1945-


1945- : General

Charme, Stuart Zane: Sartre's Images of the Other and the Search for Authenticity. Human Studies 14, 4 (Oct 1991) 251-264.

Analyzes Jean-Paul Sartre's identification with marginal groups: Jews, women, homosexuals, and Blacks. Sartre contends that man's need to rise above physical nature and impose civilization upon it is fraught with the danger of losing one's authenticity. Qualities possessed by "Others" can teach the individual a more courageous way of life and even offer the collective a new form of social existence. For example, Sartre reverses the antisemitic perception of the Jews' "vulgarity." Rather, it implies freshness, spontaneity, warmth and the like, attributes lacking in mainstream, bourgeois, Christian society. Sartre also identifies with the Jews' bookishness, resulting from their exclusion from the land, and their rootlessness which he sees as a symbol for a universal kind of homelessness.

Neo-Nazism and Holocaust Denial

Haupt, Peter I.: A Universe of Lies: Holocaust Revisionism and the Myth of a Jewish World-Conspiracy. Patterns of Prejudice 25, 1 (Sum 1991) 75-85.

Analyzes Arthur R. Butz's "The Hoax of the Twentieth Century" (1976), which contends that the numbers of those killed in the Holocaust are unreliable since both pre- and postwar statistics were supplied by Jews and communists. Similarly, he claims that extermination camps were only work camps and that postwar tribunals (e.g. the Nuremberg Tribunal) are unreliable since they were part of an Allied propaganda campaign. Butz contends that the Allies were manipulated into disseminating the Holocaust myth in 1944 due to Zionist attempts to establish the State of Israel, and that the Jews continued to benefit from this myth. Haupt states that despite differences between "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and Holocaust revisionism, they both see totalitarianism, with its "universe of lies" as the ultimate threat, and they hold the Jews responsible. However, revisionists feel they must prove that the Holocaust never happened, not only to demonstrate Jewish power, but to deny Jewish impotence (i.e. that they were victims of the Final Solution).

Lipstadt, Deborah Esther: Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. New York: Free Press, 1993. ix, 278 pp. On back of title-page: A research project of The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

A detailed analysis of the phenomenon of Holocaust denial, which originated in the myth of the Jewish conspiracy and radical anti-Jewish propaganda. Examines the activities and writings of Holocaust deniers in France (P. Rassinier, R. Faurisson), in the USA (H.E. Barnes, D.L. Hoggan, A.J. App, A. Butz, W.A. Carto, F. Leuchter), and in Great Britain (R.E. Harwood, D. Irving). Focuses on the propagandistic use of Holocaust denial by radical right and neo-Nazi groups, the activities of the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), and the penetration of Holocaust denial propaganda in American campuses. Describes the trials of Ernst Zundel in Canada, and the Mermelstein suit against the IHR. Mentions relativization of the Holocaust in the "historians' debate" in Germany. An appendix (pp. 223-235) deals with Holocaust deniers' allegations regarding the use of Zyklon B in Auschwitz, and the authenticity of the diary of Anne Frank.

Anti-Zionism and Anti-Israel


Manor, Yohanan: Contemporary Anti-Zionism. Encyclopaedia Judaica Year Book 1983-1985 (1985) 128-137.

Examines the increase in intensity and virulence of attacks against Zionism since 1948, and especially after the adoption of UN Resolution 3379 in 1975. Zionists and Jews are presented more and more not as adversaries or agents of enemies, but rather as the embodiment of evil. Resolution 3379 institutionalized anti-Zionism, turning it into a global issue, and provided a quasi-legal framework for political groups to relate to Zionism. Discusses three elements in the negative attitudes towards Zionism: delegitimation, dehumanization, and demonization, and describes the role of the UN, the USSR, and Arab and Third World countries in spreading propaganda to promote the negative image of Zionism and the Jewish people.

Wistrich, Robert Solomon, ed.: Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism in the Contemporary World. London: Macmillan, in association with the Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1990. x, 213 pp.

Contents: Part I: "Communist and Left Anti-Zionism": Gitelman, Zvi: The Evolution of Soviet Anti-Zionism: From Principle to Pragmatism (11-25); Friedgut, Theodore H.: Soviet Anti-Zionism: Origins, Forms and Development (26-45); Wistrich, Robert Solomon: Left-Wing Anti-Zionism in Western Societies [First appeared in "Antisemitism in the Contemporary World" (1986).] (46-52); Cesarani, David: The "Perdition" Affair [A shorter version appeared in "Jewish Quarterly" 34 (1987).] (53-60). Part II: "Muslim, Arab and Third World Anti- Zionism": Nettler, Ronald L.: Islamic Archetypes of the Jews: Then and Now (63-73); Sivan, Emmanuel: Islamic Fundamentalism, Antisemitism and Anti- Zionism [First appeared in "Antisemitism in the Contemporary World" (1986).] (74-84); Rubin, Barry: The Non-Arab Third World and Antisemitism (85-92); Lerner, Natan: Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism in Latin America (93-101); Israeli, Raphael: Anti-Jewish Attitudes in the Arabic Media, 1975-1981 (102-120); Lerman, Antony: Fictive Anti-Zionism: Third World, Arab and Muslim Variations (121-138). Part III: "Western Anti-Zionism": Solomon, Norman: The Christian Churches on Israel and the Jews (141-154); Raab, Earl: American Blacks and Israel (155-170); Avineri, Shlomo: Western Anti-Zionism: The Middle Ground (171-177); Gould, Julius: Impugning Israel's Legitimacy: Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism [First appeared in "Survey of Jewish Affairs" 2 (1985).] (178-194); Bauer, Yehuda: Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism: New and Old (195-213).


Christian-Jewish Relations
Di Porto, Bruno: Ebrei e cristiani a 40 anni da Seelisberg. Amicizia ebraico- cristiana di Firenze: Bollettino 24, 3-4 (July-Dec 1988) 3-7. A lecture delivered at a conference in Florence, April 1988. Commends the Christian-Jewish dialogue initiated at Seelisberg (1948) where Jacques Maritain said that antisemitism is anti-Christian and that the Jews are not to blame for having killed Jesus but for having given him to the world. States that excessive attention is concentrated on the Jews and Israel and that the Palestinian issue is unilaterally exaggerated without regard to the hostility of the Arabs who demonize Judaism under the guise of anti-Zionism. Mentions recent Catholic anti-Jewish polemics in the periodical "Il Sabato" and Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's claims to the supersession of Judaism by Christianity.

Neusner, Jacob: A Different Kind of Judaeo-Christian Dialogue. Jewish Spectator 56, 3 (Win 1991-1992) 34-38.

States that the dialogue has foundered because each side finds it difficult to address the most deeply-held convictions of the other - Christianity's conception of Jesus Christ as God Incarnate and Judaism's conception of "Israel, " God's people. Contends that dialogue must be based on understanding of the other religion within one's own terms, seeking in the religious experience of the other "that which we, within our own world, can identify." Attempts to explain to Christians, in Judaic terms, what "Israel" stands for. Shows that just as Christ is seen to be the antidote to Adam, the life of Israel in the land of Israel is Judaism's counterpoint to Adam's life in the Garden of Eden. For Christians, Christ stands for the suffering servant of Isaiah, whereas for Jews that passage (Is. 54) is relating to the Holocaust. The fusion of the ethnic, the religious, the cultural, and the political in Israel's identity presents woeful confusion to Christians. When Judaic participants to dialogue raise the question of Christian hostility to the State of Israel and Zionism, the Christians find difficult the intrusion of a political question into a religious dialogue. Christianity finds the notion of a Jewish state somehow egregious; the advent of the State of Israel called into question theological convictions of many centuries. Concludes with the belief that Christians can find sympathy for the Jewish story and engage in dialogue with Judaism as it is, and not with a fabrication of Christianity.


1945- : Australia and New Zealand
Rubinstein, William David: Attitudes and Opinions towards Australian Jews and Jewish Affairs: Detailed Report on the McNair Anderson Survey of March 1984, Commissioned by the Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs. Australian Institute of Jewish Affairs: AIJA Research Report 2 (Nov 1986) 52 pp.

Presents results of the poll ("the most comprehensive measurement to date of Australian public opinion relating to Jews, Israel and the tensions in the Middle East") in which 2112 men and women aged 13 and over were interviewed. Discusses issues such as the antisemitic League of Rights, left-wing anti- Zionism, antisemitic stereotypes, the influence of the Church (decreasing constantly), actual knowledge among the Australian public of Jewish affairs, and Jewish fears. Concludes that while there is very little antisemitism in Australia, there is a great deal of ignorance about Jews and Jewish affairs.


1945- : Europe
General
Benz, Wolfgang: Tradierte und wiederentdeckte Vorurteile im neuen Europa: Antisemitismus, Fremdenhass, Diskriminierung von Minderheiten. Zeitschrift fuer Geschichtswissenschaft 41, 6 (1993) 485-493.

The opening lecture at the Conference on Antisemitism in Europe, Berlin, September 1992. Surveys the persistence of antisemitism in most parts of the world, even in countries like Japan with practically no Jews. Notes that the percentage of Germans expressing antisemitic prejudice in opinion polls is not much higher than that of Frenchmen or Englishmen and has been declining over the generations, but it is still disturbing. German antisemites cling to all the old stereotypes, reinforced by shame and guilt over the Holocaust. In Eastern Europe, especially in Poland, and in the successor states of the former Soviet Union, antisemitic propaganda is openly propagated by nationalist groups; and antisemitic views, including Holocaust denial, are held by large segments of the population. Suggests that theories of Jewish conspiracy provide a simple explanation of economic and social distress, and that the image of the Jew as the enemy serves to strengthen national identity.

Molinari, Maurizio, ed.: Razzismo, xenofobia, antisemitismo in Europa. Nuova Antologia 2186 (Apr-June 1993) 5-24.

A collection of seven interviews and articles on the danger of the revival of xenophobia, ethnic hate, and antisemitism in contemporary Europe. Norberto Bobbio states that expressions of racism are inevitable in contact with an immigrant minority, but they need not be discriminatory or violent. He observes that antisemitism is ever-present even where there are no Jews, in "scapegoat" and "Jewish conspiracy" versions. Marek Halter denounces historical revisionism, flourishing now as memory of the Holocaust fades, as an attempt to deny the rights and dignity acquired by Jews after the Holocaust. He rejects Ernst Nolte's relativization of mass murder and calls for reinforced remembering of the tragedy.


Austria
Herzog, Herta: The Jews as "Others": On Communicative Aspects of Antisemitism: A Pilot Study in Austria. Jerusalem: Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University, 1994. 30 pp. (Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism, 4).

The study, based on eighty test interviews, describes the present grass-roots image of Jews, the perception of Jewish "otherness" by the average Austrian, and the spread of old and new antisemitism stereotypes. The findings point to the conclusion that the image of Jews held by older Austrians has been passed on to the younger generation. The contemporary image contains a marked religious component, but without reference to deicide or ritual murder accusations. There were no specific questions concerning the Holocaust, but the topic arose spontaneously, revealing the common tendency for denying responsibility, and accusing Jews of being unwilling to let go of the past.

Wodak, Ruth: The Waldheim Affair and Antisemitic Prejudice in Austrian Public Discourse. Patterns of Prejudice 24, 2-4 (Win 1990) 18-33.

Examines the range and quality of antisemitic discourse in Austria, with emphasis on the presidential election campaign in 1986. Antisemitism has continued to exist after World War II, although the discourse of justification - the compulsion to justify and defend oneself - has been added: "Iudeus ex machina," the "explanation" of the Jew being the root of any given problem where no satisfactory explanation exists, is the most prevalent example of the justification discourse. Antisemitism was used to further the political ends of the Waldheim campaign. Suggests that antisemitism in postwar Austria is still possible because of the claim that Austria was a victim of Nazi expansionism; Austria thereby avoids facing the responsibilities of having been a participant.


Belgium
Minerbi, Sergio Itzhak: Mentir avec les images. Brussels: Louis Musin, 1985. 98 pp.

Analyzes in detail several Belgian television programs which were shown on the current affairs magazine "A Suivre" between 1979-82. The programs dealt with the Arab-Israeli conflict, its consequences, and related events such as terrorist attacks on Jews in Europe. Demonstrates manipulations made in these programs in order to demonize Jews and to portray them as aggressive and racist and the Arabs as innocent victims of the conflict. Concludes that in some cases the presentation of events indicates antisemitism and xenophobia on the part of the producers.


France


Camus, Jean-Yves: Political Cultures within the Front National: The Emergence of a Counter-Ideology on the French Far-Right. Patterns of Prejudice 26, 1-2 (1992) 5-16.

Surveys the ideological factions and trends within the Front National in France, drawing attention to the antisemitic element in their attitudes. Shows that most of the trends share ideas such as aggressive anti-Zionism, Holocaust revisionism, conspiracy theory and dual loyalty theory, and some of them evince traditional Catholic anti-Judaism. Also gives examples of antisemitic articles published in various FN periodicals.

Hansson (Gutman), Nelly: France: The Carpentras Syndrome and Beyond. Patterns of Prejudice 25, 1 (Sum 1991) 32-45.

Contends that the "Carpentras syndrome" (the reaction to the cemetery desecration in 1990) is comprised of the impact of the media which helped to normalize antisemitic attacks, the passive acceptance of a degree of antisemitism on the part of the population, and the suspicion that the incident was a result of political manipulation. States that there has been an increase in xenophobic movements, a growing legitimacy of the Front National (which subscribes to the conspiracy theory), and post-revisionist efforts to blame the Jews for Holocaust exploitation. Simultaneously, there exists a rejection of antisemitism in France as the Gayssot law of 13 July 1990 (which strengthens the laws against discrimination) attests.


Germany
Bergmann, Werner; Erb, Rainer: Antisemitismus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Ergebnisse der empirischen Forschung von 1946-1989. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1991. 328 pp.

A comprehensive survey of research based on opinion polls carried out in West Germany since 1945 on antisemitism in Western Europe, and in particular in Germany. Analyzes dimensions of present-day antisemitism (e.g. prejudice, discrimination, anti-Jewish stereotypes, and social rejection) and discusses the propagation of antisemitism and the attitudes of Germans toward Israel. Emphasizes comparisons of the data from ensuing decades. Historical and sociological research works mention xenophobia and the struggle to overcome the Nazi past as reasons for animosity towards Jews. Compares the results of the opinion polls with similar research done in other countries.

Decke, Bettina: Christlicher Antijudaismus und Feminismus. Der sogenannte Gott, ed. Albert Sellner. Frankfurt a.M.: Scarabaeus bei Eichborn, 1988. Pp. 99-115.

Criticizes the works of three German feminists - Gerda Weiler, Hanna Wolff, and Christa Mulack - who see the biblical worship of Jahwe as the source of patriarchy and of all the "holocausts" of history, including that in which Germans murdered Jews with patriarchal violence. Argues that these feminists revive traditional Christian anti-Jewish and even Nazi racist stereotypes and display oversimplified, authoritarian thinking. Surveys a discussion in the religious-feminist periodical "Schlangenbrut" in 1987, where readers reacted violently against criticism of feminist anti-Judaism.

Lindblad, Ulrika: Hur formedlas antijudiska stereotyper av kristna forfattare - och varfor? [How Are Anti-Jewish Stereotypes Transmitted by Christian Authors - and Why?]. Nordisk Judaistik 14,2 (1993) 144-154.

Discusses the persistence of anti-Jewish stereotypes in Christian theological texts. Many theologians dissociate Christian anti-Judaism from actual existing Jews. "The Jews" are accorded a symbolic negative function - enemies of God and man, and of the true faith. For theological purposes, even critical theologians (e.g. Hans Kueng, Eugen Drewermann) used classic anti-Jewish stereotypes. Surveying German Protestant writings, asserts that the criticism of theological anti-Judaism in the 1970s-80s had no impact on the German exegetical establishment.

Great Britain

Billig, Michael: Rhetoric of the Conspiracy Theory: Argument in National Front Propaganda. Patterns of Prejudice 22, 2 (Sum 1988) 23-34.

Although the popular appeal of West European far-right groups is based on their anti-immigrant stand, they cling to traditional antisemitism and the belief in the Jewish conspiracy, even when it is likely to cost them support. Two factions of the British National Front recently clashed over the issue of Zionism. The faction centered around the "Nationalism Today" magazine supports Louis Farrakhan, Libya, and the Palestinians, and describes Zionists in terms reminiscent of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." Their rivals, in their magazine "Vanguard," support Israel and ridicule crude conceptions of a Zionist conspiracy. However, "Vanguard" does not reject the existence of a financial conspiracy or of a Jewish role in it, and has spoken of Jewish domination of the City financial center, and distributed conspiracy theory literature. The theory is apparently so essential a part of extreme-right culture that even the new generation cannot disown it.

Hungary

Csepeli, Gyorgy: ...es nem is kell hozza Zsido: Az antiszemitizmus tarsadalom- lelektana [...and There Is No Need to Have Jews: The Social Psychology of Antisemitism]. Budapest: Kozmosz Konyvek, 1990. 123 pp.

A summary of prejudices and stereotypes among social groups in Hungary. Calls for awareness of ethnic hatred and for self-criticism in order to defeat barbarism and primitivism. Analyzes religious and political antisemitism and deals with specific characteristics in Hungary. Suggests that the solution is democratic political socialization.

USSR

Cooper, Abraham: Portraits of Infamy: A Study of Soviet Antisemitic Caricatures and Their Roots in Nazi Ideology. Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1986. 89 pp. "Presented to the Helsinki-process discussions on security and cooperation in Europe, Berne, May 1986."

Consists mainly of illustrations of Soviet antisemitic caricatures, sometimes almost identical to Nazi caricatures, especially those from "Der Stuermer." Compares Soviet and Nazi use of classical antisemitic themes such as animalization of Jews, the Jew as warmonger and greedy manipulator, the world Jewish conspiracy, etc. Points to the Soviet identification of Israelis with Nazis. Includes a table listing major Soviet newspapers and their circulation.

Dunlop, John B.: Pamiat' as a Social Movement. Nationalities Papers 18, 2 (Fall 1990) 22-27.

Summarizes a conversation with Dimitri Vasilyev, leader of Pamyat, held on 21 June 1989 in Moscow, in which he outlines the movement's program, including its fervent belief in the existence of a Zionist-Masonic conspiracy, blaming all of Russia's ills on this conspiracy as laid out in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." States that Pamyat's program is riddled with historical inaccuracies, untruths, and half-truths, but that Vasilyev is not concerned with attracting intellectuals, and his followers regard him with affection and honor.

Korey, William: The Freemason-Zionist Plot. Midstream 32, 6 (June-July 1986) 15-20.

The myth that Jews and Freemasons were using revolutionary movements to undermine the traditional Christian order was created at the end of the 18th century. It formed part of the antisemitic campaign against Dreyfus, and it appeared in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and in Nazi propaganda. Rarely heard after 1945, this claim reappeared in Soviet propaganda in 1975, especially in the Ukraine, linking Zionism with racism. B'nai B'rith was described as a worldwide Masonic-type organization aiming at world domination. Well-known antisemites such as Lev Korneev and Vladimir Begun took part in this campaign, which can be attributed to the influence of the "Protocols."

Lyosov, Sergei V.: Natsionalnaya ideya i Khristianstvo [The National Idea and Christianity]. Oktyabr 10 (Oct 1990) 148-160. Appeared also in "Dvadsat Dva" 73 (Sept-Oct 1990) 162-181. An abridged English version appeared in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies" 6, 3 (1991).

Deals with the approach of Western Christian theology to the Holocaust and the problem of the Church's responsibility, and the debate on the Christian roots of modern antisemitism. Argues that in Russian Orthodox theology a similar reevaluation did not occur. Discusses Berdyaev's essay "Christianity and Antisemitism" (1938) with its strong condemnation of antisemitism and racism noting, however, the persistence of Christian stereotypes in his thinking. Mentions the active participation of the local population in the Soviet territories in the Nazi mass murder of Jews and emphasizes the responsibility of the Russian Church for its passivity and silence. Discusses the increase of antisemitism in Soviet society and the nationalistic ideology of Pamyat, focusing on its traditional Russian Orthodox component. Claims that the new aggressive nationalistic ideology was molded within the political culture created by communist ideology and uses the same antisemitic myths, such as the demoniacal image of Zionism. Remarks on the passive attitude of the Russian Church toward these trends and mentions its identification with new nationalistic writings (such as I. Shafarevich's "Russophobia"), which elaborate a new version of the theory of the "world Jewish conspiracy," with the Russian people as the main victim of this plot.

1945- : Far East

Baumgarten, Gerald: Japan and Anti-Semitism: The Proliferation of Anti-Jewish Literature. ADL International Report (Apr 1987) 9 pp.

Surveys the spread of anti-Jewish works in Japan since the 1970s and protests registered by the ADL. Recent works blaming a Jewish conspiracy for current economic problems have aroused the attention of the Western press. The press has focused on Masami Uno, head of the Middle East Problems Research Center in Osaka, who has also praised Hitler. His two books sold over 650,000 copies. However, the media have overlooked a large number of other books and articles, often deriving from the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," now circulating in Japan. Reaction from American Jews has included protests in the press and by members of Congress, and a meeting in March 1987 of an ADL delegation with the Japanese Ambassador to Washington. The Japanese government argues that Japan guarantees freedom of speech, but that these antisemitic views do not represent those of the Japanese people or government.

Liberman, Serge, ed.: The Jews and Asia - Old Societies and New Images: Proceedings of the Second Asian-Jewish Colloquium, Hong Kong, March 1987. Melbourne: Asia Pacific Jewish Association; World Jewish Congress, Asia- Pacific Region, 1989. 150 pp.

The section "The Emergence of Stereotypes" (pp. 49-82) examines the image of the Jew and the attitude to the State of Israel in Asian countries, characterized at times by a negative stereotype and an anti-Zionist stance. Contents: Suwanagul, Kasem: The Evolution of the Thai Image of the Jews (50-54); Lerner, Natan: Stereotypes and Group Libel (55-61); Leifer, Michael: Anti-Semitism without Jews: The Malaysian Example [An abridged version appeared in the "AIJA Survey" 4 (1987).] (62-65); Discussion [Includes a lengthy discussion on antisemitism in Japan.] (66-82); Kohno, Tetsu: To Be "Alien" or "Semi-Alien" in a Homogeneous Nation [Pp. 92-94 deal with recent antisemitism in Japan.] (85-95); Sidorsky, David: The Alien in Literature (96-100).

1945- : Islamic World

Yadlin, Rivka: Arab Antisemitism in Peacetime: The Case of Egypt. Nativ 3, 1 (Jan 1990) 20-25. (Hebrew)

Traces the publication in Egypt of antisemitic books and articles in the press since the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. Quotes from works published in 1981-82 which show the persistence of biological racist theories, theological antagonism, and belief in a Jewish conspiracy as expounded in the spurious "Protocols of the Elders of Zion." The belief abounds that Jews and Muslims are engaged in a zero-sum game of political and cultural survival. Contends that, although the political struggle between Egypt and Israel has been officially resolved and has been separated from the cultural struggle, intellectuals in Egypt, with widespread popular support, view the legitimation of Israel, Zionism, and Judaism as unacceptable since it implies the defeat of Islam. The Muslims cannot accept that both of the religions and cultures have equal value.

Kenney, Jeffrey T.: Enemies Near and Far: The Image of the Jews in Islamist Discourse in Egypt. Religion 24, 3 (July 1994) 253-270.

Traces the evolution of the image of the Jews in the Islamic religious tradition, focusing on its transformation in Islamist discourse in modern Egypt, in which anti-Jewish attitudes were used as a weapon in the war against Israel. Examines the book "Our Struggle with the Jews," published in the early 1950s by Sayyid Qutb, an influential Islamist and spiritual leader of the Muslim Brothers (who was executed in 1966), which portrayed the Jew as the ultimate source of adversity, plotting to destroy the Muslim world. His second book, "Signposts along the Way," marked a radicalization of his doctrine, which was taken up by the Society of Muslims movement (founded in 1967) and by its leader in the 1970s, Shukri Mustafa. Remarks that the new rhetorical strategy of radical Islamists suggests that the image of the Jew as enemy has become more than a political response to Israel. It is used as a metaphor of evil in the main "jihad" (war) against secular Egyptian society.

Nettler, Ronald L.: Arab Images of Jews and Israel. Survey of Jewish Affairs (1989) 33-43.

Divides Arab writings on the Jews and Israel into three types: secular nationalist, Islamic, and Islamic fundamentalist. Summarizes each view, and states that in secular nationalist writings no distinction is made between Jews, Israelis, and Zionists. Examines works written since 1988 as a result of political developments - the Palestinian uprising and Yassir Arafat's statements. Argues that a polarization has developed - secular nationalist writings have become more moderate, with emphasis on peace with Israel and an absence of demonization of Israel, despite the retention of negative images; conversely, Muslim fundamentalist writings have become more extreme, repeating age-old Islamic attacks against the Jews and Judaism and calling for a holy war against the Jews. Fundamentalism has become the major influence in the Arab world today.


1945- : Latin America
...Ante una mentira historica: Los Protocolos de los Sabios de Sion; El plan "Andinia" - la invasion judia; La naturaleza del antisemitismo; Ley 23.592 (Sobre discriminacion): Antologia integrada por escritos, notas y opiniones de eminentes personalidades. Buenos Aires: Graphos, 1989. 190 pp. On title- page also: Equipo de redaccion "Suchus."

An anthology of texts by prominent Christian personalities denouncing the irrationality and falsity of a series of accusations against the Jews. Pp. 13-50 relate the history of the fraudulent "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," and include a section (written by Pierre Charles) on the trial in Switzerland in 1934-35 at which they were declared to be false. Pp. 51-68, "El plan `Andinia'," refer to the antisemitic campaign of 1986 in Argentina when rumors were spread about a Jewish invasion of Patagonia, a repetition of the campaign of 1971-72 when antisemite Walter Beveraggi Allende accused the Jews of planning to create a Jewish state in southern Argentina according to a so- called "Plan Andinia." Pp. 69-172, "La naturaleza del antisemitismo," analyze various causes and aspects of antisemitism and discuss Jewish-Christian relations. Includes texts denouncing racism and prejudice by Pius XI, John Paul II, and Jacques Maritain, and Jean-Paul Sartre's "Portrait de l'antisemite." Pp. 173-190 present the law against discrimination and the parliamentary and public debate in Argentina.


1945- : USA and Canada
Coates, James: Armed and Dangerous: The Rise of the Survivalist Right. New York: Hill and Wang, 1987. 294 pp.

Links the murder of Jewish talk-show host Alan Berg in Denver in 1987 with the spread of radical survivalist groups who believe that the U.S. government is controlled by a conspiracy of Jewish bankers who plan to bring a nuclear holocaust on the USA. These groups plan to survive that holocaust and to found a new white race. Their message appeals to rural Americans suffering from economic distress and influenced by religious fundamentalism. Traces the growth of the American tradition of bigotry directed against Catholics, Blacks, and Jews, and the various radical-right groups (especially The Order, convicted for the murder of Berg), the Identity Church, the Posse Comitatus, and numerous groups of "compound dwellers" who believe themselves to be the true Jews. Denied access to the media, survivalists use computer networks, home video cassettes, and telephone hotlines to spread their message, as well as the political organizations of groups such as the LaRouchians.

Davies, Alan Trewartha: The Queen versus James Keegstra: Reflections on Christian Antisemitism in Canada. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 9, 1-2 (Jan-May 1988) 99-116.

The author, who observed Keegstra and his supporters in court during his trial in April 1985 for incitement to hatred of Jews, examines the antisemitic views expressed by him and analyzes their sources. Keegstra, a Christian fundamentalist, views the Jews as agents of the Devil bent on destroying the Christian world, the Talmud as an anti-Christian tract, and socialism, communism and international capitalism as part of a Jewish conspiracy to dominate the world. Discusses the influence on Keegstra of antisemitic writings from the Middle Ages to the present, particularly those of Nesta Webster and the influences on Webster of 18th-19th century European Christian radicals. Relates to Keegstra's prominence in the Social Credit Party of Alberta and the antisemitic strain in the party's ideology since the 1930s. Explains Keegstra's antisemitism as a form of Manichaeism which sees Judaism as the embodiment of evil and Jews as responsible for all the ills of history.

King, Dennis: Lyndon LaRouche and the New American Fascism. New York: Doubleday, 1989. xv, 415 pp.

Traces the rise of Lyndon LaRouche, his fascist party, and the place of antisemitism in his beliefs. See in particular ch. 6 (pp. 38-46), "The Jewish Question," and ch. 28 (pp. 280-285), "Elizabeth, Queen of the Jews." Indicates the close links between LaRouche, the Ku Klux Klan, and neo-Nazi movements. Points out that LaRouche held antisemitic views even as an extreme socialist and developed them when he adopted fascist principles. This form of antisemitism is characterized by classical stereotypes of the Jew, hatred of the American Jewish lobby, belief that the Jews and Britain are trying to take over the world through a drugs conspiracy, and a modern version of the blood libel accusation. While LaRouche and his followers claim only to be anti- Zionists, their identification of Jew with Zionist is apparent. Discusses the extent of their influence and the part played by Jewish followers of the movement.

Thomas, Laurence: Jews, Blacks, and Group Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice 14, 1 (Spr 1988) 55-69.

Develops the idea of group autonomy, which entails a group's members being regarded by others as the foremost interpreters of their historical-cultural experiences. Puts forward the thesis that despite the Holocaust, contemporary Jews have group autonomy (due to their religious tradition and the fact that Christianity accords Judaism some importance), whereas despite American slavery contemporary Blacks do not. Explains tensions and negative feelings between Blacks and Jews as stemming from resentment born of envy on the part of Blacks towards Jews because of the Jews' possession of group autonomy, and not from economic disparity alone, as is widely believed.


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