "world Jewish conspiracy" accusation, and Islamic fundamentalist antisemitism.  

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Vom "Christusmord" zur "Weltverschwoerung": Motive des europaeischen und arabischen Antisemitismus. Juedische Lebenswelten: Essays, eds. Andreas Nachama et al. Frankfurt a.M.: Juedischer Verlag; Suhrkamp, 1992. Pp. 123-133.

Gives a general account of Jew-hatred from antiquity through the Middle Ages, including the Crusades, the expulsion of Jews from Spain, and the anti-Judaism of Martin Luther. Focuses on the beginning of modern antisemitism in the second half of the 19th century, mentioning the activities of Wilhelm Marr, Adolf Stoecker, Richard Wagner, Heinrich von Treitschke, and others. Recalls racist theories, the Dreyfus Affair and antisemitism in France, pogroms in Russia and the publication of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." Mentions Hitler's anti-Jewish policy and the Holocaust. After 1945, antisemitism was used in Eastern Europe for political reasons, and in the Islamic World for anti-Zionist purposes. Arab propaganda has also influenced the Western World and increased European antisemitism.
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon , ed.: Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, for the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1999. x, 373 pp.

A collection of papers delivered at the conference "The `Other' as Threat: Demonization and Antisemitism," organized by the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University of  Jerusalem, in June 1995. Partial contents: Wistrich, Robert Solomon : The Devil, the Jews, and Hatred of the "Other" (1-15); Schul, Yaacov ; Zukier, Henri : Why Do Stereotypes Stick? [On the persistence of stereotypes, especially antisemitic ones, from a motivational-cognitive perspective.] (31-43); Amishai-Maisels, Ziva : The Demonization of the "Other" in the Visual Arts [From the ancient to the modern periods, with a focus on anti- Jewish images in Christian art.] (44-72 + 8 pp. of illustrations); Schwartz, Daniel R. : Antisemitism and Other -ism's in the Greco-Roman World [In the Roman Empire, with a focus on Alexandria in the first century. ] (73-87); Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava : Jews and Christians in Medieval Muslim Thought (108-117); Zukier, Henri : The Transformation of Hatred: Antisemitism as a Struggle for Group Identity [In Western culture throughout the ages.] (118-130); Almog, Shmuel : The Borrowed Identity: Neo-Pagan Reactions to the Jewish Roots of Christianity [Surveys attitudes toward the Jewish component in Christianity throughout history, from the standpoint of Gentile identity.] (131-147); Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel) : Recurrent Images in French Antisemitism in the Third Republic (183-195);
Kulka, Otto Dov : The Critique of Judaism in Modern European Thought: Genuine Factors and Demonic Perceptions [Discusses, for instance, the deists, Marx, Wagner, and Nazi ideology.] (196-209); Friedlaender, Saul : "Europe's Inner Demons": The "Other" as Threat in Early Twentieth-Century European Culture [On the view of the Jew as representing the threatening "Other" in radical right discourse (e.g. Nesta Webster, Georges Bernanos) and in Nazi ideology.] (210-222); Burrin, Philippe : Nazi Antisemitism: Animalization and Demonization (223-235); Epstein, Simon (Simcha) : When the Demon Itself Complains of Being Demonized [On antisemites' responses to Jewish propaganda launched against them; discusses Nazi responses (Hitler, Goebbels, Gregor Strasser) between 1927-33.] (236-243); Felstiner, John : "All Poets Are Yids": The Voice of the "Other" in Paul Celan [An earlier German version appeared in "Dachauer Hefte" 11 (1995).] (244-256); Gutman, Yisrael : The Popular Image of the Jew in Modern Poland [19th-20th centuries.] (257-266); Shillony, Ben-Ami : The Flourishing Demon: Japan in
the Role of the Jews? [On "Japan bashing and Jew baiting" in the West, deriving from demonization of the successful outsider.] (294-309); Yadlin, Rivka : Anti-Jewish Imagery in the Contemporary Arab-Muslim World [On antisemitic rhetoric, polemical writings, and reports in the press.] (310- 322); Porat, Dina : The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion": New Uses of an Old Myth [Examines publication and distribution of the "Protocols" in different parts of the world in the 1990s.] (323-335); Benz, Wolfgang : The Motivations and Impact of Contemporary Holocaust Denial in Germany [From postwar West Germany to present-day Germany, with a focus on the case of Guenter Deckert.] (336-348); Wistrich, Robert Solomon : Xenophobia and Antisemitism in the New Europe: The Case of Germany (349-363).
 

General: Austria

Das oesterreichische Judentum: Voraussetzungen und Geschichte. 3rd, rev. ed. Wien: Jugend und Volk, 1988. 239 pp. Originally published in 1971.

Contents: Schubert, Kurt : Die Voraussetzungen: Von der Entstehung des Judentums bis zum Ende des ersten Jahrtausends n.Chr. (7-24); Drabek, Anna
Maria : Judentum und christliche Gesellschaft im hohen und spaeten Mittelalter (25-57); Vielmetti, Nikolaus : Vom Beginn der Neuzeit bis zur Toleranz (59-82); Haeusler, Wolfgang : Toleranz, Emanzipation und Antisemitismus: Das oesterreichische Judentum des buergerlichen Zeitalters (1782-1918) (83-140); Stuhlpfarrer, Karl : Judenfeindschaft und Judenverfolgung in Oesterreich seit dem Ersten Weltkrieg (141-204); Schubert, Kurt : Anhang: Das Judentum in der Welt des mittelalterlichen Islam (205-218); Das Judentum in Osteuropa (219-229).

General: Egypt

Hassoun, Jacques , ed.: Histoire des Juifs du Nil. 2nd, rev. ed. Paris: Minerve, 1990. 238 pp.

A survey of the condition of the Jews in Egypt from the Hellenistic period to the present. The following articles also discuss antisemitism: Meleze- Modrzejewski, Joseph : Splendeurs grecques et miseres romaines: Les Juifs d'Egypte dans l'Antiquite (15-45); Morabia, Alfred : A l'ombre "protectrice" de l'Islam: Les Juifs d'Egypte, de la conquete arabe a l'expedition de Bonaparte (641-1798) (47-69); Kraemer, Gudrun ; Morabia, Alfred : Face a la modernite: Les Juifs d'Egypte au XIXe et XXe siecles (71- 93).
 

[Landau, Jacob M. , ed.: The Jews in Ottoman Egypt (1517-1914). Jerusalem: Misgav Yerushalaim, 1988 - S 88 A 3980. 670, 2 pp.].

Partial contents: [Winter, Michael : The Relations of Egyptian Jews with the Authorities and with the Non-Jewish Society (371-420); [Rozen, Minna : France and the Jews of Egypt: An Anatomy of Relations, 1683-1801 (421-470); [Landau, Jacob M. : The Jews and Their Neighbors: The Destruction of the Cairo Community, 1735 (471-509).]
 

General: France

Girard, Patrick: Pour le meilleur et pour le pire: Vingt siecles d'histoire juive en France. Paris: Bibliophane, 1986. 528 pp.

A history of the Jews of France from the ancient period to the present, including anti-Jewish manifestations in the Middle Ages, such as the Crusades, the expulsions, the anti-Jewish activities of Louis IX, and the formation of ghettos. In the Napoleonic period, mentions heavy taxation and judicial inequality. During the Restoration the anti-Jewish decrees were annulled. Discusses the Jews of French North Africa and the antisemitic reactions provoked by the Cremieux decree (1870). Ch. 5 (pp. 327-342) is devoted to the Dreyfus Affair and its repercussions in France and Algeria. Examines the interwar period, Vichy, and the Holocaust, including antisemitism in literary circles and the wave of antisemitism provoked by the government of Leon Blum. Mentions the pogrom in Constantine (1934) and in other localities in Algeria. In the postwar period, mentions anti-Jewish terrorist actions carried out by Arabs and neo-Nazi groups.
 

General: Islamic World

Adang, Camilla: Schriftvervalsing als thema in de islamitische polemiek tegen het jodendom. [Bible Distortion as a Theme in Islamic Polemics against Judaism]. Ter Herkenning 16, 3 (Sept 1988) 190-202.

Deals with the Islamic accusation that the Jews falsified passages of the Torah which do not coincide with the text of the Qur'an. They claim that the original Torah was destroyed, that the present one was written by the rabbis, that the original Torah revealed Muhammad as the true prophet, and that the Qu'ran is the only divine text now extant. Discusses two approaches in Islam: the moderate movement of the historian and commentator al-Tabari (838-923, Baghdad), and the radical movement of the Islamic theologian Ibn Hazm (994-1064, Spain) who had a strong influence on other theologians. Considers the latter's opinions to be a barrier against fruitful dialogue between Islam and Judaism or Christianity.
 

[Bar-Asher, Meir M.: On Judaism and the Jews in Early Shi`i Religious Literature. Pe`amim 61 (1994) 16-36.].

The early writings of the Shi`a branch of Islam include distinct approaches toward the Jews and Judaism. Along with the traditional Muslim degradation of non-Muslims, who are viewed as ritually unclean, there is also a unique identification with ancient Israel as a persecuted minority.
 
 

Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam. Rev. and enlarged English ed. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1985. 444 pp. Originally published as "Le Dhimmi" (Paris: Anthropos, 1980). A 4th printing of the English edition appeared in 1996.

The oppression of Jews under Islamic rule is based on an archetypal relationship established at the time of the Muslim conquest - the "victor- vanquished relationship," expressed in the status of the dhimmi, the inferior non-Muslim. Pts. 1-2 (pp. 43-157) consist of a historical outline of the Jews' status under Islam and a description of modern formulations of  this dhimmi status, its place in Arab nationalism, and its psychological effects on Oriental Jews. The rest of the book consists of documents
reflecting persecution and oppression of the Jews in various Islamic countries from the time of Muhammad up to the present day.
 
 

Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): Islam and the "Dhimmis". Jerusalem Quarterly 42 (Spr 1987) 83-88.

A response to M. Cohen's article "Islam and the Jews" (see below), reemphasizing the importance of Muslim religious intolerance. The northern European Christian heartland should be compared not to the conquered Mediterranean regions but to the Islamic heartland - Arabia, where non- Muslims were forbidden to live, and Yemen, where they were degraded. Islamic anti-Jewish persecution differed from Christian in form but not in spirit. Value judgments and fallacious comparisons of different periods and societies should be avoided.
 

[Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): The Dhimmi - Protected People: Jews and Christians under Islam. Trans.: Aharon Amir. Jerusalem: Kaneh, 1986. 399 pp. ]. Originally published as "Le Dhimmi" (Paris: Anthropos, 1980). See the abstract for the English ed. (1985).
 
 

Bat Ye'or (=Giselle Littman): Juifs et chretiens sous l'islam: Les dhimmis face au defi integriste. Paris: Berg International, 1994. 420 pp.

Discusses the status of non-Muslims (dhimmis) - Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians - under Islamic rule in various countries from the 7th to the 20th centuries. Explains the concept of dhimma and its economic, political, social, and religious aspects. Describes the various categories of dhimma: dhimmi, fay, kharaj, and jizya, which constituted the framework for a perfect model of society, established according to God's will, and effected through jihad - the war of Islamic conquest which destroyed various cultures and civilizations during the centuries. Pt. 2 (pp. 169-328) deals with Islamic and Christian antisemitism and anti-Zionism, their expression
in Arab countries and in Europe in the 20th century, and the present situation of Israel in the face of Islamic fundamentalism.
 

Bunzl, John: Juden im Orient: Juedische Gemeinschaften in der islamischen Welt und orientalische Juden in Israel. Wien: Junius, 1989. 135 pp.

Analyzes the integration of Oriental Jews in the State of Israel. Points out that in Muslim countries Jews were persecuted and discriminated against during the Middle Ages, especially when they were the only minority; but  when Christians lived in these countries, Jews suffered from both sides. Gives details on Jewish life and the persecution of Jews in different Arab countries, and the influence of modern European antisemitism on the Arab authorities. Relates the Mufti of Jerusalem's relations with the Nazis, and his demand that European Jews be deported to Eastern Europe in order to prevent their emigration to Palestine. Also mentions the role of  Oriental Jews in the Arab-Israeli conflict.
 
 

Cohen, Mark R.: Islam and the Jews: Myth, Counter-Myth, History. Jerusalem Quarterly 38 (1986) 125-137. Reprinted in "The Solomon Goldman Lectures," Vol. V (Chicago: Spertus College of Judaica Press, 1990).

The myth of a "Golden Age" for Jews under Muslim rule has been challenged in recent years by a "counter-myth" that the persecution of Jews is endemic in Islamic lands (especially by Bat Ye'or in "The Dhimmi" - see Vol. 1, no. 27, and her response to Cohen, above). A more balanced approach indicates that, despite theological intolerance, the Jews of Islamic lands enjoyed far greater security and were far more integrated into society than the Jews of Europe. Unlike Christianity, Islam did not need to establish its identity at the expense of its Jewish parent. However, from the late Middle Ages on, the position of Jews under Muslim rule declined.
 
 

Cohen, Mark R.: The Neo-Lachrymose Conception of Jewish-Arab History. Tikkun 6, 3 (May-June 1991) 55-60.

Identifies two approaches to the history of Jews in Muslim countries: a "golden age" approach, viewing Jewish life under Arab/Islamic rule as a period of toleration, cultural integration, and political achievement; and a "neo-lachrymose" approach, characterizing the same period as one of oppression and persecution. Demonstrates how both have been taken up for political purposes, becoming myth and counter-myth - the "golden age" myth being used by Arab nationalists to denigrate Zionism as ingratitude and so justify contemporary antisemitism, and the "neo-lachrymose" counter-myth by right-wing, especially Sephardic, Israelis to belie the assertion that Arabs and Jews can live side-by-side peacefully. Argues that, in comparison with medieval Christian Europe, the Jewish legal position was essentially more stable, Jews assumed more central roles in both society and economy, and persecution was much less widespread, with discriminatory laws often ignored.
 

[Cohen, Mark R.: Islam and the Jews: Myth, Counter-Myth, History. Zmanim 36 (Win 1990) 53-81.]. Originally published in English in the "Jerusalem Quarterly" 38 (1986). A revised Hebrew version appeared in "Sofrim muslemim al yehudim ve-yahadut" (1996).
 
 

Fradkin, Hillel: The Roots of Islamic Fundamentalism. Vision Confronts Reality: Historical Perspectives on the Contemporary Jewish Agenda, eds. Ruth Kozodoy et al. Rutherford, NJ: Herzl Press, 1989. Pp. 245-261.

Reviews the history of Islam with a view to understanding its attitude towards Israel and Judaism. The establishment of the State of Israel was an event which undermined the basic Muslim view that Judaism was no longer a major historical force. In Muslim writings, Israel is depicted alternately as an indignity forced upon the Muslims by the West or as evidence of a demonic conspiracy. The latter view receives support from 19th-20th century European antisemitic literature.
 
 

Garcia-Arenal, Mercedes: Jewish Converts to Islam in the Muslim West. Israel Oriental Studies 17 (1997) 227-248.

Discusses continuing prejudice against Jews even after they converted to Islam during the medieval and early modern periods, based on the historical examples of Andalusia and Fez, Morocco. Presents a theory of how the majority, fearing that converts would gain power, continued to mark those who converted for avoidance and contempt. This was a feature of competitive societies, where Jews converted in order to be able to perform certain functions but continued to be viewed in terms of stereotypes, e.g. as dhimmi and, hence, subject to humiliation. Due to economic competition, neo- Muslims were considered dishonest and sometimes subject to violence. Neither acculturation nor conversion of the Jews was sufficient to make Muslims forget the converts' previous status.
 
 

Giniewski, Paul: Qu'est-ce que la Dhimma?. Rencontre - Chretiens et Juifs 18, 1 [77] (1984) 5-34.

A survey of the attitudes of Islam and Muslims towards the Jews, from Muhammad to the present, but particularly in the 20th century.
 
 

Karsh, Efraim: Intifada II: The Long Trail of Arab Anti-Semitism. Commentary 110, 5 (Dec 2000) 49-53.

Disputes the traditional Muslim-Arab claim that Arabs have nothing against Jews and Judaism but only against Zionists and Zionism, asserting that "Arabs have never really distinguished among Zionists, Israelis, and Jews." Thus, Arab anti-Zionism is antisemitism. The latter prejudice, with its "vicious stereotypes," is traced back to early Islam and the Qur'an. European Christian antisemitism fell on fertile ground in the Muslim world: this includes blood libels as well as "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, " which has helped fan belief in a world Jewish or Zionist conspiracy. Such views are still held today not only by the uneducated and avowed antisemites, including many Arab leaders, but also by intellectuals. Moves toward peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors have not led to a diminution of antisemitic views or expressions. Despite its peace treaty with Israel, Egypt has been an epicenter of antisemitism. The Palestinian Authority is also responsible for spreading outlandish antisemitic ideas, e. g. in the media and via textbooks. Concludes that, whatever happens in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, Muslim-Arab lands can be expected to "remain the only regions in today's world where anti-Semitism - not anti-Zionism - still constitutes state policy."
 
 

Khoury, Adel Theodor: Juden, Christen, Muslime im Gespraech: Warum gibt es eine bedenkliche Zurueckhaltung?. Leutesdorf: Johannes-Verlag, 1986. 36 pp.

Discusses Islam's claims to exclusiveness, its accusations that Judaism and Christianity falsified the Scriptures, and its demand for the subjection of
the adherents of these religions. Pp. 18-25 explain the hostility to Jews in the Qur'an by Muhammad's disappointment that the Jews of Medina refused
to ally themselves with him against the pagans. Today, the Arab-Israeli conflict is an obstacle to Jewish-Muslim dialogue.
 

[Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava: Judaism, Jews and Israel in the Islamic World - an Immanent Conflict?. Jerusalem: Shazar Library, Harman Institute of
Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, 1993. 46 pp. (Study Circle on World Jewry in the Home of the President of Israel).].

As Islam considered itself to be the one true divine revelation, Jews were never regarded as equals. The Jews were "protected people" ("dhimmi"); they were accorded personal safety, freedom to practice their religion, and a certain measure of communal autonomy. But many humiliating restrictions attributed to the Caliph Omar I, and enumerated in the so-called "Pact of  Omar" (stemming in fact from Byzantine Christian anti-Jewish legislation), were imposed upon them (e.g. a special poll-tax, marked garments, prohibition to build or repair synagogues). Some of these (except the poll- tax) were rarely enforced. There are no specific arguments against the Jewish religion, although Arab literature contains many derogatory remarks about the Jewish people and Jewish religious customs. In the late Middle Ages, under pressure from the Doctors of Islam, the restrictions of the "Pact of Omar" were more systematically enforced. Includes responses by scholars. The response by Nehemia Levtzion (pp. 26-31) focuses on the deterioration in the condition of the Jews under Muslim rule during the late Middle Ages. (2.01. General: Islamic World
 

[Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava , ed.: Muslim Authors on Jews and Judaism: The Jews among Their Muslim Neighbours. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1996. 276 pp.].

Partial contents: [Cohen, Mark R. : Islam and the Jews: Myth, Counter-Myth, History [A revised version of his article which appeared in English in "Jerusalem Quarterly" 38 (1986) and in Hebrew in "Zmanim" 36 (1990).] (21- 36); Geries, Ibrahim : Abu-l-`Ala Al-Ma`arri and the Jews: An Analysis of  Some of His Poems and Prose Works. On the 11th-century Syrian poet; focuses on his contention that the Jews falsified the Bible.] (75-82); Shemesh, Hanna : Ibn Hazm's "Al-radd `ala Ibn al-Naghrila" [Pp. 89-118 contain a Hebrew translation of this anti-Jewish polemical work.] (83-118); Perlmann, Moshe : The Medieval Polemics between Islam and Judaism [Appeared in English in "Religion in a Religious Age" (1974).] (119-160); Moreen, Vera Basch : "Risala-yi Sawa`iq al-Yahud" ("The Treatise Lightning Bolts against the Jews") by Muhammad Baqir b. Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi [Appeared in English in "Die Welt des Islams" 32 (1992).] (171-181); [Simon, Rachel :
Jewish-Muslim Relations in Libya in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (195-217); [Somekh, Sasson : The Image of Jews in Modern Arabic Literature
(235-245).]
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: The Jews of Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. xii, 245 pp.. An extract appeared in "Commentary" 77, 6 (June 1984) 44-54.

Examines the status of the Jews in the Islamic world from the early days of  Islam to the present. Challenges accepted stereotypes of the Muslim attitude to non-believers as one of either utopian tolerance and harmony or fanaticism and persecution. Theologically, Islam has never accorded equality to non-believers, but the status of dhimmi, second-class citizens, assures rights established in law. Focuses on the attitude of those in power towards Jews at different times and places, from persecution (which was rare) through humiliation to tolerance.
 

[Lewis, Bernard: The Judeo-Islamic Heritage. Pe`amim 20 (1984) 3-13.].

Defends the use of the concept "Judeo-Islamic heritage." Muslim practice in relation to the Jews varied widely in different periods and regions. Muslim society saw discrimination against non-believers as a positive value, but persecution was rare. Examines similarities between Judaism and Islam as well as points of difference which could lead to conflict.
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Juifs en terre d'Islam. Trans.: Jacqueline Carnaud. Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1986. 258 pp. Originally published as "The Jews of Islam" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984) - see the abstract in Vol. 1, no. 65.
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Gli ebrei nel mondo islamico. Trans.: Silvia Bemporad Servi. Firenze: Sansoni, 1991. 240 pp. Originally published as "The Jews of  Islam" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984).
 
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: De joden van de Islam = The Jews of Islam. Joden onder de Islam: Een cultuur in historisch perspectief = Jews under Islam: A Culture in Historical Perspective, ed. Julie-Marthe Cohen. Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum; Zwolle: Waanders, 1993. Pp. 25-49.

In Dutch and English. Based on a lecture delivered at Tel Aviv University in 1977, and published as a brochure by the Aranne School of History of  Tel Aviv University in 1978. Presents the views expressed later in his book "The Jews of Islam" (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
 

[Lewis, Bernard: The Jews of Islam. Trans.: Miriam Shaked. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1996. 184 pp.]. Originally published as "The Jews of Islam" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984).
 
 

Lewis, Rose G.: Christians and Jews. Midstream 32, 3 (Mar 1986) 25-28.

Discusses the position of Christians and Jews under Islam. Emphasizes that Islam is both a religious and political ideology and that the Middle East conflict has roots in religious disputes and lack of equality for non- Muslims in Islamic society. Adopts the arguments of Bat Ye'or as expressed in "Le Dhimmi" (see Vol. 1, no. 27). Islamic hostility towards Jews remains unchanged today and is used by fundamentalists who renew the call for "jihad."
 
 

Mueller-Serten, Gernot: Palaestinas feindliche Brueder. Duesseldorf: Econ- Verlag, 1984. 320 pp..

The religious, political, historical and psychological origins of the Arab- Jewish conflict in Palestine are discussed. Antisemitism and persecutions of the Jews are mentioned throughout the historical narrative, from antiquity to the present.
 
 

Parfitt, Tudor , ed.: Israel and Ishmael: Studies in Muslim-Jewish Relations. Richmond, England: Curzon, 2000 - S 2000 B 3601. xii, 249 pp.

Partial contents: Schulze, Kirsten E. : The Jews of Lebanon: A Minority among Many or the Enemy Within? [Concludes that Lebanon was different from
other Middle Eastern countries and did not persecute or discriminate against its Jews.] (86-104); Saadoun, Haim : The Effect of the Palestinian Issue on Muslim-Jewish Relations in the Arab World: The Case of Tunisia (1920-1939) (105-123); Abitbol, Michel : Jews and Arabs in Colonial North Africa (124-141); Parfitt, Tudor : "Dhimma" versus Protection in Nineteenth Century Morocco (142-166); Shivtiel, Avihai : The Image of the Jew in the Yemenite Proverb [Sample proverbs reflect antisemitic stereotypes, but others justify the conclusion that Yemenite attitudes toward Jews were ambiguous.] (167-174); Klein-Franke, Aviva : Collecting the "Djizya" (Poll-Tax) in the Yemen [Discusses this tax, including in the 20th century, when the Imam Yahya provided the protection of life and property that was promised in return.] (175-206); Parfitt, Tudor : The Jewish Image of the Imam: Paradox or Paradigm [Jewish affection for the Imam Yahya reflects the preference of the oppressed Jews, who magnified his acts of justice and overlooked daily persecution.] (207-225); Israeli, Raphael : Radical Islam and Israel [Discusses the islamization of the Arab- Israeli conflict; argues that the terms "Jews," "Zionism," and "Israel" all reflect Muslim fundamentalist antisemitic stereotypes.] (226-238). (
 
 

Patai, Raphael: The Seed of Abraham: Jews and Arabs in Contact and Conflict. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986. xv, 394 pp.

A psychological, historical, and anthropological study of Arab-Jewish relations since the rise of Islam. Having appropriated Abraham as their spiritual ancestor, the Muslims accused the Jews of falsifying his teachings. Muhammad abandoned Jewish practices and accused the Jews of unfaithfulness to God when they refused to convert. Under Islam the Jews were kept in a subordinate (dhimmi) status, viewed as weak and treated with contempt. Surveys Arab treatment of Jews in various periods and places - e.g. Spain, Iraq, Yemen, and Morocco. Ch. 9 (pp. 271-330) discusses the influence on Arabs of Israel's victories in war, and of Christian antisemitism, causing traditional contempt to turn to hatred. It was felt that only a sinister Jewish conspiracy could explain the Arab defeat.
 
 

Patai, Raphael: Jews in the House of Islam. Midstream 32, 3 (Mar 1986) 15- 20.

It is difficult to generalize regarding the position of Jews under Islamic rule, widespread both geographically and chronologically (over 1,300 years), and varying between toleration and persecution (e.g. the Jews of Yemen were persecuted most of the time). 19th-century historians viewed Oriental Jews as living in medieval misery, but after the Holocaust many admired the long- lived toleration of the Islamic world. Praises Bernard Lewis's analysis of the subject in "The Jews of Islam" (see Vol. 1, no. 65), in which he emphasizes the Western influence on the spread of antisemitism in the Muslim world.
 

[Peters, Joan: From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict over Palestine. Trans.: Aharon Amir. Tel-Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuhad, 1988. 512 pp.]. A 2nd Hebrew edition, with addition of indexes and a bibliography, appeared in 1990 (544 pp.). Originally published in English in New York: Harper and Row, 1984.
 
 
 

Peters, Joan: From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict over Palestine. New York: Harper and Row, 1984. x, 601 pp.

Refutes popular misconceptions and Arab propaganda claims regarding the Palestinian refugee problem, the status of the Jews in Arab lands, and the history of Palestine. Includes descriptions of the mistreatment of Jews under Arab rule, accusations of deliberate antisemitism on the part of British officials in concealing data on Arab immigration while excluding Jewish refugees from Nazism, and data on Arab collaboration with the Nazis. Describes Arab nationalism as an extension of traditional antagonism towards the Jews due to their refusal to accept their subordinate dhimmi role.
 

Pryce-Jones, David: The Closed Circle: An Interpretation of the Arabs. New York: Harper & Row, 1989. xii, 464 pp.

Pp. 184-221, "The Impact of Nazism," surveys the history of anti-Jewish Islamic prejudices and discriminatory practices, explained by the shame- honor dichotomy rather than religious persecution. In the course of the 19th century, European influence activated Muslim persecution of the Jews (including blood libel accusations). Examines the Arab-Jewish conflict in Palestine and the role of the Mufti of Jerusalem Amin al-Husaini, in developing the Arab pro-Nazi policy. Ch. 11 (pp. 280-313), "The Issue of  Palestine," focuses on the importance of antisemitic stereotypes in the Arab attitude toward the State of Israel.
 
 

Rejwan, Nissim: The Continuing Controversy. Midstream 32, 3 (Mar 1986) 20- 25.

Surveys recent literature on the Jews in Arab lands, taking issue particularly with the views of Bat Ye'or as expressed in her book "The Dhimmi" (1985). Also criticizes Bernard Lewis' "The Jews of Islam" (1984) for using the concepts of "Judaeo-Christian" and "Judaeo-Islamic" traditions, and over-emphasizing the status of Jews as the only minority in Christian countries as an explanation of Christian antisemitism.
 

[Rejwan, Nissim: Is There an Arabic Antisemitism?. Apirion 8 (Win 1987) 17- 21.].

Argues that antisemitism stems from Christianity, that there is no antisemitism in Islamic theology, and that the Jews were treated with tolerance by Muslims. If certain rulers persecuted Jews, this was due to personal aberrations, not religious ideology. Arab anti-Israeli sentiment today is a legitimate political stance and cannot be labelled "antisemitism. " Disputes Bernard Lewis' contention, in "Semites and Anti-Semites" (1986), that Arab anti-Zionism is a continuation of traditional antisemitism. Contends that Arabs do not differentiate between Zionism, Judaism, and Israel because the Zionists themselves confuse these terms, and that Arabs published antisemitic literature when they began to identify Zionism with Judaism, influenced by Israeli-Zionist ideology.  
 

Stillman, Norman Arthur: Traditional Islamic Attitudes toward Jews and Judaism. The Solomon Goldman Lectures: Perspectives in Jewish Learning, Vol. 4, ed. Nathaniel Stampfer. Chicago: Spertus College of Judaica Press, 1985. Pp. 75-84.

States that the image of the Jews in the Qur'an and in early Muslim hagiographies was decidedly derogatory, and a negative stereotype was created which persists in both literature and folklore. Discusses Muhammad's conflict with the Jews of Medina (emphasizing, however, that he never questioned the basic validity of the Jewish religion), and the dhimma status which, although it entailed legal and social disabilities, granted relative security and communal autonomy to Jews in Arab lands. Strong anti- Jewish attitudes surfaced in times of great social and economic stress, as they have in some Muslim countries in the present due to the Arab-Israeli conflict, in addition to non-traditional attitudes imported from Europe.
 
 

Stillman, Norman Arthur: Myth, Countermyth, and Distortion. Tikkun 6, 3 (May-June 1991) 60-64.

In response to Mark R. Cohen's article (in the same issue of "Tikkun"), argues that the hardline attitude of many Israeli Sephardim is not based on a "counter-myth" but on accurate historical memory. Contends that, though the period 800-1250 was the heyday of Jewish life in the Arab world, the following seven centuries saw a decline into intolerance and persecution. Analyzes how the Oriental Jews' ties with colonial powers and assimilation to Western culture in the 19th century demonstrated their unhappiness with their situation and alienated them further from the Muslims, who actively persecuted and attacked Jews and Christians in this period. Claims that the perceived threat of Arab nationalism pushed many Jews towards Zionism, noting that Jabotinsky's ideas were particularly popular amongst them as early as the 1920s. Argues that present Arab antisemitism is a modern European import starting from the 19th century.
 

General: Libya
 

Goldberg, Harvey E.: Jewish Life in Muslim Libya: Rivals and Relatives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. x, 181 pp.

Surveying the history of the Jewish Libyan community, contends that the ambiguous relationship of Jews and Muslims in Libya from 1711 to the 1940s is rooted in Islam, which sees the Jew either as a creature of the handiwork of the blessed, or as a non-believer to be humbled. This ambivalence was maintained by the Ottoman rule (1835-1911) which regarded the Jews and Muslims as separate and unequal communities. In contrast, during the Italian occupation (1911-43), Libyan nationalism grew, and the Jews were associated with Italy. Ch. 7 (pp. 97-122), "The Anti-Jewish Riots of 1945," contends that the 1945 riot against Tripoli's Jews (during the British occupation, 1943-45) may be viewed as an expression of the will to restore Muslim sovereignty, using the Jew as a representative of the hostile European rule.

General: Morocco

Ayache, Germain: La minorite juive dans le Maroc precolonial. Revue d'Etudes Palestiniennes 26 (Win 1988) 13-30.

Describes the settlement of Jews in Morocco and their inferior "dhimmi" status. The Jews did not suffer hatred as in Europe; cases of persecution were in fact considered abuse of the law. Quotes some 19th-century complaints regarding ill-treatment of Jews addressed to the Moroccan sultans and their responses in favor of the Jews. Muslim hostility to Jews appeared in the late 19th century, during the period of French and English competition for the protectorate over Morocco. Contends that at the beginning of the 20th century, France established a protectorate in Morocco with the aid of the Jews. After the war, some Jews helped to oust colonial power, and relations with Muslims improved. States, however, that the Zionist movement and the emigration of Moroccan Jews to Israel ended this symbiosis.
 
 

[Levy, Gabriel: The Jewish Community of Meknes on the Eve of the Protectorate. Diss. - Tel-Aviv University, 1987. [9], 8, 399, 12 pp.]

Relates the history of the Jewish community of Meknes, Morocco, from the 10th-19th centuries. Ch. 2 (pp. 69-102) discusses the legal status of the
Jews, the restrictions of the dhimmi status, and persecutions which occurred during various periods and issuing from various sources - the king,
the tribal rulers, and the local populace. Describes pogroms, including murder, looting, and burning of synagogues, particularly in the 12th
century and the 18th, mentioning also special clothing designated for the Jews and special taxation (see particularly pp. 79-92).
 
 

Ortega Pichardo, Manuel L.: Los hebreos en Marruecos. 4th ed. Malaga: Algazara, 1994. 346 pp. First published in Madrid, 1919 (2nd ed.: 1929; 3rd ed.: 1934).

Traces the history of the Jews in Morocco from ancient times to the beginning of the 20th century, discussing historical events, Jewish communal life, and cultural aspects. Also refers to persecution of Jews in Spain and Morocco, by the Visigoths and Almohads, and later by the Inquisition. Discusses the condition of the Jews in Spain and the effects of  the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. Pp. 137-152, "El hebreo y el musulman, " analyze the condition of the Jews in Morocco as dhimmis and Jewish-Muslim relations.

General: Spain
 

Goytisolo, Juan: Cristiani, ebrei, musulmani in Spagna. Il Ponte 42, 6 (Nov- Dec 1986) 149-159.

Criticizes the Spanish tendency to seek national roots among Iberian, Celtic, and Visigothic ancestors, excluding Jewish or Muslim influences. Hatred of non-Catholics led to persecutions, forced conversions, expulsions, and social and professional ostracism based on the statutes of "purity of  blood," weakening Spain in the fields of commerce and science. Warns against a similar trend in modern-day Israel of prejudice against Arabs.

General: Yemen

[Aharoni, Reuven: From Revelations Regarding the Religious Polemic between Jews and Muslims in Yemen. Le-rosh Yosef: Mehkarim be-hokhmat Yisrael, teshurat hokarah le-Rav Yosef Qafih [Le-rosh Yosef: Texts and Studies in Judaism, Dedicated to Rabbi Yosef Qafih], ed. Yosef Tobi. Jerusalem: "Afikim" for Spiritual and Social Regeneration, 1995. Pp. 395-408.].

Although Islamic teaching berates the Jews for not accepting Muhammad as a prophet and there was anti-Jewish legislation in the Islamic countries, most of the governments were tolerant of their Jewish minorities. However, in Yemen, from the 12th century, Muslim rulers humiliated the Jews and tried to force them to convert. The Jews were drawn into theological disputations, and then punished for being non-believers. Cites Jewish polemical writings against Islam from Yemen beginning in the 12th century.
 
 
 

Klein-Franke, Aviva: Zum Rechtsstatus der Juden im Jemen. Die Welt des Islams 37, 2 (July 1997) 178-222.

Deals with the legal status of Jews in Yemen from the time of Muhammad to the present. States that relations between Jews and Muslims in a Muslim country were determined by religious law. Discusses special taxes which had to be paid by all members of a minority group, including the Jews. The payment of the tax was the basis for the right of protection. From Muhammad's death until the middle of the 20th century the legal status of the "dhimmi" was influenced by changing developments: e.g. after the return of the Jews from the exile to Mawza (17th century) they had to live in special quarters; during the regime of Imam Yahya, during the first half of the 20th century, the Jews had a feeling of security.
 

[Korach, Amram: Sa`arat Teiman: A History of Yemenite Jews, Their Customs and Ancestral Traditions. 3rd, rev. ed. Ed.: Meir Korach. Jerusalem: no pub. , 1993. 32, 185 pp.]. First published in Jerusalem: Yihia A. Korach, 1954; the 2nd ed. appeared in 1987.

Korach (1871-1952), the last chief rabbi of Yemen, presents a survey of the history of the Jews of Yemen from 1546 (when Yemen was conquered by Turkey)
until the emigration of most of the Jews to Israel in 1950. Relates discrimination against Jews under Turkish rule in the early 17th century, and, from 1628, anti-Jewish legislation enforced by the Imams of the Zaida sect. In 1679 the synagogues were destroyed and the Jews were expelled, but they were allowed to return one year later due to economic considerations. The reconquest of Yemen by the Turks in 1872 was followed by additional anti-Jewish legislation and many Jews emigrated to Palestine and Egypt. After 1919 the Jews were again subject to laws imposed by the Imams, and in 1948 political strife engendered pogroms. The situation worsened after the establishment of Israel, and in 1949 there was a blood libel in San`a. In 1950 the Israeli government staged a rescue operation, during which almost all of the Jews were airlifted to Israel.
 

[Tobi, Yosef: Conversion to Islam among Yemenite Jews under Zaidi Rule: The Positions of Zaida Law, the Imam and Muslim Society. Pe`amim 42 (Win 1990)
105-126.].

The official policy of the Zaidi rulers in Yemen (897-1962) accorded with Islamic law that no one must be forced to adopt Islam. Zaida is the Shi`ite sect closest to Sunni orthodoxy. Although conversion was not forced upon the Jews (except for the singular Zaidi law that Jewish orphans must be raised as Muslims), certain Imams and Muslim society throughout the centuries applied various strategies of pressure to convert. Describes territorial restrictions - parts of the Arabian Peninsula were declared holy to Islam and no Jews could live there. Conversion to Islam could free any Jew accused of a crime. In times of famine, conversion assured the granting of food from storehouses open only to Muslims. Social pressure was the most successful means of conversion: enticement, especially of children and young girls; religious argument (if a Jew was caught denigrating Islam his protected status was annulled and he had to choose between conversion or death); and discriminatory legislation which grew more and more severe. Concludes that Jews in Yemen lived under constant pressure to convert and that many Jews in fact converted although Jewish sources tried to hide that fact.
 

THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
 

[Adang, Camilla: Ibn Hazm's Attitude towards the Jews. Pe`amim 61 (1994) 37- 48.].

Although Ibn Hazm (994-1064), the Spanish Muslim jurist and theologian, is sometimes regarded by scholars as having been an ardent antisemite, his vehement attacks against the Jews in his polemics were not much more offensive than the charges he vaunted against his Muslim opponents. Moreover, in his legal writings Ibn Hazm tolerated social contacts with Jews, as well as trade relations between Muslims and Jews. Ibn Hazm merely expected the Jews to acknowledge the legal status assigned to them by Islamic law.
 
 

Adang, Camilla: Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1996. 321 pp.

Examines the way in which the Jewish religion and its scriptures were viewed by Ibn Hazm (11th century) and eight of his predecessors, representing different genres of Islamic literature, in order to establish whether, in his writings against Judaism, Ibn Hazm was following a tradition or departing from one. Looks at three issues frequently debated between Muslims and Jews: the abrogation of the Law, the proofs of Muhammad's prophethood, and the alleged misinterpretation of the contents of the Bible by the Jews ("tahrif"). Ibn Hazm was the only one who used biblical quotations to demonstrate that the Torah and the other books of  the Bible were forgeries. Suggests that Ibn Hazm was highly influenced by the Karaites, to whom he owed many of his arguments against mainstream Judaism. Ibn Hazm's vituperative language has led some scholars to consider him a virtual antisemite. However, this assessment needs to be qualified: he attacked Christians just as vehemently as he did the Jews; his verbal abuse was a rhetorical device; and he did not discourage contacts between Muslims and dhimmis, especially with a view to converting the latter to Islam.
 
 

Adang, Camilla: Ibn Hazm de Cordoba sobre los judios en la sociedad islamica. Foro Hispanico 7 (Oct 1994) 15-23.

A brief summary of the theses presented in her book "Islam frente a Judaismo: La polemica de Ibn Hazm de Cordoba" (1994).
 
 

Adang, Camilla: Islam frente a Judaismo: La polemica de Ibn Hazm de Cordoba. Cordoba: Diputacion Provincial de Cordoba, Area de Cultura, ; Madrid: Aben
Ezra Ediciones, 1994. 152 pp.

Analyzes the anti-Jewish stance of the Muslim poet and theologian Ibn Hazm of Cordoba (994-1064) as reflected in his writings, e.g. "Kitab al-fisal" and especially "Al-Radd `ala Ibn al-Nagrila al-Yahudi, la `anahu Allah" ("La refutacion del judio Ibn al-Nagrila, a quien Dios maldiga"), a refutation of an anti-Quranic treatise allegedly written by Samuel (ha- Nagid) Ibn Nagrela. In this clearly political pamphlet, Ibn Hazm accuses the Jews of having falsified the Torah and he dismisses the Talmud and rabbinical literature as a collection of blasphemies and fairy tales. He fulminated against the privileges and high offices given to the perfidious and "stinking" Jews which is contrary to their "dhimmi" status. States, though, that Ibn Hazm was not an antisemite, since he also attacked other non-Muslims (e.g. Christians), and his criticism was religious and not ethnic (he called for conversion to Islam).
 
 

Bel Bravo, Maria Antonia: Los Reyes Catolicos y los judios andaluces (1474- 1492). Granada: Universidad de Granada, 1989. 262 pp.

A study of the causes and consequences of the expulsion of the Jews from Andalusia. Describes anti-Jewish persecutions, beginning with the sermons of Ferrant Martinez and Vicente Ferrer, and the forced conversions in 1391. The "Ordenamiento de Dona Catalina" (1412) imposed enclosure in ghettos, total segregation, and prohibition of specific professions and offices. On the other hand, Conversos were accepted by the king and nobles, and held high offices, but were hated by the lower classes, who did not distinguish between Jews and Conversos. An anti-Converso riot in Toledo in 1449 was followed by the institution of "limpieza de sangre" statutes, and later the new Inquisition was created. Recalls Almoravid and Almohad anti-Jewish persecution and the imposition of a yellow badge in Muslim Andalusia. Gives an overview of the period as reflected in contemporary Christian and Jewish chronicles. Includes an appendix of documents (pp. 227-259).  


[Ben-Sasson, Menahem: On the Identity of Forced Converts: A Study of Forced Conversion in the Almohad Period. Pe`amim 42 (Win 1990) 16-37.].

States that most historians have concentrated on the circumstances of the mass forced conversion of Jews during the Almohad period of rule in North Africa and southern Spain (1130-1269). This study, focusing on Morocco, examines why the conversion failed and the Jews all returned to Judaism at the end of this period (four generations later). They retained a very strong Jewish identity due to various factors: the social and economic frameworks of their existence remained the same, the community leaders encouraged secret observance of Judaism, and Muslim rulers enacted discriminatory legislation against the converts and their descendants, thereby assuring that they would remain an isolated and close-knit community. The Muslims were suspicious of the converts, and in fact treated them as Jews, as did the Jewish leaders of the time. Quotes from the works of the Jewish leaders Maimon ben Joseph and his son Maimonides, and Joseph Ibn Aknin.
 
 

Bouman, Johan: Der Koran und die Juden: Die Geschichte einer Tragoedie. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1990. 130 pp.

Relates efforts made by Muhammad to convert the Jews of Medina to Islam and  - after their refusal - the battles against different Jewish tribes and the confiscation of Jewish property. After the defeat of the Jewish tribe Aurayza, hundreds of Jews were executed, and their families taken prisoner and sold as slaves. Muhammad also made changes in the Qur'an, with passages inciting against the Jews. Texts describing the corruption of the Jews were later used by Hitler in "Mein Kampf".
 
 

Brinner, William M.: The Image of the Jew as "Other" in Medieval Arabic Texts. Israel Oriental Studies 14 (1994) 227-240.

In the Islamic realm, suspicion and occasional violence, though not entirely absent with regard to the Jews, were centered on the greater threat, the primary "Other," the Christian minority within the realm. The Muslim attitude toward Jews was one of constant ambivalence. This is reflected in Arabic literature of the 10th-15th centuries. Compares the generally negative view of the Jews found in literature based on the central religious texts of Islam, the Qur'an and the Hadith - especially the "Tales of the Prophets" ("Qisas al-anbiya'") - with the more positive view found in the "adab" literature ("literature of entertainment"), which was a truly humanistic literature in the early Abbasid period. Relates to stories and poems in which the Jews are described derogatorily - they are accused of being liars, scoffers, jealous of the Arabs or Muslims, and often identified with animals (dogs, swine, and especially apes).  
 

Cohen, Jeremy , ed.: From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 448 pp. The publication date given on the title-page is 1996.

A collection based on papers presented at a symposium held at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbuettel, October 1993. Partial contents: Landes, Richard : The Massacres of 1010: On the Origins of Popular Anti- Jewish Violence in Western Europe [A reexamination of the events based on written accounts by Ademar of Chabannes and Rodulfus Glaber, and the "Hebrew Anonymous of 4767".] (79-112); Linder, Amnon : Jews and Judaism in the Eyes of Christian Thinkers of the Middle Ages: The Destruction of Jerusalem in Medieval Christian Liturgy (113-123); Abulafia, Anna B. Sapir : Twelfth-Century Renaissance Theology and the Jews (125-139); Cohen, Jeremy : The Muslim Connection or, On the Changing Role of the Jew in High Medieval Theology [Appeared in Hebrew in the "Daniel Carpi Jubilee Volume" (1996).] (141-162); Lotter, Friedrich : The Position of the Jews in Early Cistercian Exegesis and Preaching (163-185); Chazan, Robert : Twelfth- Century Perceptions of the Jews: A Case Study of Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter the Venerable (187-201); Dahan, Gilbert : Juifs et judaisme dans la litterature quodlibetique [In France.] (221-245); Jordan, William Chester : Princely Identity and the Jews in Medieval France [Focuses on measures against the Jews adopted by two kings upon their accession to the throne - Philip II Augustus and Louis VIII (12th-13th c.), and the repudiation of his father's policies by Louis X (14th c.) upon his accession.] (257-273); Stow, Kenneth Richard : The Avignonese Papacy or, After the Expulsions (275-297); Romano, David : Penseurs chretiens catalans vis-a-vis des Juifs (299-336); Orfali Levi, Moises : Jews and Conversos in Fifteenth-Century Spain: Christian Apologia and Polemic (337-360); Foa, Anna : The Witch and the Jew: Two Alikes That Were Not the Same (361-374); Despres, Denise L.: Mary of the Eucharist: Cultic Anti-Judaism in Some Fourteenth-Century
English Devotional Manuscripts (375-401); Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia : Witchcraft, Magic, and the Jews in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany  (419-433).
 

[Cohen, Jeremy: The Eastern Connection: Muslim Factors in the Christian Anti-Jewish Polemics of the 12th Century. Daniel Carpi Jubilee Volume: A Collection of Studies in the History of the Jewish People Presented to Daniel Carpi upon His 70th Birthday by His Colleagues and Students. Tel- Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, Hayim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies, 1996. Pp. 59-72.].

Discusses anti-Jewish polemics of the 12th century, which were influenced by the rationalistic arguments of Anselm of Canterbury as well as the conflict between Christianity and Islam. Petrus Alfonsi, a Jew who converted to Christianity in 1106, was the first polemicist who attacked Islam, as well as Judaism, for its irrationality. Pierre le Venerable of  Cluny, in his arguments against Jews and Muslims, states that both are stubborn (due to their bestial mentality), prefer the physical over the spiritual, and are allies of the devil. After the decision for a second Crusade in 1146, he called for physical attacks on Jews; although they were protected by the Church, they posed a threat from within, no less than the Muslims. Bernard of Clairvaux, announcing the Crusade in 1146, warned against attacking Jews who he said would eventually be witnesses of the redemption and convert to Christianity. He also said that the violent Muslims should be destroyed, while the greedy Jews should be humiliated, but not killed.
 
 

Cohen, Mark R.: Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994. xxi, 280 pp.

A comparative investigation of medieval Islamic-Jewish and Christian-Jewish relations. Explains why these relations followed strikingly different courses in the Middle Ages. Islam's attitude toward Jews was much better than Christianity's due to several factors. For Christianity, its theological conflict with Judaism was a component of its religious self- definition, but not for Islam. Christian law regarding the Jews was inconsistent, and Jews were victims of rulers' arbitrariness, while Islam's treatment of the Jews followed Omar's Laws regarding dhimmis, which secured legal stability for the Jews. Jewish professions in Europe (trade, usury) antagonized non-Jews, while not only did the Arab East esteem trade and urban life but the spectrum of Jewish professions was broader there. The Jews were an integral part of Islamic society, while in Europe they were outsiders. Under both Islam and Christianity the Jews suffered persecutions, expulsions, etc., but under the Cross they were far more intense, which is attested to by contemporary Jewish literature. Rejects the "neo-lacrymose conception" of Jewish-Arab relations which developed after 1948.
 
 

Cohen, Mark R.: Somekh, Sasson: Interreligious Majalis in Early Fatimid Egypt. The Majlis: Interreligious Encounters in Medieval Islam, eds. Hava Lazarus-Yafeh et al. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz, 1999. Pp. 128-136.

Provides evidence of the existence and nature of an actual "majlis" (discussion of competing faiths) in the court of a high official, the former Jew Ibn Killis, who replicated the institution from the court of the Caliph al-Mu'izz. Christian-Arab sources about the majlis have an "anti- Jewish slant," but indicate that freedom of speech and non-recrimination against participants were the rule. A Muslim source depicts Ibn Killis's conversion and unfavorable views of Jews as genuine. Contains a citation from a Jewish scholar, whose work was found in the Geniza, which suggests that an Arabic translation of Hebrew prayers from Saadya Gaon's "Siddur" was ridiculed by Ibn Killis and other Muslims at the majlis. This offensive treatment of Judaism was described as having shocked the Jews present and perhaps providing the impetus for the response found in the Geniza. This response to the polemical insults stressed the superiority of Judaism and its prayers.
 

[Cohen, Mark R.: In the Shadow of the Crescent and the Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages. Trans.: Michal Sela. Haifa: University of Haifa Press, ; Lod: Zmora-Bitan, 2001. 408 pp.]. Originally published as "Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).
 
 
 

Doron, Aviva: Expresiones de tolerancia e intolerancia en la poesia hebrea en Espana. El Olivo 32 (July-Dec 1990) 207-218.

Analyzes the issues of tolerance and intolerance in the poems of Samuel ha- Nagid and Yehuda Halevi, both describing the relations between Jews and other peoples, usually on the background of war. Samuel ha-Nagid denounces the Moors' calumnies and instigations against a Jew serving as Grand Vizier: it is difficult to discern to what extent these were expressions of hatred against Jews in general, of personal animosity towards him, or ha-Nagid's own perceptions of this hostility. Yehuda Halevi echoes the impossibility for Muslims to accept a Jewish governor: the intolerance, based on religion and nationality, was expressed against the Jew and not the man.
 
 

Dumont, Simonne Bakchine: Monographie d'une communaute juive medievale du Sahara septentrional (XIVe et XVe siecles). Itinerari ebraico-cristiani: Societa, cultura, mito. Fasano, Italy: Schena Editore, 1987. Pp. 39-81.

Surveys the history of the community of Jews and Judaized Berbers settled in the Touat oasis, a crossroad on the Trans-Saharan commercial routes. During the 14th-15th centuries, they suffered from increasing Muslim religious intolerance. In 1492, after a failed attack on the Jews of Fez, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Karim Maghili, a religious fanatic from Tlemcen who held Jews responsible for the decadence of the Moroccan state, succeeded in inciting part of the population of Touat to massacre the Jews and destroy their synagogues, putting an end to the local Jewish community.
 
 

Fierro, Maribel: Ibn Hazm et le zindiq juif. Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Mediterranee 63-64 (1992) 81-89.

Discusses the refutation by Ibn Hazm (d. 1064) from Andalusia of a work written by an anonymous Jew (identified later as Samuel ha-Nagid) which shows contradictions and the inconsistency of the Qur'an. Ibn Hazm counterattacks by criticizing not only the contradictions of the Torah, but the influence and power of the Jews in Andalusia. Discusses the problem of  identification of a Jewish author (a recent hypothesis by G. Stroumsa says that a work written by a Jew could have been invented by Ibn Hazm to justify attacking the Jews) and sources used in the polemics opposing Ibn Hazm and his interlocutor. Concludes, however, that the arguments used by the Jew match arguments used by Muslims themselves, but are also compatible with the intellectual atmosphere in Andalusia in the 11th century. States that participation of a Jew in such a religious dispute was possible in this period and disagrees with Stroumsa's theory that the work against the Qur'an was invented by Ibn Hazm.
 
 

Firestone, Reuven: The Failure of a Jewish Program of Public Satire in the Squares of Medina. Judaism 46, 4 (Fall 1997) 439-452.

An allegation against Judaism found in traditional Islamic literature is that the Jews deliberately distorted their own Revelation. In particular, the Qur'an 4:46 accuses the Jews of manipulating the words of the Torah from the original "we hear and obey" to "we hear and disobey." Contends that this allegation has its origins in the public satire employed by the Jews of Medina against Muhammad and his followers. This satire resorted to a pun based on the similarity between Arabic and Hebrew. Other satiric puns were used by the Jews of Medina in their struggle against Muhammad that led to similar accusations against the Jews. The ultimate result of the Jewish public satire against the new religion was the alienation of the Medina Jews from other Medinans (ending with the murder of the former) and the fixation of a strong anti-Jewish image in Islamic tradition.
 
 

Garcia-Arenal, Mercedes: Rapports entre groupes dans la peninsule Iberique: La conversion des Juifs a l'islam (XIIe-XIIIe siecles). Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Mediterranee 63-64 (1992) 91-101.

Discusses the problem of conversion of Jews to Islam, partially due to deep acculturation, partially due to persecution. States that even in a society where the "dhimmi" felt safe and protected, real social integration could evolve only through conversion to Islam. Deals with the controversy regarding persecution of the Jews, which began ca. 1146 in the Almohad period, and asserts that in both Arab and Jewish sources there are not enough testimonies about persecutions.
 
 

Gil, Moshe: Dhimmi Donations and Foundations for Jerusalem. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 27, 2 (July 1984) 156-174.

Discusses and documents the fiscal oppression of the Jews of Jerusalem during the Muslim period, before the Crusades. The taxation of Jews in Jerusalem was harsher than elsewhere in the Muslim world.  
 

Griffith, Sidney H.: Jews and Muslims in Christian Syriac and Arabic Texts of the Ninth Century. Jewish History 3, 1 (Spr 1988) 65-94.

Examines how Christian apologetic treatises referred to Jews and Judaism in their anti-Muslim arguments in an effort to prove the reasonableness of  Christian doctrines. In arguments with Muslims, the Christians claimed Jewish support for verification of the Bible text, but insisted that Jewish interpretations and ideas were fallacious, and that some Islamic ideas are reducible to the discredited Judaism. Relating to the Muslim denial of  Jesus as the son of God, and of his crucifixion by the Jews, apologists attempted to single out elements of the Islamic view of Jesus that were in accord with Christian teachings and in opposition to the Jewish view.
Muslim opposition to the veneration of the cross was ascribed to adverse Jewish influence. The appeal to anti-Jewish prejudices of both Christians and Muslims was apparent in discussions regarding Muhammad and the Qur'an. Apologists argued that Muhammad was misguided by the Jews, and they ascribed responsibility for the rise of Islam to a concerted Jewish attack on Christianity.
 

[Grossman, Avraham: Martyrdom in the 11th and 12th Centuries: Between Ashkenaz and the Muslim World. Pe`amim 75 (Spr 1998) 27-46.].

Attributes the relatively small number of Jewish martyrs in the Muslim world as compared with Ashkenaz (Germany and northern France) to several factors which influenced the Jews' reactions to conversion demands. In general, the Jews were influenced both by their surroundings and by Jewish sources. While Christianity revered martyrdom, Islam was much more tolerant  towards converts. Judaism viewed Christianity as a pagan religion, and its culture as repulsive, while Islam was defined as a monotheistic religion, the culture of which appealed to many Jewish figures of the time. Ashkenazi Jewry followed aggadic sources, which did not condemn suicide as a reaction  to forced conversion, while Jews in the Muslim world followed halakhic sources which severely condemned suicide.
 

[Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava: The Contribution of a Jewish Convert from Morocco to the Muslim Polemic against the Jews and Judaism. Pe`amim 42 (Win 1990) 83-
90.].

Discusses a polemical anti-Jewish treatise written by a Jewish convert to Islam known as Abd al-Hakk al-Islami at the end of the 14th century in Morocco. The 40-page manuscript contains translations of and commentaries on verses from the Hebrew Bible which seem to refer to Muhammad. Although by no means a scholar, Abd al-Hakk knew more of the Bible than his Muslim contemporaries. Gives examples of his arguments against Judaism and states that he even went so far as to call the Jews idol-worshippers and demand the abrogation of the "dhimma" protective status for the Jews, but the Muslim world paid him no heed.
 
 

Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava: Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992. xiii, 178 pp.

Contrary to the Christians, the Muslims did not consider the Bible as a holy text, therefore their polemics against the Jews took the form of Bible criticism. The main arguments used by Muslim thinkers against Judaism was that the Jews falsified God's word, or failed to transmit it properly, or misinterpreted the Bible, or that the Bible had been abrogated by God. The most prominent Muslim writers who developed these themes in the medieval period were Ibn Hazm and the Jewish apostate Samau'al al-Maghribi in the West of the Arab world, and Ibn Qayyim al-Djawziyya in the East. The first two considered, in particular, that it was Ezra (`Uzayr) who deliberately distorted the text of the Bible. Contends that the Muslim critics of the Bible based their arguments greatly on pre-Islamic sources (such as pagan, gnostic, Christian, and anti-Christian writings), and that they, in turn, were the source of early modern European Bible criticism.
 
 

Lev, Yaacov: Persecutions and Conversion to Islam in Eleventh-Century Egypt. Asian and African Studies 22, 1-3 (Nov 1988) 73-91.

Examines the significance of conversions to Islam for the Islamization of medieval Egypt. Mass conversion occurred during the 11th century persecution of dhimmis in the reign of al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (996-1021). The persecutions reached a peak in 1012-13. Dhimmis (Christians and Jews) were forced to wear distinctive dress, expelled from their quarters, harassed by mobs, and their community life was threatened due to confiscation of their economic base, the "awqaf" (pious endowments). Synagogues were destroyed or converted to mosques. The cumulative effect was conversion to Islam, mainly in Cairo. The extent of Jewish conversion is not known. From 1020 on, there was a reversal of policy; dhimmis were permitted to return to their religion and permission was granted to rebuild churches and synagogues which had not been converted to mosques.
 
 

Marcus, Jacob Rader: The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315-1791. Rev. ed. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1999 - S 2000 B 2332.
xxxii, 570 pp. First published in Cincinnati: Sinai Press, 1938; reprinted in Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975, and in Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1990. This edition is provided with a new introduction and updated bibliography by Marc Saperstein.

Contains 137 documents that deal with individual Jews and Jewish communities, mainly from the time of Constantine the Great to the emancipation of the Jews by the French revolution (one document pertains to 189 CE). Pt. I (pp. 1-110), "The State and the Jew," contains decrees and laws from the Roman period to Frederick II of Prussia, regulating Jewish life in various countries; many of these regulations restricted Jewish life. Describes also persecutions of Jews during the Black Death, expulsions from Spain and Portugal, and difficulties experienced by Jews who settled in North America. Pt. II (pp. 111-206), "The Church and the Jew," contains Church decrees against Jews and against Christians' communication with them, documents on medieval anti-Jewish prejudices, and excerpts from anti-Jewish writings of St. Ambrose and Luther. Pp. 513-520 contain documents pertaining to the Chmielnicki massacres.
 

Martinez-Gros, Gabriel: Ibn Hazm contre les Juifs: Un bouc emissaire jusqu'au jugement dernier. Atalaya 5 (1994) 123-134. Unseen.
 
 

Orfali Levi, Moises: Maimonides ante el problema de las conversiones simuladas: Tolerancia y "Halaja". Sobre la vida y la obra de Maimonides: I Congreso Internacional (Cordoba, 1985), ed. Jesus Pelaez del Rosal. Cordoba: El Almendro, 1991. Pp. 375-393.

Analyzes Maimonides' position on the forced conversion of the Jews decreed by the fanatic Islamic Almohad regime in Morocco and Spain in 1146 under menace of death, later mitigated to expulsion. Those who refused to convert had to abandon their property and leave in a very short span of time. Maimonides, born in 1135, fled Cordoba with his family, finally settling in Egypt. In his writings, he advocated emigration (many Jews fled to Christian Spain and Provence), or false conversion on condition that the converts continue to observe whatever Jewish traditions they can in those circumstances.
 
 

Roth, Norman: Forgery and Abrogation of the Torah: A Theme in Muslim and Christian Polemic in Spain. American Academy for Jewish Research: Proceedings 54 (1987) 203-236.

The attacks on the Jewish religion found in the work of the Muslim theologian Ibn Hazm of Cordoba (994-1064) were based on a considerable knowledge of Jewish sources. His charge that the Jews forged the Torah served as the source of most subsequent Muslim polemics. Ibn Hazm also attacked rabbinical and mystical literature, which he believed to be Jewish doctrine, and argued against the Jewish claim that the Torah cannot be abrogated. Misunderstanding the role of the prophet in Judaism, he tried to prove that Moses was not superior to Muhammad. Argues that many explanations by Maimonides are in fact a defense of the Jewish religion designed to rebut these charges. The latest Jewish answer to Ibn Hazm was written by the 13th century Barcelona rabbi Solomon ben Adret. In a responsum he described a polemic he held with a Christian scholar, probably Ramon Marti, who raised similar issues.
 
 

Roth, Norman: Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994. 367 pp.

Ch. 1 (pp. 7-40), "The Jews in Visigothic Spain," relates that the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism took place in 587. Explains the intense antisemitism in Visigothic Christian Spain (up to the Muslim conquest in 711) - expressed in polemics, legislation, and forced conversion - as resulting from Byzantine Christian influence on the Visigoths. The attitude of the Eastern Church toward the Jews was much harsher than that of the Roman Church in this period. States that the Visigothic period produced the most vile polemic and the harshest legislation against Jews encountered at any time in medieval Europe. Stresses, though, that there was an almost total lack of impact of these attitudes and laws in later Christian Spain, which adopted a policy of  cooperation ("convivencia"). The rest of the book deals with the Jews in Muslim Spain, and Jews and Muslims in Christian Spain. They generally had normal, cordial relations during and after the period of Muslim rule, with some exceptions (the Almoravid and Almohad persecutions).
 
 

Santiago-Otero, Horacio , ed.: Dialogo filosofico-religioso entre cristianismo, judaismo e islamismo durante la edad media en la Peninsula Iberica. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1994. 507 pp. On title-page also: Actes du colloque international de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 23-26 juin 1991.

Partial contents: Barkai, Ron : Dialogo filosofico-religioso en el seno de las tres culturas ibericas [A French translation appeared in "Chretiens, musulmans et juifs dans l'Espagne medievale" (1994).] (1-27); Fierro, Maribel : El Islam andalusi del s. V/XI ante el Judaismo y el Cristianismo (53-98); Sidarus, Adel : Le "Livro da Corte Enperial" entre l'apologetique lullienne et l'expansion catalane au XIVe siecle (131-172); Colomer, Eusebi : La controversia islamo-judeo-cristiana en la obra apologetica de Ramon Marti (229-257); Dahan, Gilbert : L'usage de la "ratio" dans la polemique contre les Juifs, XIIe-XIVe siecles (289-308); Vinayo Gonzalez,  
Antonio : Polemica cristiano-judia en la ciudad de Leon durante el siglo XII (309-322); Adang, Camilla : Elements karaites dans la polemique antijudaiques d'Ibn Hazm (419-441).
 

[Schlossberg, Eliezer: The Attitude of Maimonides towards Islam. Pe`amim 42 (Win 1990) 38-60.].

Maimonides' attitude toward other religions was generally negative. He believed that Christians and Muslims hated and persecuted the Jews because of jealousy that God had given the Jews the Torah. Yet he praised both Christianity and Islam as harbingers of the Messiah in that they spread monotheistic religion throughout the world. Halakhically, he declared that Christians were idol-worshippers, while Muslims were not. But his philosophical-theoretical attitude towards Islam was much more negative than his attitude towards Christianity. Posits that this was due to his own experience of Islamic persecution in Spain. Describes the Almohad persecutions (massacres and mass conversions) and Maimonides' responses to Islamic polemical writings against Judaism.
 
 

Sharon, Moshe: What "Golden Age"?. Jewish Affairs 47, 2 (July 1992) 50-53.

Describes the flowering of Jewish spiritual and cultural life in medieval Spain. Contends that its chronology is based on a fundamental misconception which purports to show that Islam offered the Jews tolerance and almost full social and judicial equality whilst Christian Spain was intolerant. States that under both Christian and Muslim rule, there were times when the Jews were left alone and developed a rich communal life and there were times when they were persecuted and expelled. It should never be forgotten that the "Golden Age" arose largely in a hostile environment. Notes, though, that the Jews considered Christianity more dangerous and hostile than Islam.
 
 

Sklare, David: Responses to Islamic Polemics by Jewish Mutakallimun in the Tenth Century. The Majlis: Interreligious Encounters in Medieval Islam, eds. Hava Lazarus-Yafeh et al. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz, 1999. Pp. 137-161.

The milieu of 10th-century Baghdad, in contrast to that of Fatimid Egypt, was relatively tolerant and made possible the institution of free religious/ theological debate between Muslims and Jews. Despite the accepted view that Jews did not write books to refute Islam, two are known wholly or partially - those of the Karaite Yusuf al-Basir and of the Rabbanite Samuel ben Hofni. These intellectuals were very familiar with Muslim culture, as were many of their fellow Jews. One danger of the "majlis" polemics was that Jews would be persuaded by the Muslim "mutakallimun" (theologians) and convert. Thus, there was an internal, as well as external (defensive) function to the Jewish manuals of debate written by al-Basir and Samuel. The latter was more cautious, apparently out of concern for the vulnerable position of Jews in Islamic society, even in Baghdad. He attempted to counter the claim that Islam had abrogated the Torah. Al-Basir boldly attempted to introduce doubt about the inimitability of the Qur'an. Jewish familiarity with Islamic culture both posed a threat to Jewish identity and provided tools to respond to this threat.
 
 

Ward, Seth: A Fragment from an Unknown Work by al-Tabari on the Tradition "Expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula (and the Lands of  Islam)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 53, 3 (1990) 407-420.

Discusses the legal history of the dhimmis' right under Islamic law to live in Muslim lands. Analyzes the opinion of al-Tabari, a 9th-century jurist, that dhimmis may live in Muslim areas only as long as there is a need for them, otherwise they must be expelled. Notes that this was contrary to normative practice in most Islamic countries and generally the Jews were allowed to remain.
 

World Congress of Jewish Studies, 10th (1989): Proceedings. Division B: The History of the Jewish People. Vol. I-II. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1990. 612; 590 pp. In Hebrew, English, or Spanish.

Papers delivered at the congress held in Jerusalem, August 1989. Partial contents: Vol. I (in Hebrew): [Shtober, Shimon : The Monk Bahira, the Counselor of Muhammad, and the Jews: Between Polemic and Historiography (69- 76); [Albert, Bat-Sheva : Jews and Judaism in Carolingian Literature and Exegesis (77-84); [Grabois, Aryeh : "Jewish Usury": A Propaganda Tool for Antisemitism in 13th Century France (85-92); [Limor, Ora : The Epistle of Samuel of Morocco: A Polemic "Bestseller" [On a work attributed to the 14th- century Spanish Dominican friar Alfonso Buenhombre.] (93-100); [Meyuhas- Ginio, Alisa : "The Fortress of the Faith" at "the End of the West": Alonso de Espina and His Place in Medieval Polemical Literature (101-108); [Assis, Yom Tov : R. Hasdai Crescas' Plans for the Rehabilitation of Spanish Jewry after the 1391 Massacres (145-148). Vol. II (in English or Spanish): Lotter, Friedrich : Imperial versus Ecclesiastical Jewry Law in the High Middle Ages: Contradictions and Controversies Concerning the Conversion of  Jews and Their Serfs (53-60); Benin, Stephen D. : Matthew Paris and the Jews (61-68); Trautner-Kromann, Hanne : Jewish Criticism of the Morals and the Way of Life of the Christians in the Late Middle Ages (69-75); Santiago-Otero, Horacio : The "Libro Declarante": An Anonymous Work in the Anti-Jewish Polemic in Spain (77-82); Motis Dolader, Miguel Angel : The Disappearance of the Jewish Community of Daroca in the Beginning of the 15th Century (143-150); Edwards, John H. : Race and Religion in 15th and 16th Century Spain: The "Purity of Blood" Laws Revisited (159-166); Carrete Parrondo, Carlos : Los judaizantes de Ucles, 1490-1492 (167-174); Garcia Casar, Maria Fuencisla : Judios castellanos colaboradores con el Tribunal de la Inquisicion del distrito Cuenca-Siguenza (175-182).
 
 

THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD (1493-1788)

Badir, Magdy Gabriel: Race et nation au XVIIIe siecle: Etude comparative de la nation juive et arabe par Voltaire. History of European Ideas 15, 4-6 (Aug 1992) 709-715.

A paper delivered at a conference in Leuven, September 1990. Compares and comments on Voltaire's articles on Jews and Arabs in the "Dictionnaire philosophique" and in other writings. States that Voltaire denied any contribution of the Jews to the progress of humanity, attributing to Arabs all the virtues and underlining their importance for Western civilization, even centuries before Muhammad, and their superiority to Jews. Quotations from Voltaire's writings show this unusual contempt for the Jews. Concludes that his writings are an example of propaganda and satire on Western civilization and religion which are based on Judaism.
 

[Bornstein-Makovetski, Lea: Social Relations between Jews and Non-Jews in the Towns of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Miqqedem Umiyyam 6 (1995) 13-33.].

Discusses the relations between Jews and Muslims in daily life - in living quarters, economic and trade relations, social relations, sexual relations, attitudes of the Janissaries toward Jews, as well as conversions - as reflected in Jewish sources (chronicles and rabbinical responsa) and in accounts of Christian travellers from the West. In general, the limited social relations between Muslims and Jews, characterized mainly by a derogatory attitude toward Jews, were heavily affected by the
discriminatory attitude of the Muslim authorities reflected in the inferior legal and civil status imposed on the Jews as dhimmis. Everyday social relations between Jews and Christians were usually much more tense than the relations with Muslims since the Christians resented the seemingly much more tolerant attitude of the Muslim authorities toward Jews, but also because of the underlying religious antagonism between Christians and Jews.
 
 
 

Cohen, Amnon: Ritual Murder Accusations against the Jews during the Days of  Suleiman the Magnificent. Journal of Turkish Studies 10 (1986) 73-78.

Blood libel accusations against Jews in the Ottoman Empire are thought to have occurred only in the 19th century, due to European influences. However, some earlier cases are known. Gives the text and translation of a firman (decree) issued in Istanbul in 1544 by Suleiman the Magnificent condemning an attempt to blackmail Jews on the basis of a false ritual murder accusation. The Jews were also accused of insulting Islam. The Sultan reaffirmed the Jews' protected status and ordered that such cases were not to be considered in the future. The incident took place in an unspecified locality in the Arab-speaking lands, and reflects the influence of local Christian traditions.
 
 

Garcia-Arenal, Mercedes: Les "bildiyyin" de Fes, un groupe de neo-musulmans d'origine juive. Studia Islamica 66 (1987) 113-143.

Describes the status of Jewish converts to Islam in the Moroccan city of  Fez during the 16th-17th centuries on the basis of three unpublished manuscripts. The converts' sincerity was doubted and they were subjected to discriminatory measures, such as wearing special clothes reserved for Jews, a ban on owning slaves and on marrying Old Muslims. Fez was a traditional center of hostility toward Jews. A pogrom in 1276 resulted in many converts ("muhajrin" or "bildiyyin"). Others converted in 1438 to avoid transfer to the Sultan's new capital. As Muslims they claimed equal trading rights in the commercial Qaysariyya quarter, but they were accused of fraud and usury and expelled. Converted writers and jurists denounced discrimination against them and even claimed superiority over the Arabs as descendants of the Hebrew prophets. By the 18th century they had become the principal group in the power struggles of the city.
 

[Hacker, Joseph R.: The Payment of Djizya by Scholars in Palestine in the Sixteenth Century. Shalem: Studies in the History of the Jews in Eretz Israel 4 (1984) 63-117.].
 
 
 

Moreen, Vera Basch: The Problems of Conversion among Iranian Jews in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Iranian Studies 19, 3-4 (Sum-Fall 1986) 215-228. Appeared also in "Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions II: Papers Presented at the Institute for Islamic-Judaic Studies, University of Denver," eds. William M. Brinner, Stephen D. Ricks. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1989.

Examines conversion in Shi'ite Iran, where Jews were persecuted for political and religious reasons. Analysis of two Judeo-Persian chronicles of the period suggests that Jews converted for various reasons: out of conviction, for material benefit, and to avoid deportation, taxation, or further persecutions. Many became Crypto-Jews, hoping to return to Judaism when the regime changed. Describes the mass conversions of 1656-62, by order of Grand-Vizier Muhammad Beg, when the Jews faced martyrdom or deportation to desert areas if they refused to convert, and a case in Kushan, 1729-30, when Jews again resorted to conversion to avoid punitive taxation.
 
 

Moreen, Vera Basch: Salman-i Farisi and the Jews: An Anti-Jewish Shi'i Hadith from the Seventeenth Century?. Irano-Judaica II: Studies Relating to Jewish  Contacts with Persian Culture throughout the Ages, eds. Shaul Shaked, Amnon Netzer. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1990. Pp. 144-157.

Analyzes the story of "Salman-i Farisi and the Jews," supposedly written by Sultan Khalifa (d. 1653) in his "Guide for Viziers" as part of the Shi'i theological literature which contributed to anti-Jewish persecutions during the 17th-18th centuries. Salman-i Farisi, allegedly a Persian Jew who converted to Islam and was a companion of Muhammad, confronts a group of Jews in Arabia who test his faith and torture him to deny Muhammad, until they themselves, by a miracle, are killed. States that the story is in fact an apologetic work regarding Ali as the spiritual heir of Muhammad - an expression of the struggle between the Shi'i and Sunni traditions - and
that "Jew" is a substitute for "Sunni" in the veiled language of "underground" early Shi'i propaganda. Nevertheless, the story raises the image of the Jew in early Islam, depicted as cruel, ferocious, and stubbornly faithful to Judaism. The story is also witness to growing Shi'i intolerance and accusations of a Jewish propensity for magic in the 17th century. Pp. 152-157 contain an English translation of the story.
 

Moreen, Vera Basch: Iranian Jewry during the Afghan Invasion: The "Kitabi-i Sar Guzasht-i Kashan" of Babai b. Farhad - Text Edition and Commentary.
Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1990. x, 178 pp.

An edition of the 18th-century Judeo-Persian chronicle "The Book of Events in Kashan Concerning the Jews," giving the text in Judeo-Persian (Hebrew letters), Persian, and English translation. The book describes Jewish suffering in Iran, particularly in the town of Kashan, during the Afghan invasions (1722-30) and the circumstances leading to the conversion of the impoverished Jewish community of Kashan, for economic reasons (in the hope of a reprieve from taxation), to Shi'ite Islam in 1729-30. The community regained its religious freedom from the conquering Iranian ruler after a 7- month period of living as Crypto-Jews.
 
 

Moreen, Vera Basch: "Risala-yi Sawa`iq al-Yahud" ("The Treatise Lightning Bolts against the Jews") by Muhammad Baqir b. Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi (d. 1699). Die Welt des Islams 32, 2 (1992) 177-195.

Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi (1628-1699) was a well-known Iranian Shi`i theologian. Pp. 187-195 contain the Persian text and English translation of  his short and popular treatise which, despite the title, refers to all non- Muslims ("dhimmi," or infidels). The treatise lists obligations incumbent on non-Muslims, particularly payment of the special tax ("jizya"), and various discriminatory measures against them. All of these measures were intended to achieve their conversion to Islam. States that there were important local variations in the extent of anti-Jewish and anti-Christian persecutions in 17th-century Iran. Al-Majlisi's treatise endows local leaders with great latitude regarding the implementation of the prohibitions. Despite its sternness, the treatise is written in a fairly balanced tone; it avoids insulting language, and enjoins Muslims to refrain from deliberate disrespectful behavior toward "dhimmis."
 

[Ratzhaby, Yehuda: The Expulsion to the Desert. Et-Mol 9, 3 [53] (Jan 1984) 16-18.].

The Jews of Yemen were expelled to the desert region of Mawza by the Imam al-Mahdi in 1679-1680. The Imam was apparently inspired by Caliph Omar's  belief that there is no place for two religions in the Hejaz. Three-fourths of the Jews died before the death of the Imam ended the banishment.
 

[Sadan, Joseph: A Convert in the Service of Ottoman Muslim Scholars Writing a Polemic in the 15th-16th Centuries. Pe`amim 42 (Win 1990) 91-104.].

Describes an anti-Jewish polemical work found in the Suleimana Library in Istanbul, written at the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century and ascribed to the apostate Salam Abd al-Alam. The 21-page work contains eight passages from the Hebrew Bible (seven from the Book of Deuteronomy), with commentaries. Contends that the Bible quotations, riddled with errors and lacunae, were supplied by the apostate Abd al-Alam but that the exegesis was written by Muslim scholars who attributed the work to Abd al- Alam as a polemical device. Mentions the significance of the apostate as informant in anti-Jewish polemical writings.
 
 

Shell, Marc: Marranos (Pigs) or, From Coexistence to Toleration. Critical Inquiry 17, 2 (Win 1991) 306-335.

Describes religious toleration in Muslim Spain in contrast to the introduction of the "purity of blood" statutes in Christian Spain in 1449 which resulted in a nationalism of exclusion based on race and genealogy. The Christian doctrine "all men are brothers" turned into "only my brothers are men, all `others' are animals and may be treated as such." Discusses the bullfight, which became a national festival in the 16th century, as a symbol of this Spanish nationalist ideology. Examines the development of  religious toleration as a political philosophy in 17th-century England and Holland, as expressed by John Locke and Marrano thinkers like Isaac Cardoso and Spinoza. Rejects the claim made that antisemitism is the Jewish aspect of Christianity - religious intolerance deriving from particularism as
opposed to Christian universalism. Shows how the ancient Hebrew Commonwealth, with its particularism, encouraged tolerant coexistence, whereas Christian universalism can be reduced to barbarism when the "Other" is not regarded as a human being and his difference is not tolerated.  
 

Shell, Marc: Children of the Earth: Literature, Politics, and Nationhood. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. xiii, 353 pp.

Ch. 2 (pp. 24-40), "From Coexistence to Toleration, or Marranos (Pigs) in Spain," was published previously in "Critical Inquiry" 17 (Win 1991).
 

[Tobi, Yosef: The Attempts to Expel the Jews from Yemen in the 18th Century. Le-rosh Yosef: Mehkarim be-hokhmat Yisrael, teshurat hokarah le-Rav Yosef
Qafih [Le-rosh Yosef: Texts and Studies in Judaism, Dedicated to Rabbi Yosef Qafih], ed. Yosef Tobi. Jerusalem: "Afikim" for Spiritual and Social Regeneration, 1995. Pp. 459-474.].

In Yemen, the Jews were tolerated as a minority until the 15th century, when anti-Jewish legislation began. Religious leaders demanded expulsion of the Jews in 1679, 1725, and 1762 (the reason in 1725 was that Jews had sold wine to Muslims). However, for economic reasons, these were not carried out; instead, the Jews were repeatedly punished, e.g. by destruction of their synagogues. Concludes that even in a theocratic state, such as Yemen under Zaidi rulers, economic considerations were an important factor in determining political decisions.
 
 

Winter, Michael: Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule 1517-1798. London: Routledge, 1992. xv, 323.

Ch. 8 (pp. 199-224), "The `Dhimmis': Jews and Christians," dwells, inter alia, on restrictions and persecutions endured by the Jews of Egypt in this period. Besides common restrictions imposed on the Jews as "dhimmis" by Islamic law (e.g. special poll tax, special hat and shoes), mentions some specific ones: the Muslims in Cairo did not permit the Jews to bury their dead in daylight and blocked roads to the cemetery; there were bans on Jews hiring Muslim servants or owning slaves. Some of the excesses may be attributed not to antisemitism but to the intention to extort money, to economic competition, and to sociopolitical considerations. Stresses that 
the Muslim attitude toward the Jews was worse than toward Christians.
 

THE MODERN PERIOD (1789- ): GENERAL
 

Abicht, Ludo: Mensen in Israel en Palestina: Een maat en een gewicht. [People in Israel and Palestine: One Standard and One Weight]. Kapellen, Belgium: DNB-Pelckmans, ; Kampen, Netherlands: Kok, 1990. 141 pp.

Describes the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, based on source materials. Deals with the foundation of Israel in 1948 and the positions and anti-Zionist attitudes of Arabs, of Palestinians, and of the PLO. Ch. 2 (pp. 19-29), "Het modern antisemitisme sinds de Verlichting," discusses the development of antisemitism since the Enlightenment in various countries (e. g. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Russia, France) and the rise of  nationalism in these countries. Mentions recurring anti-Jewish stereotypes: Jews as a strange element in society, exploiters, capitalists, revolutionaries, controllers of the press, and sexually immoral. (2.4
 

Brown, Michael Gary , ed.: Approaches to Antisemitism: Context and Curriculum. New York: American Jewish Committee, ; Jerusalem: International Center for University Teaching of Jewish Civilization, 1994. ix, 330 pp.

A collection of papers based on a 1991 workshop on teaching about antisemitism organized by the International Center for the University Teaching of Jewish Civilization at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
Contents: Brown, Michael Gary : Introduction: The Contemporary Campus Setting (1-9); Bauer, Yehuda : In Search of a Definition of Antisemitism (10-23); Wisse, Ruth R. : Holocaust, or War against the Jews? (24-31); Chanes, Jerome A. : Antisemitism in the United States, 1993: A Contextual Analysis (32-45); Abella, Irving Martin : Antisemitism in Canada: New Perspectives on an Old Problem [Compares prewar and postwar antisemitism.] (46-56); Avni, Haim : Antisemitism in Argentina: The Dimensions of Danger [From the early 20th century to the present.] (57-77); Stern, Frank : The Revival of Antisemitism in United Germany: Historical Aspects and Methodological Considerations (78-94); Yadlin, Rivka : On the Significance of Textual Antisemitism in the Arab World [With a focus on Egypt.] (95-105); Golub, Jennifer L. : Antisemitism without Jews: The Case of Japan (106- 120); Marrus, Michael Robert : Good Scholarship and Good Teaching: Holocaust History as an Exemplary Model (121-133); Helmreich, William B. : The Sociological Study of Antisemitism in the United States (134-141); Kraut, Benny : The Possibilities and Limits of Intercultural Learning: A University Course on African-American/Jewish Relations [On a course taught at the University of Cincinnati in 1991. Abridged from the article which appeared in the "Cincinnati Judaica Review" 3 (1992).] (142-160); Moore, James F. : Teaching about Antisemitism in a Christian Setting [Focuses on the Christian background of antisemitism and how it affects students.] (161- 170); Iwanow, Nikolaj L. : Teaching about Antisemitism in a Polish University [Surveys contemporary antisemitism in Poland and gives a brief account of his own teaching about Jewish civilization at Wroclaw University .] (171-177); Gutman, Sanford J. : The Marginalization of Antisemitism in Multicultural Curricula [In the USA.] (178-192); Troper, Harold Martin : Ethnic Studies and the Classroom Discussion of Antisemitism [In the context of teaching Canadian history at the University of Toronto.] (193-203); Tatz, Colin : The Place of Antisemitism in the University Curriculum: A Political Scientist's View [In the context of teaching about racism.] (204- 207); Davies, Alan Trewartha : Antisemitism: A Study in the History of Ideas [On a course taught by the author at the University of Toronto, including the syllabus.] (208-217); Menkis, Richard : Jews and Christians from the Perspective of Religious Studies [On a course taught by the author at the University of British Columbia, including the syllabus.] (218-236); Bitton-Jackson, Livia Elvira : Myths and Negative Jewish Stereotypes: Teaching about Antisemitism from Literary Sources [On a projected course, with a focus on Christian sources; includes a syllabus.] (237-244); Rose, Paul Lawrence : Antisemitism and Antisemitisms: Some Historical Reflections (245-248); Cesarani, David : The Study of Antisemitism in Britain: Trends and Perspectives [On Anglo-Jewish historiography on antisemitism in Britain. ] (249-275); Shain, Milton : "All History Is Contemporary History": Antisemitism in South Africa [On recent historiography, especially on antisemitism in South Africa in the 1930s-40s.] (276-289); Polonsky, Antony B. : Antisemitism in Poland: The Current State of Historical Research (290-308); Weinberg, David : French Antisemitism: Recent Historiographical Trends (309-317); Dinnerstein, Leonard : The Historiography of American Antisemitism [Appeared in the "Immigration History Newsletter" 16 (1984).] (320-328).
 

[Davidson, Matti: Antisemitism and Holocaust: Diaspora Jewry from the Pogroms in Russia to the Shoah (1881-1945). Tel-Aviv: Mishlav - Mifaley
Tarbut Vechinuch, 1992. 122 pp.].

A textbook for high schools. Contains two sections: the first surveys the history of European Jewry from the end of the 19th century until World War I. Examines the causes of modern antisemitism and follows its development in Germany, France, Russia, and Poland. Describes the formation of the center of Jewish life in America and deals with Jewish communities in Islamic countries. The second section surveys the Holocaust period: deals with the fate of German Jews between 1933-39 and describes the events which led to the Final Solution and the annihilation of European Jewry. Includes a chapter on Jewish resistance and revolt.
 
 

Ferrand, Pierre: The Continued Impact of "The Protocols". Midstream 44, 2 (Feb-Mar 1998) 17-20.

The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" became popular in the aftermath of  World War I. It was used as a tool of war by forces fighting the Bolshevik regime in Russia and by German right-wingers (including the Kaiser in exile in Holland) to explain the loss of the Great War. Claims that the "Protocols" were refuted and marginalized in England, the USA, and Germany during the Weimar regime. In Germany the "Protocols" became part of official gospel after Hitler took power in 1933. In recent years, in the West, accusations of Jewish conspiracies have not spawned pogroms because antisemitic thugs have not received support from governments or
"respectable" public opinion. The situation is different in the Muslim world; there the "Protocols" have been sponsored by governments and supported by spiritual and intellectual leaders.
 
 

Finzi, Roberto: L'antisemitisme. Trans.: Genevieve Cattan. Firenze: Giunti - Casterman, 1997. 127 pp. Originally published as "L'antisemitismo: Dal pregiudizio contro gli ebrei ai campi di sterminio" (Firenze: Giunti - Casterman, 1997).
 
 

Finzi, Roberto: Anti-Semitism: A Century in Focus. Trans.: Maud Jackson. Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire: Windrush Press, 1999. 127 pp. Originally published as "L'antisemitismo: Dal pregiudizio contro gli ebrei ai campi di sterminio" (Firenze: Giunti - Casterman, 1997).
 
 
 

Finzi, Roberto: L'antisemitismo: Dal pregiudizio contro gli ebrei al campi di sterminio. Firenze: Giunti - Casterman, 1997. 127 pp.

A popular account of the most significant expressions of antisemitism in Europe and America from the mid-19th century to the present. Describes the Dreyfus Affair, and various pogroms in Europe. Explains the consequences of  antisemitic propaganda, using "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" as an example. Discusses the influence of the Russian Revolution on the growth of  antisemitic feelings in the U.S., Henry Ford's attitude toward the Jews, the development of Nazism in Germany and the Final Solution, neo-Nazism, and Arab nationalism. Asserts that modern antisemitism is based on a racist re-elaboration of the old religious stereotype of the Jew as deicide.
 
 

Glucksmann, Andre: Le XIe commandement. Paris: Flammarion, 1991. 347 pp.

A philosophical approach to the problem of Evil in 20th-century history. Discusses the dangers of religious fundamentalism, both Islamic and Christian, for both of which Evil is represented by Western civilization, the bourgeoisie, and the Jew and, as such, should be destroyed.
 
 

Indice - para el Analisis de Nuestro Tiempo 4 (July 1991).

This issue, entitled "Antisemitismo contemporaneo, tomo I," includes a debate (pp. 21-38) on contemporary antisemitism, especially in Argentina, mentioning anti-Zionism, the conspiracy theory, the scapegoat syndrome, and the influence of the Catholic Church. Presents documents (pp. 39-89) on anti-Jewish manifestations in Argentina (e.g. Alerta Nacional), on the "Zionism equals racism" UN resolution, and on the Nazi racial legislation. The section of articles contains the following: Herman, Simon N. : La reaccion de los judios frente al antisemitismo: Una formulacion para un analisis psico-sociologico [Appeared in English in "Present-Day Antisemitism" (1988).] (93-107); Volkov, Shulamit : Antisemitismo hoy en Occidente: Una evaluacion [Ibid.] (109-121); Lewis, Bernard : La guerra
contra los judios [From his book "Semites and Anti-Semites" (New York: W.W. Norton, 1986).] (123-175); Rabinovich, Itamar : El antisemitismo en el mundo musulman y arabe [Appeared in English in "Present-Day Antisemitism" (1988).] (177-196).
 
 

Klieman, Aaron S.: Klieman, Adrian L. , eds.: American Zionism: A Documentary History. Vol. 1-15. New York: Garland, 1990.

Contains reprints of documents (including letters, telegrams, excerpts from the Congressional Record, reports, and pamphlets) on American Jewish and Zionist history from the 19th century to 1968. In Vol. 1, "Cultivating an Awareness" (509 pp.), items 2, 14, and 27 relate to the persecution of Jews (e.g. the Damascus blood libel, the pogroms in Russia, and antisemitism in Europe and the Arab world), and Zionism as a solution. Vol. 8, "Mobilizing for the War Effort, 1940" (433 pp.) and Vol. 9, "A Jewish Commonwealth, 1942-1944" (410 pp.) cover the Holocaust period, emphasizing the urgency of establishing an independent Jewish state. Vol. 15, "Forging a New Relationship, 1948-1968" (886 pp.), includes document 41, "The Arab campaign against American Jews," published by the American Jewish Congress in 1956. Discusses Arab discrimination against boycott of American Jewish businesses, and anti-Jewish propaganda in the U.S. Document 47, "Calendar of Calamity: The Melancholy Record of State Department Policy in the Middle East," published by the Z.O.A. in 1956, is a chronology of State Department bias against Israel.
 
 
 

Lachmann, F.R.: Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion - was Juden dazu sagen. Juedischer Presse Dienst 1-3 (Apr 1987) 27-28.

Deals with the origins of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion," going back to Jewish conspiracy theories of the Middle Ages. Describes the production of the work, first published in the Russian newspaper "Znamia" (1903) and as a book in Moscow. "The Protocols" has been translated into many languages and used by antisemites such as Henry Ford in America, the Nazis in Germany, neo-Nazis in America, and most recently in Arab countries.
 
 

Loftus, John: Aarons, Mark: The Secret War against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
xii, 658 pp. Another edition appeared in 1994, with the designation on the cover "Advance uncorrected proofs" (639 pp.).

A study based on interviews with more than 500 former intelligence officers over a 12-year period, who were asked to tell about every hostile operation they had carried out against the Jews. States that since the 1920s the intelligence agencies of the USA and Great Britain have worked against Jews and Zionists to gain influence with the oil-rich (and antisemitic) Arabs, to protect the wealth of American and British investors in German enterprises, and to wage the Cold War. After World War II, the Israeli leadership, led by David Ben-Gurion, agreed not to pursue war criminals who had murdered Jews in the Holocaust, or American and British business interests which had illegal wartime dealings with the Germans, in return for help for the Zionist cause. Deals with the issue of Nazi war criminals who were granted asylum in the USA, and Western Middle East policies which clearly favored Arab interests. Concludes that although there are still many among the West's political, espionage, and business elites who are bigoted against the Jews, hungry for Arab profits, and devoted to anti- Israeli intrigue, steps taken in 1993-94 toward a lasting peace between the Jews and the Arabs mark a departure from the West's silent siege of the Jews over the past three-quarters of a century.
 
 

Luzzatto Voghera, Gadi: Antisemitismo. Milano: Editrice Bibliografica, 1997. 95 pp.

A popular introduction to the study of antisemitism. Relates to the origins and development of antisemitism in Europe. Focuses on the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in Italy. Reflects about the Shoah. Examines the state of antisemitism after World War II in Western Europe and in the communist countries. Discusses the latest forms of hostility against Jews, such as neo-Nazism, anti-Zionism, Holocaust denial, and the re-formulation by Islam of traditional antisemitic themes.
 
 

Neher-Bernheim, Renee: Le best-seller actuel de la litterature antisemite: Les Protocoles des Sages de Sion. Pardes 8 (1988) 154-177.

Traces the history of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," discussing its first edition in Russia in 1903 and its European, American, and Arab translations. Describes, also, the successful trial in Bern, Switzerland (1933-35) of five members of the Front National who distributed the "Protocols," instigated by the Jewish Community in order to prove that the text is a falsification. Immediately after World War II it seemed that the "career" of the book was finished. However, from the 1950s the book has appeared in many European and Arab countries, where its diffusion has the approval of some high level state representatives. Underlines the dangers of such propaganda.
 
 

Pipes, Daniel: Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where It Comes From. New York: Free Press, 1997 - S 98 B 1322. xiii, 258 pp.

"Conspiricism" - the belief that conspiring groups are bent on world domination - developed after the French Revolution in two main forms: one focused on secret societies, the other on Jews. Fears of Jewish vengeance for persecution is the main force behind such thought. "Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism," by the French ex-Jesuit Augustin de Barruel (1741-1820), claimed that Jews controlled the Jacobins of the French Revolution; the work was very influential over the years and had a direct influence on the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." Antisemitic conspiracy theories flourished as a result of the Russian Revolution (e.g. the myth of Judeo-Bolshevism), in the aftermath of the First World War (e.g. the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"), and in Nazi propaganda. In recent years antisemitic conspiracy theories have flourished more than antimasonic ones. In the contemporary Muslim world, the antisemitic conspiracy theory spreads from the Arab center outward and is based mainly on European models.
 
 

Poliakov, Leon: Vom Antizionismus zum Antisemitismus. Mit einem Vorwort von Detlev Claussen und einem Beitrag von Thomas Haury. Trans.: Franziska Sick,
Elfriede Mueller, Michael T. Koltan. Freiburg i.Br.: Ca ira, 1992. 159 pp. Originally published as "De l'antisionisme a l'antisemitisme" (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1969).

After tracing socialist attitudes toward Jews and Zionism from Marx to the October Revolution, focuses on events after 1917. Asserts that until 1936 there was no official antisemitism in the USSR and that there were only mild antisemitic undertones in the purge trials of the 1930s. Later years saw the suppression of the Jewish character of the Holocaust, the Slansky trial, the Doctors' Plot, and the secret plan for the evacuation of the Jews. After 1956, other ethnic groups were rehabilitated but not the Jews. Describes oppression of Jews and anti-Zionist propaganda in the USSR at the time of writing (late 1960s). Discusses anti-Zionism in the Arab states and refutes Arab claims that they are not antisemitic, pointing to the Islamic tradition of dhimma, supplemented by Western and communist propaganda of a Jewish-capitalist-imperialist world conspiracy. Discusses, also, antisemitism and anti-Zionism in the French Communist Party and amongst the Left as well as the Gaullists. Traces the antisemitic and anti-Zionist policy of the Polish regime, culminating in the purge of the Jews in 1968. The foreword by Detlev Claussen, "Versuch ueber den Antizionismus: Ein Rueckblick" (pp. 7-20), points to domestic political motives in Soviet anti- Zionism, and to the need to maintain moral superiority in the face of the Holocaust as a motive for the anti-Zionism of the West European Left. The essay by Thomas Haury, "Zur Logik des bundesdeutschen Antizionismus" (pp. 125-159), traces the history of the German New Left's attitude to the State of Israel, from blind support (in atonement for the Holocaust) until the 1960s to subsequent blind opposition in the context of an undifferentiated anti-imperialism. Points to structural parallels between anti-imperialism and traditional antisemitism: anti-imperialism sees mankind engaged in a struggle for domination between the forces of absolute good and absolute evil, just as did Nazi antisemitism. The New Left refuses to accept antisemitism and the Holocaust as legitimate reasons for Zionism, but accuses Israel of using Nazi methods to bring about a "Final Solution of
the Palestinian question."
 
 

Reinharz, Jehuda , ed.: Living with Antisemitism: Modern Jewish Responses. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England for Brandeis University Press, 1987. x, 498 pp. (Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry Series, 6).

Contents: Halpern, Ben : Reactions to Antisemitism in Modern Jewish History (3-15); Burns, Michael Thornton : Emancipation and Reaction: The Rural Exodus of Alsatian Jews, 1791-1848 (19-41); Frankel, Jonathan : Crisis as a Factor in Modern Jewish Politics, 1840 and 1881-82 (42-58); Endelman, Todd M. : Conversion as a Response to Antisemitism in Modern Jewish History (59-83); Cohen, Stuart A. : Anglo-Jewish Responses to Antisemitism: Suggestions for a Framework of Analysis (84-103); Paucker, Arnold : The Jewish Defense against Antisemitism in Germany, 1893-1933 (104- 132); Mendes-Flohr, Paul Robert : Martin Buber and the Metaphysicians of Contempt (133-164); Toury, Jacob : Defense Activities of the Oesterreichisch-Israelitische Union before 1914 (167-192); Wistrich, Robert Solomon : Social Democracy, the Jews, and Antisemitism in Fin-de- Siecle Vienna (193-209); Kieval, Hillel Joseph : Nationalism and Antisemitism: The Czech-Jewish Response (210-233); Vital, David : Nationalism, Political Action, and the Hostile Environment (234-252); Lambroza, Shlomo : Jewish Responses to Pogroms in Late Imperial Russia (253-274); Shmeruk, Chone : Responses to Antisemitism in Poland, 1912-1936: A Case Study of the Novels of Michal Bursztyn [Appeared in Hebrew in "Gal- Ed" 10 (1987).] (275-295); Mendelsohn, Ezra : Jewish Reactions to Antisemitism in Interwar East Central Europe (296-310); Cohen, Naomi Wiener : Friends in Court: An American-Jewish Response to Antisemitism (313- 332); Elkin, Judith Laikin : Antisemitism in Argentina: The Jewish Response (333-348); Stillman, Norman Arthur : The Response of the Jews of the Arab World to Antisemitism in the Modern Era (349-363); Kulka, Otto Dov : The Reactions of German Jewry to the National Socialist Regime: New Light on the Attitudes and Activities of the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland from 1938-39 to  1943 (367-379); Marrus, Michael Robert : Jewish Leadership and the Holocaust: The Case of France (380-396); Shapira, Anita : Did the Zionist Leadership Foresee the Holocaust? (397-412); Yahil, Leni : The Warsaw Underground Press: A Case Study in the Reaction to Antisemitism (413-442); Gutman, Yisrael : Jews and Poles in World War II (443-472).
 
 

Taguieff, Pierre-Andre , ed.: Les Protocoles des Sages de Sion. Vol. I-II. Paris: Berg International, 1992. 407; 816 pp.

Vol. 1 is a monograph by Taguieff, "Introduction a l'etude des `Protocoles': Un faux et ses usages dans le siecle." Vol. 2 includes the following studies: Charles, Pierre : Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" [First appeared in the "Nouvelle Revue Theologique" (Jan 1938).] (9-37); Sarfati, Georges Elia : La parole empoisonnee: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" et la vision policiere de l'Histoire (39-162); Moisan, Jean-Francois : Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" en Grande-Bretagne et aux U.S.A. (163-216); Pierrard, Pierre : L'entre-deux-guerres: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" et la denonciation du "peril judeo-maconnique" [From his book "Juifs
et catholiques francais" (1970).] (217-258); Birnbaum, Pierre : Les "Protocoles" dans l'imaginaire politique francais (261-278); Zawadzki, Paul : Usage des "Protocoles" et logiques de l'antisemitisme en Pologne (279-324); Harkabi, Yehoshafat : Les "Protocoles" dans l'antisemitisme arabe (325-340); Dieckhoff, Alain : Antisionisme et mythe de la conspiration juive mondiale (341-364); Neher-Bernheim, Renee : Le best- seller actuel de la litterature antisemite: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" [A revised version of the article published in "Pardes" 8 (1988).] (367-416); Poliakov, Leon : Causalite, demonologie et racisme: Retour a Levy-Bruhl? [Appeared in "L'Homme et la Societe" 55-58 (1980).] (417-456); Nora, Pierre : 1898: Le theme du complot et la definition de l'identite juive [Appeared in "Pour Leon Poliakov" (1981).] (457-471); Kruglanski, Arie W. : Schemas d'accusation et recherches sur l'attribution [First published in C.F. Graumann, S. Moscovici (eds.), "Changing Conceptions of  Conspiracy" (New York, 1987).] (475-497); Touati-Pavaux, Corinne : La seduction de la Conspiration: De la representation de la realite a la realite de la representation (499-536). Pp. 537-810 contain a selection of documents written by antisemites between 1919-87 promoting the Protocols.
 
 

Wisse, Ruth R.: The 20th Century's Most Successful Ideology. Commentary 91, 2 (Feb 1991) 31-35. Appeared in Hebrew in "Ha-Umma" 106 (1991-1992).

Contends that antisemitism has proven to be the most durable and successful ideology of the 20th century. Describes the political attraction of  antisemitism, particularly in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and more recently among the Arabs. States that antisemitism unleashes a unilateral energy of enmity which can only be dissipated if challenged with sufficient force. Jews grow weary contending with the relentless assault, but the weariness must be overcome. Suggests that the best way for Jews to combat antisemitism is to defend the Jewish particularity which is under attack rather than to foster universalist illusions.
 

[Wisse, Ruth R.: The 20th Century's Most Successful Ideology. Ha-Umma 106  (Win 1991-1992) 160-166.]. Translated from "Commentary" 91 (Feb 1991).
 
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1985. viii, 309 pp.

Argues that the annihilation of the Jewish people was the goal of the Nazi Party from 1919 on, and that antisemitism was the central core of Adolf  Hitler's creed and the main cause of the Second World War. Traces the origins of Hitler's apocalyptic war against the Jews to his background in pre-1914 Vienna. The Nazi themes have been picked up by Soviet, Arab and  Islamic antisemitism disguised as "anti-Zionism." The Soviet Union today "presents a no less powerful source of antisemitism than Hitler's Third Reich in the 1930s and 1940s."
 

[Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Hitler's Apocalypse, the Jews, and the Nazi Legacy. Gesher 114 (Sum 1986) 7-20.]. See, also, the author's book "Hitler's Apocalypse" (1985).

Argues that Hitler succeeded because he combined a messianic ideology of  war against the forces of darkness, represented by the Jews, with modern  totalitarian political methods. Although they exploited Christian anti- Judaism, the Nazis saw Christianity as a "Judaized" religion which had to be purified. States that racism is still an active force today. The Nazis' antisemitic heritage lives on - in the USSR, in Arab and Muslim states and areas of the Third World, and in anti-Zionism.
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Ideological Anti-Semitism in the 20th Century. Midstream 33, 4 (Apr 1987) 17-22.

Analyzes the characteristics of racist ideological antisemitism which was a late 19th-century response to modernity. Hitler's antisemitism added nothing essentially new, although it was radically extreme. The belief in "Jewish world-power" survived Nazism and now focuses on Israel and "world Zionism." Soviet propaganda claims that Zionism aspires to world domination  and to overthrow the communist system, and identifies Zionism with Nazism and racism. Islamic fundamentalism is mainly directed against Israel as a state, and reflects hostility to Western liberal civilization. All three ideologies identify the Jew with threatening forces of modernity and fear  their "subversive occult powers."
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Der antisemitische Wahn: Von Hitler bis zum Heiligen Krieg gegen Israel. Trans.: Karl Heinz Siber. Ismaning bei Muenchen, Hueber, 1987. 526 pp. Originally published as "Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1985).
 
 
 

Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Between Redemption and Perdition: Modern Antisemitism and Jewish Identity. London: Routledge, 1990. vii, 283 pp.

A collection of essays and lectures, most of them published previously and revised here. A number of essays deal with the emergence of the "Jewish question" in 19th-century Europe, the rise of modern antisemitism in 20th- century Central Europe, Nazi racist ideology, and cultural and political aspects of antisemitism and anti-Zionism in the postwar world. Partial contents: Karl Marx and the Enlightenment (9-16); Antisemitism as a Radical Ideology (31-42); Karl Lueger in Historical Perspective (43-54); Hitler and  National Socialism: The Austrian Connection (55-67); The Strange Case of Bruno Kreisky (107-120); The Fassbinder Controversy [Appeared in the "Jerusalem Quarterly" 50 (1989).] (121-129); French Socialism and the Dreyfus Affair (133-149); Zionism as a Jewish Revolution (181-191); Antisemitism and the Origins of Zionism (195-205); The Myth of the Jew in Contemporary France (206-213); Global Anti-Zionism in the 1980s (214-224);
The New War against the Jews (225-235); Under the Sign of "Glasnost" (236- 241); The Politics of Perdition (242-245); Soundings in the Gulf (246-253);
The Fundamentalist Challenge (254-264).
 

,

[Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Ideological Anti-Semitism in the 20th Century.  Nativ 2, 1 (Jan 1989) 47-53.]. Appeared in English in "Midstream" 33 (Apr 1987).
 
 
 
 

Yari, Pinhas: Les Protocoles des Sages de Sion en vente a Paris. Tribune Juive 958 (6-12 Feb 1987) 4-5.

Describes an edition of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" published in Kuwait and currently available in Paris bookshops. Traces the history of  the book and its use by the Nazis. Since World War II, the book has been  published in various Arab countries in French and in English.
 

[Zimmermann, Moshe: "Transfer" of Antisemitism. Gesher 132 (Win 1995-1996) 88-92.].

Rejects the view of Zionism as the answer to antisemitism, a view which has been propagated during the last hundred years by Zionist supporters and activists. Rejects, also, the constant warnings of burgeoning antisemitism voiced by these same persons, in order to bolster their worldview. Notes that antisemitism was not the main motivator of the Nazi murderers, antisemitism was not greater in Germany than in other countries before World War II, its use in politics has declined since the war, and we have entered a post-antisemitic period. In Russia, which is lagging behind in development, antisemitism is still used for political purposes. In most other countries, it is basically taboo; in the U.S. it is used only by the Black minority. Western societies have new scapegoats, such as the Turks in Germany or the Mexicans in the U.S. However, antisemitism is on the rise in Arab countries. Calls on the authorities to admit that Zionism and the existence of a Jewish state have actually increased the threat to Jews in Israel and in the Diaspora.
 

1789- : France

Birnbaum, Pierre: L'extreme droite, les Juifs et les Arabes. L'Histoire 162 (Jan 1993) 96-101.

Surveys the attitude of the French extreme-right to Arabs and Jews since the end of the 19th century. Points out that Drumont praised Arabs in opposition to Jews, and many other French rightists (e.g. Charles Maurras) were Arabophiles. Although opposed to Arab settlement in France (especially after the war in Algeria) both the extreme Right and Left praise Islamic nationalism in the rest of the world, which, together with French nationalists, fights the "Jewish international" and forms a French-Arab front against an Anglo-Saxon pro-Israeli front. The Gulf War of 1991 amplified the anti-Israeli and pro-Arab attitude.

1789- : Iran

Patai, Raphael: Jadid al-Islam: The Jewish "New Muslims" of Meshhed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997 - S 98 B 696. 325 pp.

A historical and anthropological study of the Converso community in Meshhed, Iran. Shiite Iran was always less tolerant toward the Jews than the Sunnite world. In the 17th-18th centuries the Iranian authorities more than once attempted to convert their Jewish subjects to Islam. In 1839 anti-Jewish riots erupted in Meshhed, in the wake of which ca. 150 Jewish families were converted. Their new status did not save the "Jadids" (i.e. converts) from persecutions - anti-Jadid riots, some of them accompanied by blood libels, took place in 1890-1902 and in the 1940s. The mobs firmly identified the converts with Jews. The events of 1839 and of 1892 (a blood libel case) found their reflection in the Jadids' folklore.

1789- : Iraq

Kedourie, Elie: The Break between Muslims and Jews in Iraq. Jews among Arabs, eds. Mark R. Cohen, Abraham L. Udovitch. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press,  1989. Pp. 21-63.

A paper presented at a conference held in Princeton, May 1986. Discusses the deterioration of Muslim-Jewish relations in Iraq from the Ottoman reform of the millet system to the exodus of Jews in 1950-51. The Arabs' association of Jews with the British colonial power, Pan-Arab nationalism, and Iraqi identification with the Palestinian cause intensified during the 1930s and came to a head in 1941, when the Mufti of Jerusalem supported an abortive coup, whose side-effects were pogroms in Basra and Baghdad. After World War II, the Jews suffered from occupational discrimination and persecution through the misuse of martial law. The government also saw the Jews as pawns, linking them to the Palestinian refugee problem. Thus, with the assistance of the underground Zionist movement, the vast majority chose to benefit from the law passed during Tawfiq al-Suwaidi's administration (in force in 1950-51) which encouraged Jews to give up their citizenship
and emigrate.
 

1789- : Islamic World

Lewis, Bernard: The Arab World Discovers Anti-Semitism. Commentary 81, 5 (May 1986) 30-34.

Traces the penetration of classical European antisemitic works, such as Rohling's "Der Talmudjude" and the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," into Arab intellectual life. Antisemitism in the traditional Christian form was introduced by the colonial powers and later strengthened by Nazi and Soviet propaganda as well as by modern nationalist doctrines and the Palestinian conflict.
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Semites and Anti-Semites. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986. 283 pp. Reprinted in 1999 (295 pp.), with a new afterword (pp. 260-272). Published in London as "Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice" (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986).

An analysis of antisemitism since 1945, focusing on the Arab-Israeli conflict and differentiating between political opposition to Israel and antisemitic anti-Zionism. Surveys modern Jewish history, including the origins of the terms "semites" and "antisemites," the rise of Zionism, and the Holocaust. Emphasizes that, before the rise of modern antisemitism, Muslims were not antisemitic but Jews were never accorded full rights and the Muslim stereotype of the Jew was a hostile one. Examines the influence of Nazi ideology on Arab nationalism. Political opposition to Zionism as European colonialism was influenced by antisemitic concepts of a Jewish- Bolshevik (later, American) conspiracy. Since the 1950s, a satanic stereotype of the Jew has become part of the Arab and Islamic world view. "For Christian antisemites, the Palestine problem is a pretext and an outlet for their hatred; for Muslim antisemites, it is the cause."
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: "Treibt sie ins Meer!" Die Geschichte des Antisemitismus. Trans.: Erwin Duncker. Frankfurt a.M.: Ullstein, 1987. 342 pp. Originally published as "Semites and Anti-Semites" (see the abstract above).
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Semites et antisemites. Trans.: Jacqueline Carnaud & Jacqueline Lahana. Paris: Fayard, 1987. 365 pp. Originally published as "Semites and Anti-Semites" (see the abstract in the preceding entry).
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Semiti e antisemiti: Indagine su un conflitto e su un pregiudizio. Trans.: Livia De Ruggiero. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1991. 293 pp. Originally published as "Semites and Anti-Semites" (New York: W.W. Norton, 1986).
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: The Decline and Fall of Islamic Jewry. Commentary 77, 6 (June 1984) 44-54. Adapted from his book "The Jews of Islam" (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984) - see the abstract in Vol. 1, no. 65.
 
 
 

Lewis, Bernard: Semitismo y antisemitismo. Trans.: Francisco G. Noriega. Mexico: Diana, 1991. 236 pp. Originally published as "Semites and Anti- Semites" (New York: W.W. Norton, 1986).
 
 
 

Pappe, Ilan: Understanding the Enemy: A Comparative Analysis of Palestinian Islamist and Nationalist Leaflets, 1920s-1980s. Muslim-Jewish Encounters: Intellectual Traditions and Modern Politics, eds. Ronald L. Nettler, Suha Taji-Farouki. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998. Pp. 87-107.

Addresses the question whether Muslim anti-zionism should be considered antisemitism. Since the first wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine, the Jews in Palestine (and, later, Israel) were seen by the Muslim leadership in the area as essentially a cultural (not religious) entity, imperialist in its nature and oppressive in its actions. Until the late 1920s Zionism was seen as part of Christian or missionary colonialism. Since 1967, and particularly in the 1980s, it was described in Palestinian  pamphlets as a neo-colonialist movement serving American interests. In the late 1980s the pamphlets of Palestinian secular (Unified National Command) and religious (Hamas) organizations remained essentially nationalistic, although Hamas writing provides a veneer of religious justification.
 
 

Sonn, Tamara: The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Movements and Issues in World Religions, eds. Charles Wei-hsun Fu, Gerhard E. Spiegler. New York:  Greenwood Press, 1987. Pp. 3-38.

A general view of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Observes that although Islam and Judaism are very similar in their stress on ethics, Arabs and Israelis are opposed for political and national reasons. On pp. 13-24, "Anti- Semitism and Zionism," contends that the roots of the conflict lie in antisemitism, and its response - Zionism. Traces the history of European antisemitism, and how the Jews became scapegoats for the crises in the industrialized countries at the end of the 19th century. Surveys briefly the history of Zionism and Arab nationalism, stating that the war between Israel, the PLO, and the Arab states will continue as long as the Palestinian problem remains unsolved due to Israel's intransigence.
 

1789- : Morocco

Kenbib, Mohammed: Juifs et musulmans au Maroc 1859-1948. Rabat: Universite Mohammed V, Publications de la Faculte des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines-
Rabat, 1994. xiii, 756 pp.

Surveys the historical origins of Muslim-Jewish relations from the establishment of the first Jewish communities in Morocco. Analyzes the repercussions of various periods of antisemitic turbulence, particularly from the beginning of the 19th century. Discusses the effects of various outbreaks of antisemitism, such as the "Safi Affair" (1863), when Jews were hanged as punishment for a murder based on circumstantial evidence. The international scandal which ensued, due to the mobilization of European and American Jews and the visit of Moses Montefiore, stimulated the Moroccan government to recognize the need for support by the West. Reflects on the changing status of Jews as "dhimmi," especially before and during the period of the protectorate (1902-1948). This could be characterized as further complicated by external influences, such as the Second World War, Muslim independence movements, and Zionism. Concludes that the growing emigration of Moroccan Jews to Israel and the West places the future of this community in doubt.
 
 

Nevins, Daniel: Cordial Enemies or Fickle Friends? Moroccan Jews and Their Muslim Neighbors. Mosaic 8 (Spr 1990) 19-30.

Summarizes conflicting interpretations by historians whether the realities of Jewish-Muslim relations in Morocco were harsh or harmonious. Mentions the demeaning dhimmi status and frequent pogroms in the 19th-20th centuries. Advances a symbiotic thesis that similar folk customs showed that a common spiritual ground existed between Jews and Muslims. Examines the "Ziara," a pilgrimage to tombs of saints where both Jew and Muslim are blessed, and the "Mimuna," a spring festival which involved a high degree of Muslim- Jewish interaction. Concludes that Jews in Morocco enjoyed normal social and economic relations with their neighbors despite occasional antisemitism.
 
 
 

Serels, Mark Mitchell: A History of the Jews of Tangier in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Sepher-Hermon, 1991. 326 pp. Based on the author's diss. - New York University, 1990.

The almost two-centuries-long history of the Jews of Tangier was not without antisemitic incidents. Pp. 7-10 narrate the fate of a 17-year-old Jewish girl, Sol Hachuel, who refused to convert to Islam and was executed in 1834. Pp. 27-29 describe humiliations suffered by some Jews from both Moroccan and Spanish authorities in 1863. Pp. 148-151 discuss reactions to the Nazi takeover in Germany. Tangier accepted about 3,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Italy before 1940; from July 1940 until the end of the war, when the city was under Spanish control, not a single Jew was admitted. Describes, also, the precarious existence of the postwar Jewish community under Moroccan rule, in particular the reaction of the Muslim population to the Six-Day War.
 
 

Serels, Mark Mitchell: Los judios de Tanger en los siglos XIX y XX. Caracas: Asociacion Israelita de Venezuela; Centro de Estudios Sefardies de Caracas, 1996. 419 pp. Originally published as "A History of the Jews of Tangier in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" (New York: Sepher-Hermon, 1991).
 

1789- : Turkey

[Landau, Jacob M.: Anti-Semitism in Modern Turkey. World Congress of Jewish Studies, 9th (1985): Proceedings. Division B2. Jerusalem: World Union of  Jewish Studies, 1986. Pp. 77-82.].

Traces Turkish antisemitism from the xenophobia of the late 19th century, due to fears of economic competition and increasing nationalism. In the 1930s-40s, the depression and Nazi propaganda led to an increase in antisemitic attacks (e.g. the Jews of Thrace were attacked and forced to flee in 1934, no Jewish refugees were admitted to Turkey, a punitive property tax was imposed in 1942). Jews were accused of disloyalty, of  supporting communism and, later on, of loyalty to Israel. In the 1950s-70s, religious fundamentalists continued to attack Jews as unbelievers and pro- Zionists, but under the military government of the 1980s extreme nationalist and fundamentalist groups were suppressed.

1789- : USA

Forster, Arnold: Square One: A Memoir. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1988. 423 pp.

Memoirs of the former general counsel and associate national director of the Anti-Defamation League, focusing on his lifelong struggle against antisemitism before and after World War II. Deals with prewar bigotry and Father Coughlin, the America First movement, the Ku Klux Klan, the activities of the ADL against racism and antisemitism, the anti-Jewish element of the anti-communist campaign in the U.S., the Eichmann trial (Forster served as a radio reporter from Jerusalem), the Arab boycott against Israel, anti-Zionism as the "new" antisemitism, U.N. discrimination against Israel. Concludes that since the 1930s there has been a significant decrease in American antisemitism in terms of social discrimination and organized bigotry, but anti-Jewish attitudes are still disturbingly prevalent.
 
 

Sarna, Jonathan Daniel: The American Jewish Experience and the Emergence of  the Muslim Community in America. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 9, 3 (Fall 1992) 370-382.

Discusses the current "restructuring of American religion" towards the inclusion of Islam and other minority faiths into the American religious mainstream. States that the traditional idea of Christian (i.e. Protestant) America which evolved in the 1930s into the concept of the Judeo-Christian (i.e. Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish) nation, giving equal footing and recognition to Jews after a long exclusion, is now questioned and perceived as exclusivist by the U.S. Muslim community. From a Jewish perspective, the inclusion of the Muslim community, hostile to Israel, into the American religious consensus would mean a loss of status and public attention and a decline of Jewish political power, while active Muslim hostility would diminish aid to Israel, strengthen the pro-Palestinian lobby, and render interfaith dialogue more difficult.
 

1789- : Yemen

Parfitt, Tudor: The Road to Redemption: The Jews of the Yemen 1900-1950. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1996. x, 299 pp.

Yemen was ruled in the 20th century by imams from the extremist Zaidi Muslim sect. The Jews suffered from legal restrictions and persecutions. In 1910 the victorious Imam Yahya reinstated the "sharia" as the legal code in place of the Turkish civil code, and promulgated the law which imposed on the Jews the status of dhimmi in its most rigid form. In 1922, the reintroduction of forced conversion of Jewish orphans to Islam initiated a Jewish campaign to smuggle many of them to Aden. In the same year, the Imam Yahya virtually banned Jewish emigration from Yemen. Popular hatred of Jews was intense. The UN decision on the partition of Palestine in 1947 engendered a blood libel in San`a and anti-Jewish riots (aggravated by a civil war in Yemen), as well as pogroms in neighboring Aden and Shaykh Othman in which ca. 100 Jews were murdered. In 1948-50 most of the Jews left Yemen.
 

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