THE MODERN PERIOD (1789-1994)


General

Gerndt, Helge, ed.: Stereotypvorstellungen im Alltagsleben: Beitraege zum Themenkreis Fremdbilder, Selbstbilder, Identitaet. Festschrift fuer Georg R. Schroubek. Muenchen: Muenchner Vereinigung fuer Volkskunde, 1988. 237 pp.

A collection of articles on stereotypes in folklore, literature and the press, and in the legal system, including negative Jewish stereotypes prevalent in Germany, Austria, and Great Britain during the 19th-20th centuries. Partial contents: Daxelmueller, Christoph: Folklore vor dem Staatsanwalt: Anmerkungen zu antijuedischen Stereotypen und ihren Opfern (20-32); Strauss, Herbert Arthur: Abwehr von Stereotypen und Diskriminierungen: Dilemmas der juedischen Selbstverteidigung (33-43); Schmidt, Michael: Ritualmordbeschuldigungen und exemplarisches Wissen (44-56).

Neher-Bernheim, Renee: Le best-seller actuel de la litterature antisemite: Les Protocoles des Sages de Sion. Pardes 8 (1988) 154-177.

Traces the history of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," discussing its first edition in Russia in 1903 and its European, American, and Arab translations. Describes, also, the successful trial in Bern, Switzerland (1934-37) of five members of the Front National who distributed the "Protocols," instigated by the Jewish Community in order to prove that the text is a falsification. Immediately after World War II it seemed that the "career" of the book was finished. However, from the 1950s the book has appeared in many European and Arab countries, where its diffusion has the approval of some high level state representatives. Underlines the dangers of such propaganda.

Poliakov, Leon: The History of Anti-Semitism. Vol. 4: Suicidal Europe, 1870-1933. Trans.: George Klim. New York: Vanguard Press, 1985. xi, 422 pp. Originally published as "Histoire de l'antisemitisme: L'Europe suicidaire" (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1977).

Traces the rise of modern racist antisemitism from its origins in Germany, and the powerful impetus given to it in France during the Dreyfus Affair and in Russia at the time of the pogroms. The idea of the domination of the West by the Jews pervaded the European elite at the end of the 19th century and gradually spread to the masses as a result of the social and political crisis of World War I. Emphasizes the central role played by the idea of the Jewish conspiracy, not only in Germany but also in Western Europe, the USA, and the USSR during the First World War and the period of the Russian Revolution, and traces links between Tsarist and Nazi antisemitism.

Romano, Sergio: I falsi protocolli: Il "complotto" ebraico dalla Russia di Nicola II a oggi. Milano: Corbaccio, 1992. 220 pp.

Discusses the history and the various editions of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," first published by Sergei Nilus in Russian (1905) and then between 1919-21 in many European countries and in the USA. Relates that the "Protocols" are a forgery concocted from an anti-Bonapartist, anti-Masonic libel by Maurice Joly (Brussels, 1865) and from a gothic novel on a Jewish conspiracy by Herman Goedsche (Berlin, 1868), in order to accredit an alleged "Jewish danger." Outlines the background of the publication of the "Protocols": the first Russian revolution of 1905 and the turbulent period at the end of World War I, when social unrest was rampant and the Jews were held responsible. States that the "Protocols" had echoes in many countries, served as a model for Hitler and other antisemites (e.g. Giovanni Preziosi, Henry Ford), and fuelled even the anti-Zionist, and antisemitic, policies of the USSR and the Arab countries. Pp. 149-208 contain the text of Giovanni Preziosi's Italian edition of the "Protocols" (1921).

Shillony, Ben-Ami: The Jews and the Japanese: The Successful Outsiders. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1992. 252 pp.

A comparative study of the culture and history of the Jews and the Japanese, including interactions between the two. On antisemitism and on the Holocaust period, see ch. 9 (pp. 75-81), "Anti-Semitism and Anti-Japanism"; ch. 13 (pp. 104-108), "Jew-Baiting and Japan Bashing"; ch. 19 (pp. 164-170), "The Rise of Japanese Anti-Semitism"; ch. 20 (pp. 171-177), "The Abstract Jewish Demon"; ch. 21 (pp. 178-189), "Japan Saves Jews in World War II"; and ch. 26 (pp. 216-222), "A New Wave of Japanese Anti-Semitism?"

Taguieff, Pierre-Andre, ed.: Les Protocoles des Sages de Sion. Vol. I-II. Paris: Berg International, 1992. 407; 816 pp.

Vol. 1 consists of "Introduction a l'etude des 'Protocoles': Un faux et ses usages dans le siecle" by Taguieff. Vol. 2 includes the following studies: Charles, Pierre: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" [First appeared in "Nouvelle Revue Theologique," Jan. 1938.] (9-37); Sarfati, Georges Elia: La parole empoisonnee: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" et la vision policiere de l'Histoire (39-162); Moisan, Jean-Francois: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" en Grande-Bretagne et aux U.S.A. (163-216); Pierrard, Pierre: L'entre- deux-guerres: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" et la denonciation du "peril judeo-maconnique" [First appeared in "Juifs et catholiques francais" (1970).] (217-258); Birnbaum, Pierre: Les "Protocoles" dans l'imaginaire politique francais (261-278); Zawadzki, Paul: Usage des "Protocoles" et logiques de l'antisemitisme en Pologne (279-324); Harkabi, Yehoshafat: Les "Protocoles" dans l'antisemitisme arabe (1972) (325-340); Dieckhoff, Alain: Antisionisme et mythe de la conspiration juive mondiale (341-364); Neher-Bernheim, Renee: Le best-seller actuel de la litterature antisemite: Les "Protocoles des Sages de Sion" [A revised version of the article published in "Pardes" 8 (1988).] (367-416); Poliakov, Leon: Causalite, demonologie et racisme: Retour a Levy- Bruhl? [First appeared in "L'Homme et la Societe" 55-58 (1980).] (417-456); Nora, Pierre: 1898: Le theme du complot et la definition de l'identite juive [First appeared in "Pour Leon Poliakov" (1981).] (457-471); Kruglanski, Arie W.: Schemas d'accusation et recherches sur l'attribution [First published in C.F. Graumann, S. Moscovici (eds.), "Changing Conceptions of Conspiracy" (New York, 1987).] (475-497); Touati-Pavaux, Corinne: La seduction de la Conspiration: De la representation de la realite a la realite de la representation (499-536). Pp. 537-810 contain a selection of documents written by antisemites between 1919-1987 promoting the Protocols.

Tazbir, Janusz: Protokoly Medrcow Syjonu: Autentyk czy falsyfikat [The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Authentic or a Forgery]. Warszawa: Interlibro, 1992. 263 pp.

Places the origin of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" within the tradition of the conspiracy theories and the myths of Jewish and Freemasonry plots. Traces the history of the forgery and its worldwide proliferation as a main antisemitic propaganda tool. Focuses on the use of the "Protocols" in Tsarist Russia and Poland, Henry Ford's contribution to its dissemination in the USA and Western countries, and its weight in Nazi propaganda. Mentions its appeal in Soviet-style anti-Zionist propaganda and in communist Poland, as well as in the ideological program of Pamyat. Pp. 153-262 contain a reprint of the text of the 1938 Polish version of the "Protocols."


Canada

Barrett, Stanley R.: Is God a Racist? The Right Wing in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. xiv, 377 pp.

An anthropological study, based on racist publications, archival material, and interviews with leaders and members of Canadian right-wing organizations. Argues that despite Canada's reputation for tolerance, racism is institutionalized and widespread. Emphasizes the religious basis of racism: the belief that Christianity condemns Blacks to inferiority and identifies Jews with the Devil. Distinguishes between the radical right, committed racists and antisemites prepared to use violence, and the less violent but extremely conservative "fringe right." Gives a detailed account of the growth of right-wing organizations from the 1920s through the fascist and Nazi organizations (especially in Quebec) of the 1930s, and the revival since the 1960s. Focuses on the Edmund Burke Society, the Western Guard, the Nationalist Party, and the Ku Klux Klan. Also discusses the trials of Ernst Zundel and Jim Keegstra for inciting to racial hatred, the fight against racism, attitudes of the Black and Jewish communities, and prospects for government action.

France

Roudinesco, E.; Rousso, Henry: Le "Juif Marat": Antisemitisme et contre- revolution, 1886-1944 (Drumont, Daudet, Celine, Bernardini). L'Infini 27 (1989) 53-72.

Jean-Paul Marat became the symbol of the terror of the French Revolution and of absolute evil in French right-wing antisemitic writings, beginning with those of Drumont (1886). Attributed with Jewish origins, Marat was presented as an incarnation of Jewish and Masonic conspiracy. In the 1930s and during the Nazi occupation, his figure emerged again as a demonic Jewish prototype in Celine's "Bagatelles pour un massacre" (1937) and in other right-wing works. With Armand Bernardini (1944), the stereotype of "the Jew Marat" gained anti- Bolshevik and racist components; Charlotte Corday, who assassinated him, was praised as a heroine of Christianity and of the Aryan race. On pp. 61-72, reprints excerpts from works by Drumont, Celine, L. Daudet, and Bernardini relating to the image of Marat.

Germany

Koebner, Thomas: "Feindliche Brueder": Stereotypen der Abgrenzung juedischen und deutschen Wesens. Archiv Bibliographia Judaica: Jahrbuch 1 (1985) 29-55.

Contends that Germans and Jews have both been stigmatized by stereotypes, and that German antisemitism may be an expression of German self-hatred. Describes negative stereotypes of the Jew in German literature and in Wagner's "Judentum in der Musik" (1850). Due to the Germans' inferiority complex, Jewish intellectuals were portrayed in German literature in demonic and frightening terms. The Jews themselves were influenced by these descriptions which, in some cases, led to Jewish self-hatred.

Rogalla von Bieberstein, Johannes: Der Mythos von der Weltverschwoerung: Freimaurer, Juden und Jesuiten als "Menschheitsfeinde." Geheimgesellschaften und der Mythos der Weltverschwoerung, ed. Gerd-Klaus Kaltenbrunner. Muenchen: Herder, 1987. Pp. 24-62.

The myth of a secret world conspiracy originated in the 18th century in connection with the Freemasons. The linking of Jews and Masons became widespread in the later 19th century in Germany and France. The Jesuit G.M. Pachtler, in a work published in 1876, called Masonry "a highly welcome base of operation for Christ-hating Jewry." The "Jewish-Freemason conspiracy" was blamed for liberalism, socialism, capitalism, and other modernizing movements, and served as a useful tool for reactionaries (e.g. in "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion"). Germany's defeat in World War I and the Bolshevist threat gave the thesis new momentum in Weimar Germany. It was espoused by German nationalist circles such as the Thule-Gesellschaft. Hitler and his followers, especially Alfred Rosenberg, were in contact with these circles and may have adopted the conspiracy theory from them. Nazi publications frequently linked Jews and Masons. In 1939 the Reich Security Office established a special section "for the ideological struggle against Judaism, the Church and Freemasonry," under the direction of Franz A. Six.

Islamic World

Lewis, Bernard: Semites and Anti-Semites. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986. 283 pp. Published in London as "Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice" (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986).

An analysis of antisemitism since 1945, focusing on the Arab-Israeli conflict and differentiating between political opposition to Israel and antisemitic anti-Zionism. Surveys modern Jewish history, including the origins of the terms "semites" and "antisemites," the rise of Zionism, and the Holocaust. Emphasizes that, before the rise of modern antisemitism, Muslims were not antisemitic but Jews were never accorded full rights and the Muslim stereptype of the Jew was a hostile one. Examines the influence of Nazi ideology on Arab nationalism. Political opposition to Zionism as European colonialism was influenced by antisemitic concepts of a Jewish-Bolshevik (later, American) conspiracy. Since the 1950s, a satanic stereotype of the Jew has become part of the Arab and Islamic world view. "For Christian antisemites, the Palestine problem is a pretext and an outlet for their hatred; for Muslim antisemites it is the cause."

Japan

Kohno, Tetsu: The Jewish Question in Japan. Jewish Journal of Sociology 29, 1 (June 1987) 37-54.

Traces Japanese antisemitism from its first appearance in the 19th century, when a version of Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice" was published in Japan, up to the present. Belief in a Jewish conspiracy responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution spread at the end of World War I, when Tsarist officers gave the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" to Japanese serving in Siberia. From 1933 on, as Japan fell under military domination and fascist and Nazi influence grew, antisemitic propaganda flourished. During World War II government opinion was split between hardline antisemites and a party which supported good relations with world Jewry. Some refugees were interned, but others were saved by Japanese officials and diplomats. Sympathy for the Jews, which increased after the war, lessened after 1967. Warns that just as revolutionary ideas and resistance to Japanese expansion were identified in the past as a "Jewish conspiracy," Japan's current economic difficulties may be blamed on the Jews.

Netherlands

Ramaekers, Jan: De houding van Nederlandse katholieken tegenover de joden, 1900-1940 [The Attitude of Dutch Catholics towards the Jews, 1900-1940]. Van oost naar west: Racisme als mondiaal verschijnsel [From East to West: Racism as a Worldwide Phenomenon], ed. Dik van Arkel. Baarn: Ambo, 1990. Pp. 87-100.

In 1900 the Catholic jurist P.J.M. Aalberse condemned antisemitism in Catholic circles openly, rejecting the ritual murder and conspiracy legends. The attitude of Dutch Catholics was influenced by political, economic, and theological factors. In their quest for a modern form of the old Catholic social, cultural, and political system, they left room for reactionary theories (e.g. antisemitism). Theologically, Jews were viewed as murderers of Christ. Secularized Jews, in Catholic eyes, continued to claim superiority and pursued revolutionary ideologies in order to attain control over the world. Catholic leaders also stated that Jews dominated the economic and financial spheres. Several Catholics considered Jews as part of society's secularization problem and strove to convert them. In the 1930s, the rise of Nazism in Germany prompted some Catholic protests against antisemitism, but also support for it. In 1938 the Catholic socialist J.A. Veraart openly condemned racial antisemitism due to its incompatibility with Christian universalism. Concludes that the offensive of Aalberse was only partially successful.

Poland

Bartoszewski, Wladyslaw Teofil: Ethnocentrism - Beliefs and Stereotypes: A Study of Polish-Jewish Relations in the Early 20th Century. Diss. - Cambridge University, 1984. 361 pp.

Examines Polish peasants' beliefs regarding their Jewish neighbors based on ethnographic material collected in the early 20th century and interviews conducted in 1976-1979. Argues that the historical reality of close relations and interdependence was only partially reflected in this material. The peasants displayed ignorance and hostility towards Jews, often contradicting their own evidence of friendly relations. On pp. 224-240, quotes proverbs which depict the Jew as different, dirty, weak, cowardly, rich and miserly, and connected with the devil. However, in folk customs connected with Christmas and weddings, the figure of the Jew brings good fortune. The Jew represents above all "the stranger"; he is an ambivalent figure, both threatening and serving as a link with the supernatural world. Many peasants believed that ritual murder was committed by strange, city Jews, but not by the familiar Jews of their locality.

Smolar, Aleksander: Tabu i niewinnosc [Taboo and Innocence]. Aneks 41-42 (1986) 89-133. A revised version appeared in English in "Daedalus" 116 (Spr 1987), in French in "Esprit" 127 (June 1987), and in German in "Babylon" 2 (July 1987).

Contends that Polish antisemitism during World War II cannot be ignored, but must be understood in its historical context. The Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in September 1939 was greeted positively, and even enthusiastically, by many Jews. After the war, the communist takeover of Poland reinforced certain stereotypes: being Polish was identified with Catholicism, and "Jew" with "communist," especially when many Jewish communists achieved official positions. The ambiguous attitude of the Church at the time of the Kielce pogrom (1946) was also related to this perception. Polish antisemitism may be explained according to George Orwell's theory that antisemitism is a neurotic reaction; Poland, a nation caught in historical and political deadlock, tends to escape into neurosis, demonological explanations, and the myth of a Jewish conspiracy.

Russia and the USSR

Laqueur, Walter Zeev: Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia. New York: Harper Collins, 1993. xvii, 317 pp.

Describes radical right nationalist organizations in Russia from the end of the 19th century to the present. Most of these, from the Black Hundred to Pamyat, were virulently antisemitic and believed in a Jewish (later Zionist) world conspiracy. They pointed to the large number of Jews among the leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution, and made them responsible for the crimes of the regime. Notes that the less extreme nationalists now see their foe elsewhere, but groups like Pamyat still promote the conspiracy theory.

USA

Bennett, David Harry: The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movement to the New Right in American History. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988. x, 509 pp.

States that right-wing fascist movements emerged in the USA during periods of great social and political disorder, claiming to fight dangerous, alien, non- American adversaries. Mentions antisemitism throughout the book, from the late 19th century to the 1980s. Jews were at first stereotyped as dirty, bearded, lecherous, foreign degenerates, and later as pushy, money-grubbing materialists. Describes several ultra-nationalist antisemitic organizations in their political, social, and economic settings, and discusses personalities such as Henry Ford and Charles Coughlin, racist propaganda, antisemitic publications, and immigration restrictions. During the 1960s-70s neo-Nazi groups arose and have endured into the 1980s, influenced by the farm crisis.

Gerber, David A., ed.: Anti-Semitism in American History. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986. 428 pp.

Partial contents: Sarna, Jonathan Daniel: The "Mythical Jew" and the "Jew Next Door" in Nineteenth-Century America (57-78); Schiff, Ellen: Shylock's "Mishpocheh": Anti-Semitism on the American Stage (79-99); Singerman, Robert: The Jew as Racial Alien: The Genetic Component of American Anti-Semitism (103-128); Shapiro, Edward S.: Anti-Semitism Mississippi Style (129-151); Lerner, Elinor: American Feminism and the Jewish Question, 1890-1940 (305-328); Liebman, Arthur: Anti-Semitism in the Left? (329-359).


1789-1918: General

Geller, Jay: (G)nos(e)ology: The Cultural Construction of the Other. People of the Body: Jews and Judaism from an Embodied Perspective, ed. Howard Eilberg- Schwartz. New York: State University of New York Press, 1992. Pp. 243-282.

Examines psychoanalytical aspects of the representation of the body which was characterized in modern Western culture as exclusively Christian and masculine. In contrast to the superiority of the male vision, smell (and its organ, the nose) characterized the sexual and the primitive, and became a mark of inferiority, generally attributed to Jews and their "feminized" traits. From the 17th century the Jews were identified physically by a specific "Jewish nose" (and smell), they were frequently stereotyped in German culture (e.g. in Schopenhauer's reflections on a Jewish smell), and they evoked a degenerative sexuality. A similar process of "medicalization" of a popular and theological stereotype was undergone by the myth of the Wandering Jew, studied in the late 19th century by famous psychiatrists as a Jewish "ambulatory neurosis." Refers also to Freud's interest in and personal complexes with the representation of the "feminized" Jewish body.

Olender, Maurice: Les langues du paradis: Aryens et semites - un couple providentiel. Paris: Gallimard; Seuil, 1989. 216 pp.

Analyzes 19th century theories on "Aryans" and "Semites" (e.g. Ernest Renan) viewed as antinomian concepts, which influenced and prepared the later exaltation of the "Aryan race" as opposed to the "Semitic" (i.e. Jewish) one, using also traditional anti-Jewish theological stereotypes.


1789-1918: Europe

Austria

Buci-Glucksmann, Christine: Culture de la crise et mythes du feminin: Weininger et les figures de l'Autre. Femmes et fascismes, ed. Rita Thalmann. Paris: Editions Tierce, 1986. Pp. 15-30.

Otto Weininger's theories of sex and identity, like those of Freud, were a response to the cultural crisis of fin-de-siecle Vienna and to the ideas of Nietzsche. His antisemitism was philosophical, directed against an idea of Judaism which was identified with femininity, negativity and lack of identity, in contrast to the masculine spirit of virility and will. These ideas originated in Weininger's self-hatred as a Jew and fear of sexuality, which blurred physical limits, just as "the Jew" tried to cross social, cultural, and philosophical limits. Shows the continuity of these ideas in Nazi thought. For the Left, too, women and Jews - both suffering oppression - signified the "Other."

France

Angenot, Marc: Ce que l'on dit des Juifs en 1889: Antisemitisme et discours social. Montreal: Centre Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Europeennes, 1984. 158 pp. (Cahiers de Recherches du CIEE-ICES: Research Report, 6). An expanded version appeared in Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1989 (192 pp.).

A sociological analysis of the varied forms of antisemitic expressions found in French newspapers, pamphlets, and books published in 1889. Examines the doctrinaire antisemitism of Edouard Drumont, Albert Savine, and other intellectuals of socialist, clerical or right-wing orientation, as well as widespread vulgar antisemitic texts, jokes, and caricatures. Surveys anti- Jewish stereotypes in literature (e.g. Alphonse Daudet), in articles, and in studies on history, anthropology, and psychology. Proposes a pattern describing the psycho-sociological process of formation and reception of discriminatory and antisemitic stereotypes and prejudices. Concludes that antisemitism was a diffuse and omnipresent component of French social discourse and could be detected in all political and ideological trends.

Germany

Gilman, Sander L.: Nietzsche, Heine, and the Otherness of the Jew. Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, eds. James C. O'Flaherty et al. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985. Pp. 206- 225.

Asserts that Nietzsche was "not a philo-Semite but rather an anti-anti- Semite." Whereas antisemites saw in the Jews, especially Eastern European Jews, a symbol of decadence and degeneracy, Nietzsche affirmed that they were "the strongest, toughest and purest race" in Europe. Nevertheless, he condemned ancient Judaism for passing on to Christianity its negative, destructive, illogical values, using terms often found among antisemites. Thus, the Jews are seen as positive when they are victims of Christian antisemitism, but negative when they illustrate the nature of Christianity which Nietzsche, the son of a minister, deeply feared. His self-hatred can be compared to that of Heinrich Heine, who fascinated Nietzsche and anticipated many of his ideas.

Hortzitz, Nicoline: "Frueh-Antisemitismus" in Deutschland (1789-1872): Strukturelle Untersuchungen zu Wortschatz, Text und Argumentation. Tuebingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1988. xi, 347 pp. Based on the author's diss. - Universitaet Augsburg.

Against the background of the debate over Jewish emancipation in Germany, presents a sentence-by-sentence analysis of the antisemitic work by Hermann von Scharff-Scharffenstein, "Ein Blick in das gefaehrliche Treiben der Judensippschaft" (1851), and summarizes the results of analysis of 34 additional antisemitic texts. Shows that they use apparently logical arguments based on false assumptions. The arguments, the stereotypic language, and rhetorical devices combine to persuade the reader that the Jews present a danger in the religious, economic, "voelkisch"-national and biological- anthropological spheres, thus arousing an aggressive response. They demand the elimination of Jewry. The biological-anthropological arguments used, though not yet forming a systematic ideology, anticipate the racial antisemitism of the end of the century.

Rose, Paul Lawrence: Revolutionary Antisemitism in Germany from Kant to Wagner. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990. xviii, 389 pp.

Proposes a new interpretation of modern German antisemitism, viewed as an essential element of the German revolutionary movement and philosophy, arguing that a continuous antisemitic mentality is revealed in the German mythological tradition. Analyzes the transformation of the old antisemitic myths (the Wandering Jew, Moloch, Mammon, the blood libel) in modern secular myths of the 19th century as an expression of the need for a revolutionary philosophy which would unify Christian and secular antisemitism. Exemplifies the deep connection between the German national revolution and the "revolutionary antisemitism" reflected in German philosophy (e.g. Fichte, Kant, Hegel), and in the antisemitic ideology of the "Young Hegelians" (Marx, Bauer, Marr). The "destruction of Judaism" became, especially in Wagner's vison, a condition for the "redemption" of the German people and the "Aryan race."

Hungary

Hanak, Peter: A masokrol alkotott kep: Polgarosodas es etnikai eloitelek a magyar tarsadalomban (a 19. szazad masodik feleben) [The Image of the Other: The Transition to Bourgeois Society and Ethnic Prejudice in Hungarian Society (in the Second Half of the 19th Century)]. Szazadok 119, 5-6 (1985) 1079-1104.

Analyzes the image of national minorities, especially Germans and Jews, in the Hungarian press and caricatures. The liberal press showed the Jew as a poor pedlar and satirized, often sympathetically, the rising bourgeois Jew. By the end of the century, as a result of German antisemitic influence, the Jew was depicted as a sinister character with a hooked nose. The clerical satirical journal "Herko Pater" railed against Jews taking over nobles' estates. The press also satirized the Jewish and German accents and manners of speech. The Hungarian nobility, which despised agriculture and trade, formed a negative image of Germans as bureaucrats and farmers and Jews as greedy merchants. They also projected their own weaknesses and failings onto the Jews. A survey on the "Jewish question" in Hungary, held by a liberal magazine in 1917, revealed a view of the assimilated Jew as a representative of capitalism and materialism.

Poland

Oppenheim, Israel: The Attitude of the Polish National Democratic Party (Endecja) to the Jewish Question in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Gal-Ed 10 (1987) 87-119. (Hebrew)

Describes the increasing antisemitism of the Endecja Party, especially as reflected in the writings of Jan Ludwik Poplawski, Zygmunt Balicki, and Roman Dmowski. The negative stereotype of the Jews included the belief that they were a foreign body within the Polish people, and a menace to the Party and to Poland. The Endecja promulgated the theory of a Jewish conspiracy to take over Poland, and accused the Jews of being responsible for all of Poland's ills. The success of Endecja's antisemitic propaganda had an influence on the destruction of Polish Jewry during the Holocaust.

Cala, Alina: Asymilacja Zydow w Krolestwie Polskim (1864-1897): Postawy, konflikty, stereotypy [Assimilation of the Jews in the Polish Kingdom (1864-1897): Attitudes, Conflicts, Stereotypes]. Warszawa: PIW (Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy), 1989. 408 pp.

Surveys the opinions of various circles in Polish society towards assimilation, analyzing the press and writings published by conservatives, positivists, socialists, and others. The attitude of the conservative press was openly antisemitic (e.g. "Rola," edited by Jan Jelenski). Clerical groups in conservative circles were opposed to assimilants who threatened the "purity" of the Catholic faith. Positivists saw assimilation of the Jews as part of a program of social reform. Deals especially with the ideas of Eliza Orzeszkowa, Aleksander Swietochowski, and Boleslaw Prus. With the development of the assimilationist trend, part of society accepted assimilated Jews while remaining hostile to the "real" Jews, but another part of society developed racist views in order to rationalize their defensive attitude towards Jews in general. Surveys, as well, reactions to the pogrom in Warsaw in 1881. Underlines the continuity of the irrational anti-Jewish stereotype in Polish culture up to the present.

Russia

Dudakov, Savely (Shaul): Antisemitskaya literatura XIX-XX vv. v Rossii i "Protokoly sionskich mudretsov" [The Antisemitic Literature of the 19th-20th Centuries in Russia and the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"]. Diss. - Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1991. 408, 26 pp. With a Hebrew summary.

Analyzes the Russian versions of the "Protocols" (a forgery by S. Nilus, first published in 1903 in the journal "Znamya" and reprinted in 1905) against the background of the Russian Orthodox anti-Judaic tradition and in the context of the rich Russian antisemitic literature of the 19th century. Argues that the myth of a Jewish-Masonic plot originated in Russian tradition, and links it with mystical "pan-Slavic" messianism. Discusses the wave of ritual murder allegations in the Russian-annexed Kingdom of Poland after Napoleon's war, and the antisemitic literature which appeared in the following decades promoting the ritual murder stereotype and the Jewish conspiracy (e.g. by O.A. Przeclawski and the Jewish apostates Y. Brafman and S. Efron-Litvin). Analyzes the "Protocols" as a political forgery and as a literary text based on a persistent topic in Russian literature. Surveys the evolution of the conspiracy myth in Soviet antisemitic propaganda and in the new Russian nationalism (e.g. I. Shafarevich).

Levitina, Viktoria B.: Russkii teatr i evrei [Russian Theater and Jews]. Vol. 1-2. Introd.: Shmuel Ettinger. Jerusalem: Biblioteka-Aliia, 1988. 238; 242 pp.

Examines the image of the Jew in the Russian theater up to the October Revolution and attitudes toward the Jews and the problem of antisemitism expressed by important Russian playwrights. Based on archival material, gives details on official discrimination against Jewish actors in Russian theaters. Surveying the negative Jewish stereotype on the Russian stage, points to the impact of virulent antisemitic plays, echoes in the press, and the play "The Smugglers" (1900) written by a renegade Jew, S. Efros. Remarks on negative references to Jews in Chekhov's early plays, and reprints (in an appendix to vol. 2, pp. 185-193) Kuprin's letter against the Jewish presence in Russian literature. Emphasizes Leonid Andreyev's struggle against antisemitism, supported by other great writers and thinkers.


1789-1918: Islamic World

Oke, Mim Kemal: Young Turks, Freemasons, Jews and the Question of Zionism in the Ottoman Empire (1908- 1913). Studies in Zionism 7, 2 (Fall 1986) 199-218.

Examines the attitude of the Young Turk regime towards Zionism. Mentions the myth that the Young Turks' revolution was inspired by a Jewish-Freemason- Zionist conspiracy to take over the Ottoman Empire. The British Ambassador to Turkey, Sir Gerard Lowther, believed in this myth and saw the conspiracy as serving the interests of Germany against Britain. This claim was eagerly adopted by Turkish opposition parties and Arab nationalists, who used it to undermine the regime.

Sivan, Emmanuel: Interpretations of Islam, Past and Present. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1985. x, 255 pp.

A collection of eight essays. Pp. 189-206, "Hating the Jew as an Arab" (not published previously), examines the popular negative image of the Jew and the Arab native in the eyes of the Pied Noirs (French settlers) in colonial Algeria. Discusses five stereotypic images - barbaric, impoverished, filthy, dishonest, and lecherous - expressed in popular literature, jokes, songs, and satiric feuilletons. The change in the Jews' civil and social status following the Cremieux Decree (1870) was highly resented. The settlers - including Spanish, Italian, and Maltese immigrants - were united in their hatred of Jews and Muslims, and in their belief in French cultural superiority.


1789-1918: South Africa

Shain, Milton: From Pariah to Parvenu: The Anti-Jewish Stereotype in South Africa, 1880-1910. Jewish Journal of Sociology 26, 2 (Dec 1984) 111-127.

Traces the development of an anti-Jewish stereotype in journalism, caricatures, and theatrical productions, sparked by the influx of East European Jews after 1880. The Jew was depicted as physically repulsive, depraved, and dishonest. The image of the crooked cosmopolitan Jewish financier (exemplified by the characters of "Hoggenheimer" and "Goldenstein" in drama and cartoons) became embedded in South African ethnic mythology.


1789-1918: USA and Canada

Cohen, Naomi Wiener: Antisemitic Imagery: The Nineteenth-Century Background. Jewish Social Studies 47, 3-4 (Sum-Fall 1985) 307-311.

A paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on Jewish Social Studies, May 1984. Describes popular antisemitic images recurrent in 19th-century America: the Jew as Christ-killer, the Jew as Shylock, and the Jew as eternal alien.

Mayo, Louise Abbie: The Ambivalent Image: Nineteenth-Century America's Perception of the Jew. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1988. 225 pp.

Analyzes religious books, fiction, comic magazines, songs, burlesque pieces, political statements, and representative newspapers and periodicals. In the religious sphere, Jews were seen as the murderers of Christ, but hostile religious images diminished considerably by the end of the century. Literary caricatures and the press depicted the Jews as pawnbrokers and peddlers, with an overwhelming concern for wealth. Discusses the Shylock image which was less venomous than the European version. On the other hand, Jews were also depicted as industrious, honorable, law-abiding, family-centered, and intelligent. Concludes that political and ideological antisemitism was not characteristic of 19th century American society - the ambivalent attitude reflected contradictions in the goal of building an open society while rejecting and excluding aliens.



1919-1945: General

Casillo, Robert: The Genealogy of Demons: Anti-Semitism, Fascism and the Myths Ezra Pound. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1988. x, 463 pp. Examines all the works - prose, poems, letters, and radio broadcasts - of Ezra Pound concerning his views on politics, culture, and morality. Contends that Pound's antisemitism and fascism are inherent in his use of language and in his personality. Surveys the historical development of his hatred of the Jews. He described them as ugly, evil, a plague, parasites, and usurers, the root cause of economic distress and cultural stagnation. In his radio broadcasts from Rome he even recommended their extermination, or mass expulsion from the West. His antisemitism exemplified the inner contradictions of his writings and disclosed the incoherence of his psyche and values. Rejects the common view of critics who look upon Pound's antisemitism as innocent, extraneous, or marginal.

Kulka, Otto Dov; Mendes-Flohr, Paul Robert, eds.: Judaism and Christianity under the Impact of National Socialism. Jerusalem: Historical Society of Israel; Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History, 1987. 558 pp.

Based on papers presented at a symposium on this subject held in Jerusalem, June 1982. Partial contents: Katz, Jacob: Christian-Jewish Antagonism on the Eve of the Modern Era (27-34); Ettinger, Shmuel: The Secular Roots of Modern Antisemitism (37-61); Mendes-Flohr, Paul Robert: Ambivalent Dialogue: Jewish- Christian Theological Encounter in the Weimar Republic (99-132); Lill, Rudolf: German Catholicism's Attitude towards the Jews in the Weimar Republic (151-168); Greive, Hermann: Between Christian Anti-Judaism and National Socialist Antisemitism: The Case of German Catholicism (169-179); Scholder, Klaus: Judaism and Christianity in the Ideology and Politics of National Socialism (183-195); Kulka, Otto Dov: Popular Christian Attitudes in the Third Reich to National-Socialist Policies towards the Jews (251-267); Michaelis, Meir: Christians and Jews in Fascist Italy (271-281); Weinzierl, Erika: Austrian Catholics and the Jews (283-303); Marrus, Michael Robert: French Churches and the Persecution of Jews in France, 1940-1944 (305-326); Cohen, Richard I. (Yerachmiel): Jews and Christians in France during World War II: A Methodological Essay (327-340); Michman, Jozeph: Some Reflections on the Dutch Churches and the Jews (349-352); Gutteridge, Richard: The Churches and the Jews in England, 1933-1945 (353-378); Arad, Yitzhak: The Christian Churches and the Persecution of Jews in the Occupied Territories of the USSR (401-411); Rothkirchen, Livia: The Churches and the "Final Solution" in Slovakia (413-422); Rothkirchen, Livia: The Churches and the "Final Solution" in Hungary (423-431); Conway, John S.: Catholicism and the Jews during the Nazi Period and after (435-451); Cohen, Arthur A.: The Holocaust and Christian Theology: An Interpretation of the Problem (473-497); Dubois, Marcel Jacques: The Challenge of the Holocaust and the History of Salvation (499-512); Littell, Franklin Hamlin: Christian Antisemitism and the Holocaust (513-529); Werblowsky, Raphael Jehuda Zwi: Jewish-Christian Relations: New Territories, New Maps, New Realities (531-536).



1919-1945: Australia and New Zealand

Bartrop, Paul R.: "Good Jews" and "Bad Jews": Australian Perceptions of Jewish Migrants and Refugees, 1919- 1939. Jews in the Sixth Continent, ed. W.D. Rubinstein. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1987. Pp. 169-184.

Until the end of the 19th century, Australia's Jews (mainly of British origin) were well integrated. After World War I xenophobia spread, expressed in the antisemitism of the left-wing Social Credit movement as well as among extreme right-wing organizations (e.g. the New Guard and the Australia First movement). Antisemitic cartoons and stereotypes in the populist "Bulletin" and in "Smith's Weekly" show the distinction between "good Jews" - British-style Australian Jews - and "bad Jews" with foreign accents and behavior. Authorities rejected Polish Jewish immigrants during the 1920s as backward undesirables, and Jewish refugees from the Nazis because of their "non- assimilability." Many Australians thought the Jews had provoked persecution by the Nazis because they were parasitic, clannish, or unpatriotic. However, at the same time, assimilated Jews reached the highest positions in Australia.



1919-1945: Europe

General

Rummel, Rudolph J.: Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992. 159 pp.

A detailed evaluation of the number of Nazi victims based on a comparative study of existent reliable statistics. The term "democide" (coined by the author) includes genocide and other organized forms of mass murder. Evaluates at 20,946,000 the number of Nazi victims between 1933-45. This figure includes the murder of Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, and euthanasia victims. Relates the Nazis' methods of implementation of the Final Solution (e.g. the mobile killing squads, the Einsatzgruppen, the death camps) and examines Nazi racist and antisemitic ideology which justified and promoted the policy of genocide. The appendix (pp. 85-136) contains detailed comparative statistics on Nazi crimes. Analyzing different figures on the Holocaust, asserts that Nazis probably killed between 4,204,000 to 7,000,000 Jews, most likely 5,563,000.

Workman, Mark E.: Tropes, Hopes, and Dopes. Journal of American Folklore 106, [420] (Spr 1993) 171-183.

Discusses the role of folklore, as a source of tropes, in the construction of identity. Identity is always a relative phenomenon, meaningful only within a system of discriminations - the self as opposed to the Other. It is in the hostile conditions of persecution, in encounters generated by the fear, intolerance, and rejection of difference, that the relative viability of definitions of self are most explicitly put to the test and either reaffirmed, abandoned, or modified. Examines this theory in two separate cases - the Holocaust (both Nazi German identity and Jewish identity, including discussion of Jewish self-hatred), and AIDS (male homosexual identity).

France Hewitt, Nicholas: The Golden Age of Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Leamington Spa: Berg, 1987. 241 pp.

Ch. 5 (pp. 148-201), "Antisemitism and the Ghost of Drumont," deals with Celine's three antisemitic pamphlets: "Bagatelles pour un massacre" (1937), "L'ecole des cadavres" (1938), "Les beaux draps" (1940). He claimed that the Jews controlled France through international finance and would eventually dominate the world. He quoted liberally from the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," supported the racial theories of Hitler, and encouraged violence against Jews.

Germany

Baersch, Claus-Ekkehard: Antijudaismus, Apokalyptik und Satanologie: Die religioesen Elemente des nationalsozialistischen Antisemitismus. Zeitschrift fuer Religions- und Geistesgeschichte 40, 2 (1988) 112-133.

Argues that Nazi racism was based not only on racist theories but was linked with traditional Christian Jew-hatred. Quotes from Hitler's writings, Goebbels' novel "Michael" and his diaries to demonstrate how the anti-Judaism of the Church was used in Nazi ideology. Focuses on the apocalyptic vision of John in which Jews are described as the Antichrist and compared to Satan, and the use made by Goebbels of these statements in his antisemitic propaganda.

Bauer, Yehuda: Antisemitismus und Krieg. Der nationalsozialistische Krieg, eds. Norbert Frei, Hermann Kling. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1990. Pp. 146-162.

A paper delivered at an international symposium in Pforzheim, September 1989. Analyzes Hitler's conception of the Jews as a corrupting, parasitic race aiming at world domination and traces the history of these ideas, beginning with Christian demonization of the Jews. Asserts that Nazi policy toward the Jews changed over time and was subject to conflicting interests within the bureaucracy; but at decisive turning-points it was always determined by the intervention of Hitler himself. Contends that Hitler's goal in the Second World War was destruction of the Jews and of the Jewish-dominated Great Powers, in order to ensure world domination by the Aryan race. The bulk of the German populace was ready to accept Nazi policy, short of actual murder, but much of the intelligentsia identified with it completely: its members were prominent among the perpetrators.

Buchbender, Ortwin: Zentrum des Boesen: Zur Genesis nationalsozialistischer Feindbilder. Feindbild: Geschichte, Dokumentation, Problematik, ed. Guenther Wagenlehner. Frankfurt a.M.: Report Verlag, 1989. Pp. 17-57.

After an introduction analyzing the concept of the "enemy image," focuses on its use in Nazi antisemitic propaganda. The repelling image of Jews described by Hitler was connected with bacteriological expressions (e.g. the Jews as racial tuberculosis, as parasites, or as the seat of diseases). Another Nazi method was to present the Jew as the Antichrist, as a deicide, and as the demon responsible for the defeat in World War I. The motif of Jew as Antichrist is also emphasized in Goebbels' autobiographical novel "Michael." Hitler's strategy to show the Jew as the enemy and to use him as a scapegoat was gladly welcomed by the German population. Describes the process of realization of these theories in the Holocaust. Includes antisemitic caricatures and quotations from antisemitic writings, including the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion."

Dundes, Alan: Life Is Like a Chicken Coop Ladder: A Portrait of German Culture through Folklore. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. 174 pp.

Argues that a nation's character and psychological traits can be reconstructed from the study of its folklore, and that German folklore is preoccupied with anality. On pp. 119-141, links this theme with anti-Judaism. German antisemites equated Jews with dirt and disease, and projected their own feelings of inner corruption produced by strict, even sadistic, childrearing practices, on the Jews. The Final Solution was an attempt to resolve this inner tension.

Enriquez, Eugene: Dall'orda allo Stato: Alle origini del legame sociale. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1986. 468 pp. Originally published as "De la horde a l'Etat: Essai de psychanalyse du lien social" (Paris: Gallimard, 1983).

Examines phenomena of social life - such as power, the sacred, the state - based on a systematic interpretation of Freud's writings on social behavior. Pp. 178-183, "Le ragioni dell'antisemitismo," recall what Freud considered to be the reasons for antisemitism: the Jew as alien, and jealousy of a people which resists oppression and claims religious prominence. Ch. 15 (pp. 409-468), "L'antisemitismo nazista: La negazione del legame sociale," states that the Jews symbolize alterity, community vs. the state, atemporality vs. history, nomadism vs. territorialism. All this collided with the German world view. Traces Hitler's antisemitism to his hatred for his father, his obsession with sexual contamination, and his pretentions to be the Messiah of a new religion. Contends that the Nazi state was based on antisemitism, that it is the prototype for modern states today, and that the Jewish question (of alterity) is still actual: destructive antisemitism is a necessity of modern society until another people supplants the Jews as scapegoats.

Oplinger, Jon: The Politics of Demonology: The European Witchcraze and the Mass Production of Deviance. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1990. 311 pp.

Ch. 10 (pp. 204-253), "The Holocaust," approaches the Holocaust as an extreme case of "mass production of deviance," similar to previous social manifestations of state production of "enemies" and conspiracies (e.g. the McCarthy era, the Stalinist Great Purge). Focuses on Hitler's obsession with a Jewish conspiracy, his concern with the necessity for a demonized inner enemy, the significance of the "Kristallnacht," and the crusade for "racial purity." Discusses the Nazis' ideology that justified the Final Solution and the organizational structure of the "bureaucratization of violence" through the euthanasia policy, the organization of the SS and Einsatzgruppen, and the establishment of concentration camps.

Pois, Robert A.: National Socialism and the Religion of Nature. London: Croom Helm, 1986. xi, 190 pp.

Contends that Nazism was a unique rebellion against the Judaeo-Christian tradition which views man as separate from nature and exalts a transcendent God. Nazism hoped to create a new man, living in accordance with the fixed laws of nature, and was thus essentially anti-Jewish. Ch. 5 (pp. 117-136) shows that, for social and cultural reasons, Jews were not considered part of the natural world but were described as parasites, making a war to exterminate them logically and ethically inevitable. The widespread "abstract" dislike of Jews reported by historians was part of a "bourgeois group fantasy" in which the Jew was cast as the "Other." This view was accepted by the Churches, which alone might have protested successfully against antisemitic measures.

Rogozinski, Jacob: Hell on Earth: Hannah Arendt in the Face of Hitler. Philosophy Today 37, 3 (Fall 1993) 257- 274.

A philosophical and psychological analysis of the limitations of Arendt's theories on totalitarianism when applied to the phenomenon of Nazism, and especially to the ideology of Adolf Hitler. Arendt failed to acknowledge the importance of the symbolic, which led her to abandon any interpretation of Nazi antisemitism based on religious schemas. Yet her remarks on the camps and on hell pointed in that direction, that the emergence of total domination is closely and strangely related to the religious belief in hell. What "realizes" total domination in the modern Western world is a mutilated hell, devoid of the idea of God. The power of man is viewed as greater than he would ever have dared to imagine. Hitler was consumed by envy (and not merely by jealousy, as Freud contended) of the Jews who he believed were the secret masters of the world, but the ultimate meaning of Nazism is revealed as metaphysical revolt, hatred of God and the Law. Nazism intended to create a world conspiracy to fight the supposed Jewish conspiracy which Hitler, in his delirium, believed was real. The history of modernity is punctuated by mad attempts to circumscribe difference in the Other by a logic of delimitation in order to expel a menace which, however, constantly reemerges. States that the failure of Arendt's thought is to have missed the dimension of unconscious fantasy which retains the traces of a primordial panic and of hatred.

Samuel, Maurice: The Great Hatred. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. xvi, 209 pp. First published in New York: Knopf, 1940.

Discusses the psychological and philosophical roots of antisemitism. Analyzes the Jewish conspiracy myth and demoniacal traits attributed to Jews as main features of antisemitism. Gives examples from German literature (e.g. by Hermann Goedsche), the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," and Nazi ideology, especially Hitler's and Alfred Rosenberg's writings. Surveys differences between Christian antisemitism and modern antisemitism. Emphasizes the anti- Christian character of Nazi antisemitism and its view of the existence of the Jewish people as a disaster in the history of Western mankind. Discusses, also, Jewish reactions to antisemitism.

Zischka, Johannes: Die NS-Rassenideologie: Machttaktisches Instrument oder handlungsbestimmendes Ideal? Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang, 1986. 193 pp.

Argues that antisemitism was for the Nazis both a principle of action and an instrument for obtaining power. Analyzes the elements of Nazi antisemitism as expounded in Hitler's "Mein Kampf" and in speeches by Hitler and other Nazi leaders. Traces the measures by which this ideology was implemented, from the Nuremberg Laws to the Final Solution. The Manichean world view in which the Jew was the demonic enemy against whom the Aryan race fights a war for survival also enabled the Nazis to condemn opponents as "tools of Jews" or as having a "Jewish mentality"; to establish their rule over every facet of society and culture because all were seen as rooted in race; to unite and mobilize the people against the enemy; and to justify every crime committed for the cause. Brings examples of Nazi antisemitism from Hans Zoeberlein's popular novel "Der Befehl des Gewissens" (1937), and analyzes Nazi use of language.

Great Britain

Cesarani, David: Anti-Zionist Politics and Political Antisemitism in Britain, 1920-1924. Patterns of Prejudice 23, 1 (Spr 1989) 28-45.

Examines the intense opposition to Zionism in the British press, at public meetings, and in Parliament during 1920-24. Analyzes the press's use of anti- Zionism to attack the policies of Lloyd George, showing how the arguments were shot through with antisemitic stereotypes - the Jew as alien, the Jew as Bolshevik, the theme of Jewish power and international conspiracies, linking Jews with money, etc. Surveys the following papers - the "Morning Post," "Spectator," "Times," "Daily Mail," "Evening News," "Daily Express," and "Sunday Express." Discusses the arrival in London in August 1921 of the Palestine Arab Delegation, who lobbied members of Parliament, most of them antisemites. By 1924, anti-Zionism ceased to be a major issue in Parliament, but the association of anti-Zionism with antisemitism obscured the moral and persuasive claims of the Palestinian Arabs' case, and confirmed Zionists and Jews in an unthinking self- righteousness at a time when there was room for maneuvre in assuaging the conflict between Jews and Arabs.

Goldman, Aaron: The Resurgence of Antisemitism in Britain during World War II.
Jewish Social Studies 46, 1  (Win 1984) 37-50.

Although the violent Jew-baiting of the fascists won few adherents during the
1930s, a more subtle antisemitism was gaining ground in Britain, such as
disagreeable literary stereotypes, middle-class professional antipathy, and
social discrimination against "alien" Jews. In 1942 a campaign of rumors and
leaflets, partly Nazi-inspired, accused the Jews of profiteering and draft-
dodging, and described the war as a "Jewish war." The National Council for
Civil Liberties, with Church and trade union figures, pushed for strong
government action against antisemitism.


Netherlands

Mulder, Hans [Johannes Willem]: Een groote laars, een plompe voet: Nederland
en de Nazi's in spotprent en  karikatuur 1933-1945 [A Big Boot, a Plump Foot:
The Netherlands and the Nazis in Cartoon and Caricature  1933-1945].
Amsterdam: Thomas Rap; Brussels: Elsevier, 1985. 256 pp.

A study of political cartoons and caricatures in the Dutch press, reflecting
opinions on Nazism. Discusses the history of Dutch caricatures, including the
classic antisemitic stereotypical image of Jews: Christ-killers and outcasts,
and distinguished by special clothing and professions. Surveys Dutch Nazi and
fascist periodicals which published virulent antisemitic cartoons (e.g. "Volk
en Vaderland," "Zwart Front," "De Zwarte Soldaat," "De Misthoorn," "Storm
SS"), and mentions Dutch magazines and newspapers which published cartoons
against antisemitism.

Salemink, Theo: De mythe van een joodse wereld samenzwering in katholieke
ogen: Naar aanleiding van de joden  pogrom 9 November 1938 [The Myth of a
Jewish World Conspiracy in Catholic Eyes: With Reference to the  Pogrom, 9
November 1938]. Ter Herkenning 17, 1 (Mar 1989) 1-15.

The fiftieth anniversary of the "Kristallnacht" pogrom has encouraged
reexamination of the role of the Catholic Church during the Nazi era. Examines
the acceptance of the theory of a Jewish world conspiracy by Dutch Catholic
intellectuals in the 1930s, discussing the views of several Catholic
historians, writers, and spokesmen of the Catholic labor movement who adopted
the conspiracy theory in Christian terms (e.g. among them Max van Poll). Only
Joannes Veraart (1886-1955) rejected the theory of a Jewish world conspiracy,
stating that the Jews themselves have been victims of an international
conspiracy for two thousand years.


Romania

Volovici, Leon: Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian
Intellectuals in the 1930s. Trans.:  Charles Kormos. Oxford: Pergamon, for
the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism,  Hebrew
University, 1991. xi, 213 pp.

After surveying political and ideological antisemitism in modern Romanian
history and its main exponents (Cuza, Iorga, Paulescu, Goga), discusses the
evolution of antisemitic ideas in 1930s intellectual life, the importance of
antisemitism in Iron Guard ideology, and the influence of its leader,
Codreanu, and of extreme right-wing intellectuals (especially Nae Ionescu and
N. Crainic) on representatives of the "young generation" of intellectuals
(e.g. Eliade and Cioran). Emphasizes the link between antisemitic and anti-
democratic and pro-fascist attitudes. Focuses on specific cases of evolution
to radical antisemitism (e.g. Bratescu-Voinesti and Manoilescu), and deals
with the contradictory case of Panait Istrati, a former left-wing militant.
Mentions the use of anti-Jewish theological arguments, antisemitic stereotypes
in literature, and forms of anti-Jewish discrimination in "free" professional
associations. Underlines the great weight of the "Jewish threat" in Romanian
nationalist thinking and its impact on cultural life. The 1930s represented
the climax of this trend.




1919-1945: Latin America Carneiro, Maria Luiza Tucci: O anti-semitismo na era Vargas: Fantasmas de uma geracao (1930-1945) [Antisemitism in the Vargas Era: Ghost of a Generation (1930-1945)]. Sao Paulo: Ed. Brasiliense, 1988. 590 pp. Analyzes the socioeconomic situation in Brazil before the military coup which brought the dictator Getulio Vargas to power in November 1937. His authoritarian and anti-communist regime made ideological antisemitism a political force. He imposed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration. Gives evidence of prejudice and hostility toward Jews reflected in the secret instructions of the Brazilian Foreign Office, and describes the crucial role played by Oswaldo Aranha (Brazilian ambassador to the USA and Foreign Minister during the Vargas administration) in forming this discriminatory policy. Examines antisemitic propaganda, including translated Nazi works, and the stereotypical image of Jews in official papers. Nascimbene, Mario C.; Neuman, Mauricio Isaac: El nacionalismo catolico, el fascismo y la inmigracion en la Argentina (1927-1943): Una aproximacion teorica. Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe 4, 1 (Jan-June 1993) 115-140. Analyzes the radicalized right-wing trend as well as the Catholic nationalist trend in Argentinian political life during the 1920s-30s stating that, although authoritarian, they were not fascist. Catholic nationalism was also characterized by antisemitism: that of the orthodox Catholics (e.g. Julio Meinvielle) who saw the Jew as the embodiment of Evil and called for conversion or total segregation in ghettos, and that of the secularized Catholics, admirers of the Action Francaise, who accused the Jews of corruption, capitalist exploitation, and communist subversion. Both trends supported immigration restrictions for Jews. Sznajder, Mario: El Movimiento Nacional Socialista: Antisemitismo y movilizacion politica en Chile en la decada del treinta. Coloquio 21 (1989) 61-70. Describes the ideology of the Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS) of Chile which brought about a violent coup d'etat in 1938. The ideological characteristics of this group were rather similar to the fascist movements in Europe. The MNS expressed antisemitic stereotypes, such as the "Jewish world conspiracy," the Jewish-Bolshevist connection, Jewish materialistic and anti- ethical values, etc. The antisemitism was social, not racial, and was used as a political tool, based on xenophobia, amongst the masses.
1919-1945: USA and Canada Abella, Irving Martin: Anti-Semitism in Canada in the Interwar Years. The Jews of North America, ed. Moses Rischin. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987. Pp. 235-246. Describes widespread antisemitism in the 1920s-30s, especially virulent in Quebec where the Catholic clergy and the French Canadian nationalist movement were aggressively anti-Jewish. Quebec's leaders led anti-immigration crusades and urged a boycott of Jewish storekeepers. The popular and clerical French Canadian press disseminated anti-Jewish propaganda, accusing Jews of being agents of both communism and capitalism, of being unassimilable and of assimilating too well, of responsibility for moral decay, and being part of a worldwide conspiracy. Explains the strong antisemitic movement in Canada as having been influenced by Nazi propaganda and American hatemongers, and by the prevalent feeling that the Jew did not fit in Canadian society. Athans, Mary Christine: A New Perspective on Father Charles E. Coughlin. Church History 56, 2 (June 1987) 224- 235. Explores the theological roots of Coughlin's anti-Judaism, especially the influence of the writings of Father Denis Fahey, professor of philosophy and Church history at the seminary of the Holy Ghost Congregation in Dublin. Fahey regarded both capitalism and communism as a sinister Jewish plot aimed at overthrowing Christianity and the Catholic Church, and described the Jews as part of the "mystical body of Satan." Based on previously unknown letters from Coughlin to Fahey. Coughlin, originally a supporter of Roosevelt, who invited Jews and Protestants to join his National Union of Social Justice, was disappointed in Roosevelt and became radicalized after the failure to prevent his re-election in 1936. He came to believe in the Jewish conspiracy, proclaimed that a pro-Christ stance was necessarily anti-Jewish, and frequently quoted Fahey in his newspaper and radio broadcasts.

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